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The Philippines is situated in the Southeast section of
Bounded by:
Taiwan - North
West Philippine Sea - West
Pacific Ocean - East
Celebes Sea - South
It is included in the Asia-Pacific rim.
It is slightly above the equator.
B. Character of the Land
1. Archipelago - 7,107 islands
Weakness of the Filipinos’ sense of nationalism
Diverse languages
Strong sense of regionalism
Existence of subcultures
Maritime orientation of the inhabitants
Development of the fishing industry
2. Stretches almost a thousand miles from North to
3. Land Surface Area - 114,830 sq. statute miles
4. Mountainous
Seven mountain ranges,
Greatest -Sierra Madre in North Central Luzon
Highest- Mt. Apo in Davao
Other peaks:
 Mt. Madya-as: Panay
 Mts. Banahaw, Makiling, San Cristobal: Laguna

 Mt. Arayat: Pampanga

 Mts. Mayon, Pulog: Bicol

 Mt. Halcon: Mindoro

More than 50 volcanoes
Greatest: Mt. Mayon
Smallest volcano on earth: Mt. Taal
Riverine with a good number of river systems
Cagayan, Jalaur, and Panay rivers: Panay
Rio Grande de Pampanga, Agno, Pasig rivers: Luzon
Agusan and Lanao rivers: northern Mindanao
Famous underground river in Palawan
Used as highways of transportation and communication
especially for trade and commerce
Provide food for the people
Socialization opportunities
Settlements along the banks of the rivers

Philippines has a tropical climate

A. Topography
Rugged land traversed by mountain ranges
Irregular coastline
Extensive coastal plains, arable valleys and deltas
Navigable rivers and cascading waterfalls
Generally mountainous
Highest peak: Mt. Apo-9,690 feet high
Lowest part: “Philippine Deep”-34,218 feet below sea
B. Coastline, Rivers, and Lakes
Extensive coastline longer than that of continental
United States
Sea coasts of the islands are indented with numerous
bays, harbors, gulfs, and coves
Has numerous lakes
Largest: Laguna de bay
Lake Lanao: Lanao del Sur
Taal Lake: Batangas
Lake Naujan: Mindoro
Lake Bito: Leyte
C. Waterfalls and Mineral Springs
Most famous: Pagsanjan Falls: Laguna
Largest: Botocan Falls: Laguna
Rich in legendary lore: Hinulugan Falls: Antipolo, Rizal
Most important waterfalls in Mindanao: Maria Cristina
Falls: Lanao del Norte
Mineral springs or spas:
Well-known spas are found in: Pagsanjan, Pansol, Los
Baños in Laguna; in Pandi and Marilao, Bulacan; in
Lemery and Nasugbu, Batangas; in Goa, Camarines Sur;
and in Murcia, Negros Occidental

Potential source of power: Maria Cristina Falls

D. Fauna
Abounds in animal life
Three unique mammals exist
Tarsius: smallest monkey in the world, found only in
Tamaraw: a cross between the carabao and the boar,
found only in Mindoro
Mouse deer: smallest deer on earth, found in Palawan.
More than 750 species of birds have been identified
Most famous: monkey-eating eagle
About 25,000 species of insects are known to exist in
the country.
E. Flora
Has 10,000 species of flowering plants and ferns
Richest collection of orchids with 900 species
Forest Cover and Arable Land
Forested areas are now limited
The dipterocarp (mahogany) forests are endangered
17% of arable land are damaged
G. Fisheries and Marine Resources
At least 2,000 species of fish are said to be found in
Philippine waters
Smallest fish in the world: Pandaka Pygmaea
10,000 species of shells
Very good fishing grounds: Manila Bay, Laguna,
Bantayan Channel in Cebu, Estancia in Iloilo,
Malampaya Sound in Palawan, the Sulu Sea, and the
waters of Basilan and Zamboanga
H. Mineral Resources
Metallic minerals: gold, iron, copper, silver, platinum,
chromium, manganese, lead, and zinc.
Non-metallic minerals: coal, petroleum, asbestos,
clay, gypsum, lime, salt, sulfur, marble, and adobe
I. Scenic Beauties
Beautiful beaches, rippling seas of crystalline waters,
cool towering highlands, and rolling valleys.
Crowning glory: Palawan Underground River, Ifugao
Rice Terraces
Other wonders: Boracay, Pagsanjan Falls, Crystal
Caves, Maria Cristina Falls, Mayon Volcano, Taal
Volcano, The Hundred Islands
With your partner do the following in a short bond paper
Create a matrix/table that will show the following:
Pre-Spanish culture of the Filipinos with respect to the
1. Personal Habits, Homes and Ornaments
2. Marriage Customs
3. Government, Social Classes, Position of Women in
4. Laws and Judicial Process

*Minimum 2 pages Maximum 3 pages

homes and