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Indroduction

 Corrosion
 Coating
 Cathodic protection
 Cathodic protection criteria
 CP Project
 Overview of CP equipment
 Safety / hazards
 Routine testing / inspection
 Routine maintenance
 General trouble shooting

1
What Is Corrosion
 In general, Degradation of materials through environmental
interaction.

 In metals, conversion of metals to metal oxide

 Metals are put into high energy state during extraction from
ores & again want to be in low energy state which is their
oxides.

 Corrosion is an electrochemical process which involves


removal of electrons – Oxidation ( Anodic ) & consumption
of electrons – Reduction ( Cathodic ).

2
Corrosion in Metals
 Corrosion Cell
( Due to different soil Resistivity, Oxygen concentration,
Dissimilar Metal )
 Anode – Positively Charged
 Cathode – Negatively Charged

 Electrolyte – Soil

 Continuity between Anode & Cathode

– Structure / Pipe

3
Detection of Corrosion Metals
 If we place a metal in the soil, we can
measure the voltage between them using a
reference cell. ( Also Inside the A/G Water
Tanks )
 For Mild Steel ( Rusted ) –0.2 to –0.5V
 For Mild Steel ( New ) –0.5 to –0.8V
 Remote Vs Close Interval Survey
 Soil Resistivity, Line Current Survey

4
Mitigation of Corrosion
 Coating of Metal Surface
– Coating will break the contact between metal &
Soil.
– Then there will not any path for the corrosion
current to flow.
– There are some limitations for coatings such as
damage during installation, coating deformation
etc

5
Cathodic Protection
 In normal situation in U/G metal, current will flow
to soil from metal.
 CP is the system which will make the U/G metal
to receive the current from the soil.
 This is exactly opposite to the corrosion current
flow.
 Thus the corrosion rate will be reduced.
 If CP is used for coated metals, required current
will be considerably less.

6
Types of Cathodic Protection
 Impressed Current Cathodic Protection
– DC power source is used
– Can be applied to Large Surface Area & long duration.
– Surface & Deep Well Ground Bed
 Galvanic Cathodic Protection
– This is also called Sacrificial CP System.
– Can be used for Small Surface Area only & Shorter
duration.
– Anode will be active metals such as Magnesium, Al etc

7
8
Transformer Rectifiers

9
Surface Anode Ground Beds

10
11
Applications
 External Protection for Underground pipelines,
Above Ground Storage Tank Bottom etc
 External Protection of offshore Structures etc.
 Concrete Reinforcement Protection.
 External protection of Oil & Gas Well Casings.
 Internal Protection of pipelines & Storage Tanks
etc. (Non Hazardous, Conductive product)
 Above Ground Pipeline Crossings below roads
etc.
12
Criteria for CP
 -850mV with CP applied
 100 mV Polarization
 Net Current required – Bare or Uncoated &
critical places to measure Close Potential
(E&I Log, CPET for well casings)
 Over Protection ( More than –1200mV )

13
Cathodic Protection Potentials

Instant “OFF” Potentials ( mV)


Reference Electrode
Cu/CuSo4 Ag/AgCl
Steel in Soil -950 to -1150 -900 to -1100

Steel in Concrete -700 to -1300 -650 to -1250

Steel in Water -850 to -1150 -800 to -1100

14
100 mV Potential Criteria

1400 1400
Polarized Potential Polarized Potential
1200 1200
1000 1000
> 100 mV
Potential (-mV)

Potential (-mV)
800 800
> 100 mV
600 Instant On 600
Instant Off

400 400

200 200

0 0
Time
Time

Polarization build up Polarization Decay

15
Current Density
( At 300 C, 25% Increase in Every 100 C )

 Bare Surfaces

 Bare steel in contact with soil 22mA/m2


 Bare steel in contact with concrete 20mA/m2
 Bare steel in contact with fresh water 30mA/m2
 Bare steel in contact with saline water 65mA/m2
 Bare Steel Well Casing 1-20MicroAmp/cm2 or
As per NACE RP0186

 Coated Surface

 Coated with coal tar urethanes or FBE 0.02 – 0.05 mA/m2


 Coated with 3-Layer polyolefin system 0.005- 0.01 mA/m2
16
General Arrangement Of
Equipment

17
ANODE JUNCTION BOX

WELLHEAD DC POWER SUPPLY

POSITIVE CABLE
CONNECTION TO 10” SURFACE
NEGATIVE CABLE
ANODES
CONNECTION TO CASING
WELLHEAD

WATER LEVEL

5M
WELL CASING

10 ANODES
25 M
20 ANODES
51 M
CP Current

Typical Deep Anode Groundbed


18
Anode Lead Junction Box
 Individual circuits
 10 or 20 terminals
 Calibrated shunts
 Stainless steel enclosure
 IP 65 rated

19
20
21
Typical Stray Current
Cathodically Protected
Section of Foreign Pipeline

Foreign Pipeline

Accelerated Corrosion
on Foreign Pipeline
Rectifier

Protected Pipeline

22
Potential Testing of Foreign
Structures
 Use multimeter with 100 megohm input
impedance
 Measurements taken with current cycled
on and off
 Project criteria: +50 mV shift with
current applied

23
Interference Vs. Potential
Values
 Negative potentials shifts on a foreign structure
with system “ON” indicates areas where the
current is collecting on the structure to the soil.
(No problem)

 Positive potential shifts on a foreign structure


with system “ON” indicates areas where the
current is discharging from the structure to the
soil. (Possible interference problem)
24
General Phases Of CP
Program
 Front end engineering design
 Field investigation
 Detailed design engineering
 Procurement of equipment
 Construction
 System commissioning
 System turn over

25
ADCO CP Project

ADCO Well Casing Cathodic


Protection Project

ADCO Contract No. 5922.01/EC

26
Basic Design Philosophy
 Protect 1 or 2 well clusters per CP system
 Standardized system capacity at 15 amp / casing
(plus 5 amp for flow line)
 20 year design life
 Integrated system (no insulating devices)
 Deep and surface groundbeds (50 amp max)
 Ground beds positioned remote (150 m from
wellhead)
 Use rectifier and solar power supplies
 Extend 415 VAC power up to 500 meters
 Use exiting CP equipment where possible
27
Limitations Of Cathodic
Protection In Oil & Gas Wells
 Cathodic protection can only be applied to the external
surfaces of the conductor and outer casing.

 Where conductors are electrically shorted to surface


casing, CP will only protect the outside of the casing.

 Corrosion protection in the annulus between the


conductor and surface casing is provided by the proper
cementing techniques.

28
Electrical Isolation
 Integrated system selected
 Casings and flow lines electrically continuous
 Minimizes interference and balancing problems
 Eliminates maintenance and current leakage
problems across insulators

29
CP Current Requirement
 NACE RP0186 criteria: net flow of current to the
casing eliminates anodic areas
 Data analysis:
 Corrosion potential evaluation tool (CPET)
 E-log I testing
 Current density calculations
 Current attenuation modeling
 FEED recommended 15 amps per casing
 5 amp allowed for flow lines

30
Corrosion Potential
Evaluation Tool (CPET)
Logging
 Recommended in the FEED for project
 Typically conducted during well work overs
 Only way to determine down hole anodic and
cathodic areas on a casing (interference)
 Tool includes 4 sets of 3 electrodes which make
contact with the casing
 Potentials are measured between electrodes to
determine magnitude and direction of CP current
flow
 Shah field is good candidate for CPET logging
31
CPET Tool and Logs

32
E-log-i Testing

 1 amp intervals / 3 minute cycle / remote ground bed


 37 tests conducted in FEED
 CP current ranged from 12 to 18 amp
33
CP Current Attenuation
0

-1,000
CASING SEGMENT DEPTH (FEET)

-2,000

-3,000

-4,000

-5,000

-6,000

-7,000

-8,000
0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0
CURRENT (DC AMPERES)

 9 5/8 inch casing


 15 amp total current to casing
34
Current Density Per Segment
0

-1,000
CASING SEGMENT DEPTH (FEET)

-2,000

-3,000

-4,000

-5,000

-6,000

-7,000

-8,000
0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00

CURRENT DENSITY (DC MILLIAMPERES PER SQUARE FOOT)

 9-5/8” casing
 15 amp total current
35
Groundbed Details
 Deep and surface groundbeds used
 Located 150 to 200 meters from wellhead
 20 year design life
 25 or 50 amp rating
 10 or 20 anodes per ground bed
 Titanium / MMO anodes
 Individual anode lead wires
 Coke breeze backfill
 Design circuit resistance: 0.25 - 0.60 ohm

36
Preferred Groundbed Location
-ANODE TO BE LOCATED 180 +/- 90 
FROM FLOWLINE.
-ANODE TO BE POSTION 75M FROM
UNDERGROUND METALLIC OPTIMUM GROUNDBED
STRUCTURES LOCATION

S.
TR
0M
20
.
MT RS
15 0
.
FLOWLINE
90 MIN

90

37
Determining Borehole Depths
Drill Stem Resistance (ohms)

14.00
Megger
12.00
10.00
8.00

Resistance(ohms)
6.00
4.00
2.00
Drill Rig Wellhead 0.00
3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 51 54 57 60

Depth (m)

 Use drill stem resistance measurements


 Drill stem simulates ground bed resistance values
 Theoretical target resistance established
 Anode installed below water level (10-60 m)
38
39
Drill Rigs
 Two types of rigs used
 Truck mounted
 Track mounted

40
41
Deep Anode Groundbed
Details
 200 mm diameter borehole
 30 to 100 meter depth
 6 meter surface casing
 Anodes installed in water
 MMO anodes
 Coke breeze backfill
 25 mm dia vent pipe
 Centralizers

42
Cross Section Of Deep Anode
Groundbed

43
Titanium / MMO Anodes

 32 mm dia x 1220 mm long


 Individual lead wires
 20 year G/B design life
 8 amp max output per anode
 With centralizers

44
Coke Breeze Backfill
 Used for surface and deep
anodes
 98% carbon content
 Small particle size
 Lowers anode to earth
resistance
 Promotes uniform current
discharge from anodes

45
Anode / Vent Pipe Loading

Anode

Centralizer

Tremmy Pipe

Vent Pipe
46
Deep Anode Installation Rig
 Coke breeze mixing tank
 Tremmy tube
 “A” frame for lowering
anode assemblies

47
Coke Breeze Pumping Operation
 Coke breeze mixed in slurry
 Pumped from the bottom up
thru flexible PE pipe

48
Power Supplies
• Use existing power supplies when possible

• Use air cooled rectifiers where 415 VAC power is


within 500 meters

• No extension of 33 KV power lines

• Use solar power supplies where AC power is not


available
49
Transformer Rectifiers

 415 volt AC input


 25 or 50 amp capacity
 Air cooled (NEMA 3R)
 Constant voltage type
 Manual output control via taps
 Data loggers provided
 Installed with sun shade

50
Solar Power Supplies

 240 watt output capacity (0-24 volt)


 26 photovoltaic modules per system
 Typically located adjacent ground bed
51
Solar Power Controller
 Automatic CP current control
 Data logging capability
 Interrupting circuit

52
Storage Batteries
 Lead acid type
 1680 amp-hr capacity
 5 day autonomy
 Housed in stainless steel
enclosure

53
Negative Connection To Well
 Bracket for cable connection
 Removed during work overs

54
Special Tools
 Multimeter (digital high input impedance)
 Cu/cuso4 reference electrode
 Clamp on ammeter
 Current interrupter
 Variable resistor for dummy load
 PC with software for data loggers
 Test reel and test leads

55
Project CP Criteria
 Primary
– 15 ampere per well casing per feed recommendations

 Secondary
– 100 mV polarization shift

 Interference to foreign structures


– Limited to +50 mV shift with current “on”

56
Assessment Of CP Current
To Casing
 It = total current output of
power supply

 Is = current drain from


structures connected to
wellhead (measured using
swain meter)

 Current to casing = it - is

57
Commissioning Activities
 Pre-commissioning check list
 Power supplies energize per manufacturers
recommendations
 Set power supplies at desired current output
 Allow casing and flow lines to polarize
 Re-test after 24 hours (polarization shift)
 Download data loggers
 Investigate and mitigate interference

58
General Safety
 The CP equipment presents various hazards that
can cause injury to personnel

 Only qualified personnel should be allowed to


work on CP systems

 Personnel working on CP equipment should be


thoroughly familiar with the manufacturers O &
M manuals

59
PPE And Safety Equipment
 Helmet
 Eye protection
 Steel tip boots
 Rubber gloves (recommended by battery
manufacturer

60
Safety Hazards
 Batteries present spark, burn and acid hazards

 High DC current from the solar panels and


batteries which can cause burn and shock hazards

 415 VAC input to rectifier presents lethal shock


hazard

 Disconnection of negative connection at well


provides explosion hazard at wellhead if
combustible gases are present
61
The End
Thank You

62
Testing

63
Routine Testing
 Solar power supplies
 Transformer rectifier power supplies
 Adjustment of the DC output
 Measure current to casings (dual sites)
 Measure anode output currents
 Remote on / off potential of well casing
 Potential of flow line
 Current measurement through flow lines
 Down loading of date loggers (every 60 days)

64
AC Input Measurement Of
Rectifier
 AC power measurements must
be done by qualified personnel

 Use multimeter with insulated


test leads

 415 volts between phases (+/-


10%)

65
DC Current Output Of
Rectifier
 DC current output of panel ammeter
can be verified by using:
 Clamp on ammeter
 Panel shunt

66
DC Voltage Output of
Rectifiers
 Accuracy of the panel volt
meter can be determined
using a multimeter

67
Measure and Balance CP Current To Well Casings
(Dual Sites)

 Dual sites provided with current


control box (CCB)

 Resistance added to well with


highest CP current as required to
balance the current

 Variable resistors rated at 0.1 to


0.5 ohms (interchangeable)

68
Tap Adjustment Of Rectifier
 Fixed voltage type
 Manual tap adjustments (25)
 Course (A-E) and fine (1-5) tap for
each phase
 Taps must be the same for each phase
Correct  Tap increments of 4% - DC voltage
rating
 1.2 volt for 30 volt units
 2.4 volt for 60 volt units
 Shock hazard – power off while
making adjustments

Wrong 69
General Components Solar
Power Supplies for CP
 Solar Panels
 Batteries
 Controller
– Charge controller
– CP controller

70
Electronic Components Of
Solar Controller
 MSRx array switch PCB assembly (input
power)

 MSRx control PCB (input controller)

 CPU20 power PCB assembly (output


power)

 CPU20 control PCB (output control)

 Shunt PCB assembly (feedback)

71
Solar Power Alarm Settings
 Controller has 12 individual alarms
 Regulator Fault (RF) will occur if any alarm is
activated
 Low, high and load disconnect voltages are set
per manufacturer recommendation
 Controller senses battery voltage and temperature
 The CP alarm will be activated below a preset
current value

72
Controller Alarm LED’s
 High voltage
 Low voltage
 Charge fault
 Regulator fault
 CP alarm
 Fire alarm
 Low voltage disconnect

Alarms can be simulated in test menu


73
CP Controller Adjustments
 Constant current / voltage
mode selected by rotary switch

 Limits are adjustable via 10


turn potentiometer

 Set and actual values


displayed on LED

74
Normal Operating Display

75
Shunt Ratings

 Individual battery input and


output shunts provide data
for charge current control
and amp-hour calculations

76
Shunt Rating / Conversions
EQUIPMENT SHUNT RATING CONVERSION
60 V / 50 A Rectifier 60 amp / 50 mV 1 mV = 1.2 amp
30 V / 25 A Rectifier 30 amp / 50 mV 1 mV = 0.6 amp
Solar input array 100 amp / 60 mV 1 mV = 1.66 amp
Solar load 60 amp / 60 mV 1 mV = 1 amp
Anode Junction Box .01 ohm 10 mV = 1 amp
Current Control Box 50 amp / 50 mV 1 mV = 1 amp

77
Anode Current Measurements
 Individual anode lead wires
terminated in anode j-box

 Each anode circuit includes


calibrated shunts rated at .01 ohm

 Multimeter used to measure the


voltage drop across the shunt
– 10 mV = 1 amp

78
Flowline Current Measurements

 Swain type DC ammeter used


to measure current flow on
flow lines

 Magnitude and direction of


current must be recorded

79
Interrupting Current Output of
Rectifier
 Rectifier includes relay & contact to
interrupt DC output
 Separate current interrupter required
 Terminal strip on front panel allows
access to relay contacts

80
Sample Interference Test
Data
P/S Potential (mV)
Test Location Results
On Off Change
Foreign Pipeline 150 m
- 990 - 980 -10 No interference
from Groundbed
Flowline of well -1120 -1010 - 110 No interference
Earthing electrode
located 40 m from -550 -550 0 No interference
ground bed
Shallow water well
located 50 m from -640 -650 + 10 Little Interference
ground bed

81
Set-up and Down Loading of
Data Loggers
 Rectifiers and solar power supplies provided with data
loggers
 Specification requires that voltage and current be
monitored on regular basis
 60 day storage required
 Software for data loggers installed on ADCO pc’s

82
Data Logger on Rectifiers

 Data sampled hourly


 DC output voltage & current of
rectifier stored
 Data should be down loaded to PC
every 60 days
 Data logger equipped with RS 232
port required for down load
 ADCO specific software provided

83
Rectifier Data Logger Connection

Standard RS-232 Port

84
Set-up of Rectifier Data Logger

 CRM software has been installed in the ADCO pc’s for


data logger communications
 Rectifier data loggers are setup in the office and the
information is then transferred on site with PC
 The setup information includes TR serial number, site
name, site number, channel and recording settings
 Data transfer is two way communication, information
can be sent and received with a PC

85
Data Logger Set-up Window
(General)
 Name: well no.
 Password: N/A.
 Company: ADCO.
 Site address: power source
(cluster / RDS / ETC).
 Description: CP configuration.
 Communication type: (unique
no. Per next slide).

86
Communication Type Codes
(Unique 5 Digit No.)
 First digit - area
– 1 = Sahil
– 2 = Asab
– 3 = shah
– 4 = Bab
– 5 = Buhasa
 Second digit – well type
– 1 = water
– 2 = oil
– 3 = gas
– 4 = observation
 Digits 3-5 – well number (123)
87
Data Logger Set-up Window
(Channel Tab)

 Channel 1: N/A (ref cell potential)


 Channel 2: DC output voltage
 Channel 3: DC output current (shunt multiplier required)
88
Data Logger Set-up Window
(Rectifier Tab)
 Rectifier information.
– Manufacturer.
– Model no.
– Class (Nema 4X).
– Serial no.
– DC output rating.
 Relay set-up:
– Standard.
– Instant off delay: 500
milsec.
– Recovery: 2 seconds.

89
Data Logger Set-up Window
(Recording Tab)
 Sample Intervals: 1 / hour
 Duration: Indefinite
 Start Date: Actual (future)
 Time: Actual
 Type: “On”
 Title: “One Hour Recordings”
 Enable Channels: Tick 2 & 3

90
Down Loading Data Logger
(Status and Tools Window)
 The relevant T/R is selected
from the “Site Selection”

 The “Status and Tools”


window present options

 The download is performed by


the “Auto Report” menu

91
Down Loading Data Logger
(Auto Report Window)
 Click “options” button
opens Auto Reporting
Options Window

 Memory: Transfer or
Transfer & Clear as desired

 Return to Auto Reporting


window to begin data
transfer

92
Generating Report
 Choose “reports” file from CRM folder
 Enter file name of report desired
– *.LAH for low average high report
– *.CSV for one hour recording report
 Select and open file for desired site
 Select “de-limited” for original data type
 Tick “comma” as delimiter
 Select “finish” to generate excel report

93
Sample Rectifier Data Logger
Report
RMU SYSTEM (by RCS)
SITE REPORT CUMULATIVE Title: , Interrupter: Idle, Type: On, Start: Scheduled, Transfer Time:
07/23/04 13:19
SITE NAME: Bb-123
COMMUNICATION No.: 6 Date Time , TS, S. Rate, 1(V DC), 2(V DC), 3(A DC),
COMPANY: ADCO
ADDRESS: Cluster 21 07/21/04 10:00:00, Y, 1 Hour(s), , 5.8800, 9.7980, ,
DESCRIPTION: , , , ,

RECTIFIER No: 1 of 1 07/21/04 11:00:00, , 1 Hour(s), , 5.9000, 9.9300, ,


RELAY NO.: 1 , , , ,
MANUFACTURER: Corrpower
MODEL CSAY 30 -25
07/21/04 12:00:00, , 1 Hour(s), , 5.8200, 9.8040, ,
SERIAL NO.: 123456 , , , ,
CLASS: Nema 3R
07/21/04 13:00:00, , 1 Hour(s), , 5.7600, 9.6840, ,
RATING: 30 Volt / 25 Amp
, , , ,
Title: , Interrupter: Idle, Type: On, Start: Scheduled, Transfer Time: 07/23/04 13:19 07/21/04 14:00:00, , 1 Hour(s), , 5.8500, 9.7260, ,
01 01 01 02 02 02 03 03 03 , , , ,
Date / Time Min. Ave. Max. Min. Ave. Max. Min. Ave. Max.
(V DC) (V DC) (V DC) (V DC) (V DC) (V DC) (A DC) (A DC) (A DC) 07/21/04 15:00:00, , 1 Hour(s), , 5.9300, 9.8820, ,
, , , ,
7/21/2004 / 10:00:00 AM 5.75 5.88 6.01 15.22 15.65 15.87
7/21/2004 / 11:00:00 AM 5.82 5.91 6.12 15.31 15.81 15.98 07/21/04 16:00:00, , 1 Hour(s), , 5.8000, 9.8220, ,
7/21/2004 / 12:00:00 PM 5.75 5.88 6.01 15.22 15.65 15.87 , , , ,
7/21/2004 / 1:00:00 PM 5.82 5.91 6.12 15.31 15.81 15.98
7/21/2004 / 2:00:00 PM 5.75 5.88 6.01 15.22 15.65 15.87 07/21/04 17:00:00, , 1 Hour(s), , 5.8700, 9.7800, ,
7/21/2004 / 3:00:00 PM 5.82 5.91 6.12 15.31 15.81 15.98 , , , ,

94
Down Loading of Solar Power
Data Logger
 Hardware connection is from lap-top com-port
via RS232 connector
 Opening the BP-download software a window
will request site and operator name
 Clicking the “download historical data” tab will
start the data transfer. The download data
window will open automatically after transfer
completion

95
Solar Power Data Logger
Connection

 Standard RS-232 port

96
Download Menu

97
Sample Readout of Solar
Power Data Logger
Site: Bu191 Operator: Anis Downloaded: 29-Jul-2004 at 09:30

Date Time Regulator Status CP Status Alarms

H
CP RC DI LV LV AY AY L F R C B T
yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm Mode BV Temp AI LI CP I V
V V S A D 1 2 C A F P S S
A

CP Interrupt
2004-07-29 9:25                                      
Timer Stop

CP Interrupt
2004-07-29 9:21                                      
Timer Start

2004-07-29 9:00 F 26.2 37.4 0.0 2.7 3.8 15.0 0.0                        

2004-07-29 8:00 F 26.3 36.8 8.8 2.6 3.8 15.0 0.0                        

2004-07-29 7:00 F 25.6 35.5 5.0 2.7 3.8 15.0 0.0                        

2004-07-29 6:00 N 25.3 35.2 0.0 2.7 3.7 15.0 0.0                        

2004-07-29 5:00 N 25.2 35.5 0.0 2.7 3.7 15.0 0.0                        

2004-07-29 4:00 N 25.3 35.8 0.0 2.7 3.7 15.0 0.0                        

2004-07-29 3:00 N 25.3 36.2 0.0 2.7 3.7 15.0 0.0                        

2004-07-29 2:00 N 25.3 36.5 0.0 2.7 3.7 15.0 0.0                        

98
Maintenance

99
Routine Maintenance
 Visually inspect accessible equipment and make
repairs as necessary.

 Clean the glass and frames of the solar panels.

 Check and clean electrical cable connections.

 Inspect and clean sand from rectifiers, data


loggers, junction boxes and battery enclosures.

 Remove sand accumulation around CP equipment.


100
Trouble Shooting
 Trouble shooting should be carried out by
qualified personnel with cathodic protection
experience

 The technician must be familiar with the CP


system

 Drawings, manufacturers manuals and historical


operating records should be available

101
Problem of TR System
 The problem of a AC powered CP system can be
into the following basic areas:

– AC power to rectifier
– DC output of power supply
– External CP cables
– Anode junction box
– Groundbed
– Structure

102
AC Power Problem
 Check voltage of input
terminal of rectifier
 If no voltage present,
problem is with the AC
power source

103
No DC Voltage
 Use portable meter to confirm AC
power to rectifier
 Use portable meter to confirm no
DC voltage
 If AC exists but no DC voltage
present, problem lays within
rectifier
 Check circuit breaker
 Check DC fuses
 Carry out T/R trouble shooting
procedures

104
DC Voltage But No DC
Current From T/R
 Usually a problem with the
external DC circuit
 Use dummy load to confirm
fault is external of T/R
 Check negative connection at
wellhead
 Check positive connection at
Anode J-Box
 Conduct continuity test of
DC cables

105
Dummy Load Across Power
Supply
 A portable resistor can be
used to simulate the external
CP load

 Connecting a dummy load


across the T/R output can
assist in isolating problem

106
Internal Transformer Rectifier
Problems

 For internal T/R problems use schematic diagram, O & M


manual and normal electrical trouble shooting procedures.

107
Isolate Problem Of Solar
System
 The problem of a solar CP system can be isolated
into the following basic areas:

– Solar panels
– Controller
– Batteries
– External CP cables
– Anode junction box
– Groundbed
– Structure

108
Solar Panels
 Minimum panel voltage is
17 volts
 Two panels in series, 7/6
panel pairs in parallel form
two separate circuits
 Current of individual panels
can be measured by short
circuit with amp.-Meter

109
General Problems With Solar
Controllers
 Check for burned components
 Check internal and external electrical
connections
 Check fuses and breakers
 Consult the manufacturers O & M manual

110
Solar Power Supply Schematic
ADCO - MSRx 2 SHU NTPCB

ASSEMBLY 40 0 912

19

J1

2 9

J1

TB1

24

O
P
/

12V

6 7
12 13

J3 J1

A DCO - MSRx2 CON TROLPCB A DCO - CPU20 CONTROLPCB

J1 J2
ASSEMBLY 400 848 ASSEMBLY 400 849

J1

J4 J2

TB1
J7 J6

J3
O
P
/

1
2V

J5

ADC O - MSRx AR RAY SWITCH J3 ADCO - CPU2 0 POWER


S CR

PCB ASSEMBLY 400 911 PCB ASSEMBL


Y 400 901

V
B
ATT H
G
I HV L
OWV C
HRG R
EG C
P R
EF
SE NS OR1
N
I P
U T
S
ENSE A
LARM A
LARM F
AULT F
AULT F
AULT C
ELL

22 23 20 21 14

1
MSRx FUSEPCB

ASSEMBLY 40 09 16

17

16

18 8

4 5 15 3

10 11

E1 E2 F2 E3

302 402 301 401 -VE 501 502

-VE -VE +VE +VE +VE +VE -VE +VE -VE


SCRE EN

LIVE COM COM LIVE


BATTERY

S
ENSE

ARRAY BATTERY CPUOUTPUT

 The schematic diagram in the O & M manual will assist


trouble shooting procedures.
111
Problems With Input Power

 Visual inspection for


burned components

 Verify charging current


corresponding to switch
indicator

112
Problems With Charge
Controller
 Over charging
– Faulty control PCB
– Failure of sub-array switch PCB
– Faulty internal / external wiring
– Excessive charge voltage
 Under charging
– Extended period of poor weather
– Faulty control PCB
– Faulty internal / external wiring
– Failure of sub-array switch PCB
– Excessive load consumption

113
Problems With CP Controller
 No output
– Tripped breaker
– Faulty controller PCB
– Failure of power PCB
– Load disconnected due to low battery voltage
– Faulty internal / external wiring
 No control of output
– Faulty controller PCB
– Short circuit of power board
– In correct control mode selection

114
Batteries

 Visual check individual


connections
 Feel batteries for heat with
back of hand
 Measure individual battery
voltages
 Minimum open circuit voltage
should not fall below 1.9 Volts

115
Anode With Low Output
 Check cable connections in anode junction box

 Disconnect adjacent anodes to confirm anode is


functional

 Operate anode alone with increased TRU output

 Water the ground bed

116
Open DC Output Circuit
 Check negative cable connections at wellhead.
Check positive cable connection at anode junction
box
 Conduct continuity test of negative and
positive cables
 Install temporary above ground cable
 Use cable locator to determine the position of
the break

117
High Circuit Resistance
 Review operating history of systems to
establish trend
 Check positive cable connection and anode lead
wires in anode junction box
 Check negative cable connection to wellhead
 Measure the output of each anode
 Confirm integrity of DC cables
 Follow NACE standards for RP0572-2001 for
watering ground bed

118

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