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TOPIC 2: FOURIER

SERIES
LECTURE 1 OF 5
INTRODUCTION TO THE FOURIER SERIES
Objectives

• Explain what a “Fourier series” is

• Identify periodic functions

• Explain the term “period” of a function

• Analytically describe a function within its period


Prerequisite knowledge

• Coordinate geometry

• Trigonometry

• Integral calculus (integration)


Background of the Fourier series

• Named after Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768 – 1830)

• Joseph Fourier developed the Fourier series for purposes of solving the “heat
equation” – an insolvable partial differential equation in thermodynamics in
his time.

• Applications of the Fourier series now extend to:

i. Electrical engineering – study of harmonics

ii. Telecommunications – Signal processing


What is a Fourier series?
• 

• An expansion of a non-sinusoidal periodic function into an infinite sum

of sine and/or cosine functions.

• Similar to the Maclaurin and Taylor series for functions continuously

differentiable at point

• The point for the Maclaurin series and for Taylor series
What is a periodic function?
• 

• A function, e.g. is said to be periodic if its values are repeated

after regular intervals of the independent variable, e.g.

• Regular Intervals between the repetitions of the function is called

the period.
Categories of periodic functions

• Sinusoidal periodic functions

• Non-sinusoidal (composite) periodic functions


Examples of sinusoidal periodic functions include

sine and cosine functions


Examples of non-sinusoidal periodic functions

include: Square, rectangular, triangular, saw

tooth, halfwave/fullwave rectified functions


Characteristics of periodic functions
Amplitude

• Vertical displacement of a function from the horizontal-axis

• Amplitude of a function may represent strength of:

• Voltage

• Current

• Power
Period & Frequency
• 
• Period – Interval between the successive repetitions of a periodic

function.

• Frequency – Number of complete cycles of a periodic function in one

second.

• Frequency is related to periodic time by;


Phase shift
• Displacement of a function from its normal starting point.

• This characteristic mostly applies to purely sinusoidal functions.


A review of sinusoidal periodic functions
Sine function Cosine function
Analytical description of a sinusoidal periodic function
•  A sinusoidal periodic function is described mathematically within its period by:
• or

• Where:

• The period of a sinusoidal function is related to the number of cycles ‘n’ by:
Example 1
• 

• For the sinusoidal function; ;

i. State the amplitude

ii. Determine the period

iii. Sketch the function within the given period


Solutions
• 
• To determine these, we compare with

• Amplitude,

• Period is given by:

• In this case;
Exercise
• 

• For each of the following functions, state the amplitude, period and
sketch the function within the given period:
Note that….

That is why pure AC is said to


• Purely sinusoidal functions only
have a frequency of 50Hz or 60
contain one frequency component. Hz

Also some analog signals in


Telecommunications are pure
sinusoids. Bandwidth is zero.
Note that…
• 
• Composite periodic functions • AC with harmonics has other
have more than one frequency frequencies other than 50Hz or 60Hz
component (harmonic)
• Each harmonic has a different • Non sinusoidal analog and digital
amplitude, period, frequency & signals have finite or infinite
phase frequency components which make
• The harmonic with the largest up their bandwidth.
period is called the 1’st
harmonic or fundamental •.
frequency component
Analytical description of a composite periodic
function within a period

• A composite periodic function can be described analytically within the


given period by the amplitude(s).

• Remember that, some functions ;

i. Have constant amplitudes over the period

ii. Have a non zero-gradient – amplitude is in form of an equation


Example 1-Analytically describe the following function
Solution – Step 1
• 
• First, we need to identify the period of this function (Remember, the
period is the interval between the successive repetitions of the
function).

• The period is found as the value along the horizontal axis where the
function is repeating the same pattern

• Note: Period can also be taken from


Solution – Step 2
•  State the amplitude(s) of the function over the period.

• In this case, the amplitude of f(t) from to is not the same in that;

• ; between and
• between and
• This function can be described analytically as follows:
Example2-Analytically describe the following
function
Solution – Step 1
• 
• Identify the period (value along the horizontal axis where the
function is repeating the same pattern).

• In this case;

• Note: Period can also be taken from etc, but function values
will be the same.
Solution – step 2
•  We now state the amplitude(s) of the function over the entire period. In this case,
we see that the function f(x) has different amplitudes over the period, so we divide
the function into two ranges as follows:
• Between and ; the amplitude of f(x) is not constant – it is defined by an equation.
So using the formula for the equation of a straight line;

• Coordinates on this line: and

• Therefore, the equation is given by:


Solution – step 2 (cont’d)
• 
• Between and ; the amplitude of f(x) is not constant – it is defined by an
equation. So using the formula for the equation of a straight line;

• Coordinates on this line are: and

• Therefore, the equation is given by:


Solution – step 2 (cont’d)
• 

• Analytically, we describe this function as follows;


Example3-Analytically describe the following
function
Solution – step 1

• 
• Identify the Period of the function.

• In this case;

• Note: Period can also be considered from , , but the values of the
function will be the same.
Solution – step 2
•  State the amplitude(s) of the function, f(x) over the period, .

• Notice that the function, f(x) can be divided into two ranges as follows:

• Between and ; the amplitude of f(x) is not constant – it is defined by an equation.


So using the formula for the equation of a straight line;

• Coordinates of the line are: and


Solution – step 2 (cont’d)
• 
• Therefore, the equation is given by:

• Between and ; the amplitude of f(x) is fixed;

• Analytically, we describe this function as follows;


Example4-Analytically describe the following
function
Solution – step 1
• 
• There are several ways of obtaining the period for this function.
• In this case, we pick the interval from and .

• The period is found by subtracting the lower limit from the upper limit.
Solution – step 2
• 
• State the amplitudes of the function over the given period.

• In this case, the amplitudes of f(x) can be considered in three ranges as follows:

• Between and ;

• Between and ;

• Between and ;
Solution – step 2 (cont’d)
• 
• Analytically, the function is described within its period as follows;
Example 5 – Analytically describe the following
function over the given period
Solution: Step 1 – Identify the period
• 
• In this case,

• Note: Period can be considered from


• etc. and values of the function won’t change.
Step 2 – Describe function analytically over the period

• 
• Here, we will use the sinusoidal format:
• First off, number of cycles in
• Between and, amplitude of instantaneous voltage is ,

• Between and; voltage is

• Analytically;
Review exercise 1- Analytically describe the following
function within its period
Review Exercise 2- Analytically describe the
following function
Review exercise 3
• 
• The following functions are described analytically within their given period:

Sketch the functions within their period


THE END
• 

• For questions and clarifications, contact me on


0979597009 or email
pchisembele@zictcollege.edu.zm

• Next lecture is on: Fourier series of functions with


period,