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CHAPTER 9

POLLUTION IN THE WORLD


(AIR POLLUTION)

JING WEN (5)


CAMILIA (6)
HRUDAY (27)
MERVIN (28)
AIR POLLUTION
• Air pollution is the action of environmental
contamination with man-made waste into the air.
• The Earth's air also contains pollutants or harmful
material, we may also breathe. Some of these air
pollutants may be odorless and colorless. Other air
pollution may be so apparent that it surrounds us
like smog, which is a cloud or haze of air pollution.

www.google.com
(chemicals)
CAUSES OF AIR POLLUTION
• Air pollution occurs when:
• Materials causing harm or discomfort to living organisms are
introduced to the atmosphere.
• Also occurs when materials that damage natural environment
are released into the atmosphere.
• Examples are chemicals, particulate matter, or biological
materials.
• Pollutants are substances in air that causes harm to humans
and the environment.
CAUSES OF AIR
POLLUTION
www.google.com
(air pollution)
• Minor Air Pollutants
• Persistent organic pollutants:-
• Can attach to particulate matter.
• Organic compounds that are resistant to environmental
degradation through chemical, biological, and
photolytic processes.
• Observed to persist in the environment.
• Capable of long-range transport, bioaccumulation in
human and animal tissue, and to have potential
significant impacts on human health and the
environment.

CAUSES OF AIR POLLUTION
• Sulfur oxides (SOx):- Particularly sulphur dioxide (SO2),
produced by volcanoes and in various industrial processes.
Further oxidisation of SO2 may cause acid rain.
• Nitrogen oxides (NOx):- Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), emitted from
high temperature combustion. Has a distinguishing sharp biting
odour. One of the most prominent air pollutants.
• Carbon Monoxide (CO):- Colourless, odourless, non-irritating but
very poisonous. Product of incomplete combustion of fuels like
natural gas, coal or wood.
• Major source: Exhaust from vehicles.

www.google.com
(air pollution)
CAUSES OF AIR POLLUTION
• Carbon Dioxide (CO2):- Emitted from combustion.
Natural gas in atmosphere. Connected to air-borne
fine particles which can cause cardiopulmonary
disease, which is a disease which concerns both the
heart and lungs.
• Toxic Metals:- Lead, cadmium and copper.
• Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC):- Currently banned from
use. Harmful to ozone layer. Emitted from products.
From garbage, sewage and industrial processes.
• Radioactive pollutants:-Produced by nuclear
explosions, war explosives and natural processes
like the radioactive decay of radon.


CAUSES OF AIR POLLUTION
• Many times you can see smog hanging over the tall
skyscrapers in urban areas
• Cities have a tendency to have greater portion of industrialized
areas. Industry is the main contributor to air pollution.
Many times factories release greenhouse gases like carbon
dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), methane, and nitrous
oxide into the atmosphere.
• Greenhouse gases contribute to a phenomenon called the
greenhouse effect or more simply put, global warming.
• These greenhouse gases trap heat within the atmosphere, thus
raising the temperature of the Earth.
CAUSES OF AIR POLLUTION
• There also other harmful gases the are released when fossil
fuels are burned. These gases have significant negative
health and environmental effects. These are following
gases that are known as the "Big Six" air pollutants:

• Carbon Dioxide
• Carbon Monoxide www.google.com
• Sulfur Oxide (ozone layer)

• Nitrogen Oxide
• Hydrocarbons (Benzene, Terpene, etc.)
• Particulates

EXTENT OF AIR POLLUTION
• The water vapor content of the atmosphere will increase in a
warmer world.
• With more water vapor in the atmosphere and an increase in
sea surface temperatures, there will be increased
precipitation at times and more vigorous storms and floods.
• Air and water vapor are in constant motion in the atmosphere.
When patterns of distribution change, ecosystems change.
• Humans experience these changes as threats to their comfort
and security and ultimately to their survival.
• At least 90% of all the creatures that have lived
on the planet are gone.
EXTENT OF AIR POLLUTION
• Smoke particles from forest fires are carried
by the wind towards nearby countries
causing hazy skies.
• These dust and smoke particles can enter a
person’s throat and eyes which cause
irritations and create respiratory problems
such as bronchitis and asthma.

EXTENT OF AIR POLLUTION
• High amounts of dust and smoke in
the air can make it difficult to see
distant objects.
• Countries may have to stop all flights
until the visibility increases.
• If air pollution continues, acid rains
will shower down which destroys
anything like lakes, rivers, forests
and also corrodes buildings.
WHAT CAN WE DO?

can reduce the amount of times we use


car. Both local and global pollution would be reduced ifeach
r- d rivin g p e rso n p le d g e d to u se th e ir ca r 3 0 % le ss
rtin g im m e d ia te ly.

Pictures from www.goggle.com


WHAT CAN WE DO?

Pictures from www. Google.com


• Reduce number of Vehicles - Urban
areas need to set vehicular quotas
and issue permits to limit the
number of vehicles to control
regional traffic congestion and air
pollution.
Hydrogen Hybrid Car
• Small
Electrically hybrid
run cars carsor 100% electric cars

are desirable.

CONCLUSION
• Air pollution is steadily rising in this
world and if we do not do something
about it, our atmosphere gets
destroyed and leads to health
problems further.
• This will lead to the depletion of our
ozone layer and will continue to
create problems for us and the world.
• Global warming will increase the heat of
our world and soon the polar ice caps
will melt; increasing our sea levels.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

• http://
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_pollution
• http://healthandenergy.com/air_pollution
• Pictures:
• www.google.com