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A brief history of the transition from modern art to contemporary art
• Build an initial vocabulary of major and basic art terms in Philippine art
• Distinguish conservative, modern, and contemporary styles in the visual arts
and be able to interpret these by creating a self portrait
• Link the various art forms through an integrative activity
• The art of the so-called “past” continued and continues to evolve until the
present, and are therefore in that sense, “contemporary.”
• This art continues to be produced, even if the conditions behind its production
have already changed significantly
• After WWII, artists and writers began to reflect about their
national identity as Filipinos according to Alice Guillermo
• This search for identity entailed explorations in subject
matter, content and form as well as debates between art for
art’s sake that exposed the “true social conditions” of the
• A group of artists who exemplified a new kind of modernism
emerged, as observed by the artist –writer E. Aguilar Cruz who
named the movement Neo-Realism.
• Using modernist figuration, many of these artists explored folk
themes and also crafted commentaries on the urban condition and
the effects of the war.
• 1948. Support institutions like the Art Association of the Philippines (AAP)
were established under the leadership of artist Purita Kalaw-Ledesma. Part of
AAP’s initiative is to sponsor contests to encourage art production.
• 1951. The Philippine Art Gallery (PAG), which provided a venue and laid out
early programs for modern art, was put up through the efforts of the artist-
writer Lydia Arguilla and others.
• 1950’s. when there was little support for the graphic arts, the printmaking
workshop of Manuel Rodriguez, Sr. was opened.
• 1950’s. This period also saw the construction of modern architectural structures, particularly
churches that modified or veered away from traditional cruciform designs.
• Church of the Holy Sacrifice in UP Diliman (1955)
• Similarly, the Church of the Risen Lord, employed concrete as primary material and
experimented on rounded or parabolic forms.
• Chapel of St. Joseph the worker in Victorias, Negros, built by the Czech-American architect
Antonin Raymond. It features a striking mural by the Filipino-American artist Alfonso
Ossorio, the “Angry Christ”…The church is a curious combination of modern architecture
with a minimalist character and modern painting expressive of folk sensibilities.
Angry Christ
by Alfonso
Arturo Luz’s Street Musicians
Cesar Legaspi’s Gadget II
• This generally consists of simplified forms, which avoided mimetic
(exact copy) representation.
• It is sometimes referred to as non-representational or non-objective
art as it emphasized the relationships of line, color, and space or
the flatness of the canvas rather than an illusion of three-
Abstraction Artists
• Most of the early practitioners inclined toward abstraction received training
abroad or were influenced by the growth of the said movement in international
• Solid geometric shapes and color fields are seen in the works of Constancio
Ma. Bernardo and particular phases of Lee Aguinaldo’s practice.
• The abstract expressionist style that plays up the aspects of spontaneity in the
process of making is exemplified in the works of national artist Jose Joya with
his thick and often vigorous application of paint.
Abstraction Artists
• Fernando Zobel’s painting using used syringes to apply paint. This allowed
him to produce works that balanced the element of chance and restraint.
• On the other hand, what was typical of Arturo Luz’s works is the use of stark
linear elements as seen in “street Musicians”(1952) which pared down the
figures into lines and basic shapes.
• Nena Sagil who took her art studies at the UP, in the US, and in Spain, is
known for her canvases filled with circles and cell-like forms. Earlier in her
career, she did figurative works with rotund features, such as in the painting of
Abstraction Artists
• Many artists have also found the changing urban landscape as an exciting
subject matter.
• The photographer MM Yu has captured the details of interesting patterns and
forms often overlooked in the city. She has also photographed unexpected and
unsightly piles of garbage and somehow transformed them into aesthetic
• The group “Cavity” does graffiti in the streets of Cavite. They are a group of
young artists who create temporary yet arresting images in public places.
70’S TO
70s to Contemporary
• Under the helm of Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos beginning in 1965, many
cultural projects ensued amid the backdrop of poverty and volatile social
• Amidst claims of national chaos of emergency proportions, Martial law was
declared on September 21, 1972
• Under Martial Law, the New Society or Bagong Lipunan was born which
worked towards the rebirth of a long lost civilization, on one hand, and
aspiration to modernization and development, on the other.
70s to Contemporary
• This vision was propagated and implemented through an art and culture
program that combined the fine arts, architecture, interior design, tourism,
convention city buildings(hotels, theaters, coliseums), engineering, urban
planning, health among many others.
• The discourse of rebirth can also be discerned in the anthem or songs the
regime sponsored and circulated through the media and public education
• The optimism towards a new beginning was articulated for example, in Levi
Celerio and Felipe Padilla de Leon’s composition, Bagong Pagsilang.
70s to Contemporary
• Refinement
• Radical experimentation
• National identity and love for country
• Art was circulated through an intricate network of institutions that braided the threads
of the pre-modern, and vernacular, the modern, through international
• National pride was instilled by invoking the pre-modern through rural folk festivals, and
museums devoted to collecting and displaying ethnographic artifacts and natural
specimens (among these key sites was the National Museum, which was revitalized
through Constitutional amendments).
CCP as Shrine for the Arts
oThe Cultural Center of the Philippines (Filipino: Sentrong Pangkultura ng
Pilipinas, or CCP) is a government owned and controlled corporation established to
preserve, develop and promote arts and culture in the Philippines.
oThe CCP provides performance and exhibition venues for various local and
international productions) complex located in the Cities of Pasay and Manila.
oIts artistic programs include the production of performances, festivals, exhibitions,
cultural research, outreach, preservation, and publication of materials on Philippine
art and culture.
oIt holds its headquarters at the Tanghalang Pambansa (English: National Theatre), a
structure designed by National Artist for Architecture, Leandro V. Locsin. Locsin
would later design many of the other buildings in the CCP Complex
CCP as Shrine for the Arts
CCP as Shrine for the Arts
oBefore the turn of the 20th century, artistic performances were primarily held
in plazas and other public places around the country. In Manila, the Manila
Grand Opera House, constructed in the mid-19th Century, served as the
primary venue for many stage plays, operas and zarzuelas and other notable
events of national significance.
oConditions improved with the construction of the Metropolitan Theater in
1931 and smaller but adequately equipped auditoriums in institutions like
Meralco, Philam Life, Insular Life, Ateneo de Manila University and Far
Eastern University.
Metropolitan Theater
CCP as Shrine for the Arts
oDuring this period of the Marcos Presidency, the CCP Complex played host to major
local and international events under the guise of the Bagong Lipunan (New Society),
which would mark the start of a series of major construction projects in the area.
When Filipino Margie Moran won the 1973 Miss Universe Pageant, the Philippine
Government agreed to stage the succeeding year's contest, and plans for an
amphitheater commenced.
oWeeks of planning and discussions resulted to the commissioning of the Folk Arts
Theater (Now the Tanghalang Francisco Balagtas), an open-air but roofed structure
that could seat up to 10,000 people. Construction of the new theater, which was also
designed by Leandro Locsin, was completed in a record 77 days and was inaugurated
on July 1972 with the grand parade, "Kasaysayan ng Lahi" ("History of the Race").
Right after the inauguration of Folk Arts, ground was broken for the Philippine
International Convention Center and the Philippine Plaza Hotel, both for the country's
hosting of the IMF-World Bank Annual Meeting in 1976. Although not owned by the
Cultural Center, these buildings were nevertheless built at the complex and designed by
One of the more infamous additions to the Center was the Manila Film Center, built in 1981 for the Manila
International Film Festival. Designed by Froilan Hong, the structure was built on a strict critical path schedule
requiring 4,000 workers working in 3 shifts across 24 hours. An accident occurred on November 17, 1981, when
scaffolding collapsed and sent construction workers into quick-drying cement. Despite this, construction proceeded,
and finished some 15 minutes before opening night of the Film Festival.
• Straying from the brutalist style
typical of the buildings in the CCP
is the Coconut Palace, a showcase
on the versatility of coconut as an
export product and construction
material, designed by Francisco
Mañosa. The financial and human
costs of constructing these
buildings, in a time of widespread
poverty and corruption, was seen as
symptomatic of the First Lady's
Coconut Palace edifice complex, a charge Imelda
has nevertheless welcomed in her
later years
• Using your body (mime) show the development of contemporary arts
through the years.
creativity 5
cooperation 5
content 5
flawless execution 5
Social Realism
• A significant strand that emerged during the intense political unrest of the 70s
and the 80s was Social Realism
• Using various techniques and styles, it is a form of protest art that exposed the
social issues and struggles of the times.
• It differs from other realist approaches because it is conscious with its regard
for the oppressed and underrepresented
• SR would tackle for example, the plight of the marginalized, inequality, and of
Social Realism
• SR also worked collectively, and in collaboration not only in terms of
producing murals and other art forms, but also in making strategic decisions
grounded on a common mass-based, scientific and nationalistic framework.
Social Realism
Antipas Delotavo’s Itak sa Puso ni Mang Juan Edgar Fernandez’s Kinupot
Social Realism
Brenda Fajardo’s
Tulad ng mga
nauna, may
Social Realism
• The native, or the folk, the self, the environment, the nation, and the past, and
the different variations of Modern continue to be revisited by artists as sources
of inspiration in contemporary art.
• As artists explore processes and approaches aside from mediums and
techniques beyond the so-called Fine Arts, artistic language becomes more
• Looking into the possibility of working in alternative spaces, artistic
communities are becoming engaged and networks formed.
Social Realism
• The varied range of practices demonstrate that making art in the artist’s studio
is inseparable from cultural and research work.
• The studio extends to various sites – classrooms, the streets, even cyberspace,
among others.
• Art is not just a “tool” or handmaiden to a certain ideology, advocacy or
purpose, but has specific and independent modes of seeing, doing and feeling,
from where new knowledge springs.
Social Realism
• The artwork that artists produce transcend their status as objects or
collectors’ items; they are inseparable from the artists’ process and
practice as cultural workers, a phrase that also implies their roles as
organizers, collaborator, educators, administrators, writers theorists,
quasi-ethnographers, healers, curators, and in some cases, as
owners of galleries and other spaces.
Society, politics and economy, and
• Although art is an expression, we discern that throughout its
history, the works are not always created out of the artist’s full
• The artist’s creative process is affected if not compromised by
patronage, such as the state of the church.
Society, politics and economy, and
• The communicative and evocative potentials of art have been
harnessed to support the colonial order, as exemplified by the
proliferation of religious art during the colonial period.
• Art was also employed to advance a political agenda, as in the case
of edifice built during the Marcos regime.
Society, politics and economy, and
• Changes in society, politics and economy affect artists, the work that they do,
and the structures that support their production.
• 19th century period brought much economic prosperity to a segment of
Filipinos who later became elite. Caused by the opening of the suez canal
which made travel and trade more efficient between Spain and the Philippines
Society, politics and economy, and
• This paved the way for the development of secular art, which identified the
affluent Filipinos as the new art patrons.
• The art of portraiture became very popular as it documented and for posterity
the wealth of the sitter or their important stature in the society.
Society, politics and economy, and
• Technological innovations engender shifts in artistic production.
• It was only in the early 20th century when photography became
accessible to local photographers as Kodak set up shop in the
Philippines in 1928.
• Photography fulfilled documentary and artistic functions, serving as
an alternative to painting as a reproducible and inexpensive form of
Society, politics and economy, and
• There was also the technology-dependent cinematic arts as an example.
• The first film ever directed by a Filipino was based on the play “dalagang
bukid”by hermogenes Ilagan and leon Ignacio.
• Directed by Jose Nepumoceno in 1919, at the time when technology
integrating sound in the movies was not yet developed., live music was synced
with the moving image.
• National artist atang dela rama was the star of the film.
Society, politics and economy, and
• Art is not only a document that gives us clues about the historical conditions
surrounding its production, but also as a means to re-tell history itself.
• The painting of National Artist Benedicto Cabrera titled “Brown brother’s
burden”, ca. 1970, approximates the look of an old photograph which, presents
an aspect of colonial history from the gaze of the colonized.
• The jeepney, on the other hand, has its style of ornamentation, reminiscent of
folk characteristics, has practically effaced its roots as a postwar vehicle.
Society, politics and economy, and
• The said technique of transforming existing materials through the
juxtaposition of elements taken from one context and placing these
in another to present alternative meanings, structure, and
composition is called appropriation.
• This technique helps present alternative meanings, structure, and
composition to an art work.
• Express one’s consciousness by creating an artwork using pointillism.
• Creativity in using chosen medium 10
• Originality of design 10
• Reflects one’s personality 5
• Neatness of work 5
• TOTAL 30
Mixed Media
• Mixed media art refers to a visual art form that combines a variety of media in a single artwork. For
example, if you draw with ink, then paint over it with watercolors, then add some highlights in colored
• Mixed media is very closely related to other art forms such as assemblage and collage.
• Assemblage is a 3-dimensional sculptural form, in which found objects are "assembled" together in a
quirky and unique way.
• Collage involves a rearrangement of pre-existing elements, such as cut-up paper of all sorts (newspaper
clippings, gift wrap, vintage ephemera, old book pages, stamps, postcards, etc), as well as various other
small items glued to the surface of the paper, canvas, or wood.
Mixed Media
With mixed media, anything goes.
However, you will need to take some
ordinary precautions, such as making sure
that your foundation (base layer) is sturdy
enough to accept whatever you throw on
top of it without buckling or bending. You
may also want to do some smaller tests to
examine how the media work together, to
make sure you can achieve the desired
effect. For instance, applying ink on top of
watercolor will have a very different look
than watercolor applied on top of ink. So
it's best to fiddle around on a small-scale
to figure out how the media interacts,
before attempting a large-scale or detailed
By using a combination of media in one
artwork, you can utilize the best that each
medium has to offer!
• Multimedia is content that uses a combination of different content forms such as text, audio, images,
animations, video and interactive content. Multimedia contrasts with media that use only rudimentary computer
displays such as text-only or traditional forms of printed or hand-produced material.
• Multimedia can be recorded and played, displayed, interacted with or accessed by information content
processing devices, such as computerized and electronic devices, but can also be part of a live performance.
Multimedia devices are electronic media devices used to store and experience multimedia content. Multimedia
is distinguished from mixed media in fine art; for example, by including audio it has a broader scope. The term
"rich media" is synonymous with interactive multimedia.
• In the arts there are multimedia artists, whose minds are able to blend techniques using different media that in
some way incorporates interaction with the viewer. One of the most relevant could be Peter Greenaway who is
melding cinema with opera and all sorts of digital media. Another approach entails the creation of multimedia
that can be displayed in a traditional fine arts arena, such as an art gallery. Although multimedia display material
may be volatile, the survivability of the content is as strong as any traditional media. Digital recording material
may be just as durable and infinitely reproducible with perfect copies every time.
Transmedia Storytelling
• “Transmedia storytelling represents a process where integral elements of a fiction get dispersed
systematically across multiple delivery channels for the purpose of creating a unified and coordinated
entertainment experience. Ideally, each medium makes its own unique contribution to the unfolding of
the story.” Dr. Henri Jenkins, USC.
Transmedia Storytelling
• What is Transmedia Storytelling?
• Transmedia storytelling uses multiple media platforms tell a narrative across time. Each media piece—whether it’s
a comic, novels, video games, mobile apps, or a film—functions as a standalone story experience—complete and
satisfying. Like a giant puzzle, each piece also contributes to a larger narrative. The process is cumulative and each
piece adds richness and detail to the story world, such as character backstories and secondary plotlines.
• Transmedia storytelling is fully participatory. The audience becomes actively involved, elevated to social and
creative collaborators. They become stakeholders in the transmedia experience alongside the brand or cause. The
unfolding story design creates the motivation to engage with other participants, seek out other parts of the story,
and contribute to the narrative by adding content. Transmedia stories can be simple, across a few low-tech media
platforms or break down the barriers between the story and reality by bringing the narrative out into the real world,
in the form of complex and exciting alternative reality games (ARGs), where participants engage with narrative
elements and characters using real world locations as part of the storyworld. - Dr. Pamela Rutledge
• (http://athinklab.com/transmedia-storytelling/what-is-transmedia-storytelling/)
Group Activity
• Project one social realism by choosing one of the following art form for presentation:
• Music/song
• Drama/skit
• Interpretative dance
• Poetry
creativity 5
cooperation 5
content (social relevance) 5
flawless execution 5
• How do we encounter the jeepney in this day and age?
• What does the jeepney mean to you today?
• How does it feel when you ride on it when you see it on the street?
Mode of reception
(When , where, and how art is encountered)

• Most often, art is encountered via museum; arranged and categorized before a
public for the purpose of education and leisure.
• Owing to its longstanding history as an institution that exhibits art or other
objects of value, we automatically assume that what is shown is of value.
• The museum’s power lies in its ability to construct knowledge for us.
• Ex. Gaston Damag’s striking appropriation of bulul makes us rethink how
cultural representations and methods of display shape our consciousness.
Mode of reception
(When , where, and how art is encountered)

• When forms of street art like graffiti are placed inside the
whitewashed walls of the museum, how does looking at this art
make you feel?
• Conversely, what happens when artists get out of the museums and
galleries and bring their works to the streets and paint the walls by
collaborating with paint manufacturing companies like Boysen or
Mode of reception
(When , where, and how art is encountered)

• Reception is very much affected by our level of exposure to art

forms that may be unfamiliar or have startling or shocking images.
• Ex. Mideo Cruz’ work, poleteismo, at an exhibit titled kulo (boil) at
the CCP. It featured Christ with a phallus on his nose, among other
provocative elements
• The people’s reaction was not only incited by the imagery, but
circumstances surrounding the work also fueled the controversy.
Mode of reception
(When , where, and how art is encountered)

• The reproductive health law was at the center of public discussions

at the time; the media linked the work to the issue without proper
framing about process and meaning; and the more visible and
media savvy interpretation of the work became the dominant
reading of the piece.
Mode of reception
(When , where, and how art is encountered)

• The attitude of the issue and the reaction of the public are
symptomatic of many deficiencies in our art education in schools,
homes, and media.
• The artist’s age, gender, culture, economic condition, social
environment, and disposition affect production as well as reception.
Mode of reception
(When , where, and how art is encountered)

• Summary
• Display practices in museums tend to remove certain forms from their
everyday context, like a ritual object severed from its original use.
• The artist’s personal contexts like age, gender, and cultural background may
strongly influence the form and content of their works
Mode of reception
(When , where, and how art is encountered)

• Summary
• Larger milieus such as nature and the social environment shape the artist’s
disposition and access to resources.
• The mode of reception is an important context which considers the moment
(by which we encountered the artwork and how we might respond or engage
with it in relation to our personal experiences and that of the wider public’s.
Artistic Activity
The Art of Batangas Artists
Then and Now
• Finding what art is in Batangas has extended from, not just by
interpreting the qualities of the art, but made it flourish in many
• “The way that art changes depends on the environment you grew up
in or the people that surround you. It’s either you adapt to what
environment gives you or to other people around you, sometimes
it’s just all in you” says Christian “Tano”Panaligan.
The Art of Batangas Artists
Then and Now
• “from my perspective, back in the 70’s, everything was
conservative – the people, the environment, the art. Artists feel
held back from executing a certain work because most people might
give negative impressions, “ according to Bugs Serrano.
The Art of Batangas Artists
Then and Now

• A famous deviant is Manolito Tolentino “Toto” Mayo. Born on December 17,

1954 in Lipa, Batangas. Toto was known for his contribution as a sculptor,
graphic artist, and modern poet. He was also an art professor.
The Art of Batangas Artists
Then and Now
• Toto was believed to be the first person to contribute and influence punk in the
Philippines through his looks, hairstyle and art. Though before, punk was
considered as too shocking and ugly for people to adapt, it somehow made
artists feel different which resulted to a unique aesthetic. Art Punk was
originally a connection of punk rock music and punk subculture. It is where
people have the freedom to do whatever they want, whether it be in style and
One of his more popular artworks is “Temptation”.
Made in 1976, people say that it portrays trust and
betrayal to a friend or your partner. In the painting,
two people stand there – one with his hands tied,
while the other looks away; symbolizing that they
are both committed yet they are holding back to
the things they really want. While the lizard is the
public person who watches and observes them. The
“Temptation” in Lito Mayo’s painting portrays that
a person could like anything they want but they are
limited with their desire to grab hold of it.
Manolito Tolentino “Toto”
The Art of Batangas Artists
Then and Now
• “Unlike today, people are more open minded than before. There’s more
freedom to express what we want to make and people start to appreciate that.”
says Bugs Serrano.
• “The art before and now is just the same. I think the only thing that changed
was the quality or the tools artists had,” said Michael Ryan Mulingtapang, a
28-year-old contemporary artist who collaborates in tattoo designs.
The Art of Batangas Artists
Then and Now
• In today’s art, many artists find themselves to be more expressive because it
gives them the freedom to show what they really want. But for some, it’s quite
difficult to be known for something majority of the population like. Some will
only credit their work but others will benefit for the name they have.
The Art of Batangas Artists
Then and Now
• A struggling artist who found his path in the art world, 27-year-old Christian
“Tano” Panaligan started drawing at a very young age. A self-taught artist, he
always knew that his art will be recognized and appreciated by the likes of
Batanganeuo’s and fellow Filipinos.
• “Struggles were always there ever since I entered the art world, I didn’t know
where to start since I didn’t learn art. I just sketched and painted until one or
two people appreciated the work I’ve done. But even if there’s no one to
appreciate the works I’ve done, I won’t stop,” he shares.
The Art of Batangas Artists
Then and Now
Tano didn’t bow down to the struggles he had but explored more of the art that he was best
suited in. In fact, this resulted to Tano, along with other artists in Batangas, popularize an
underground art movement that is best known as lowbrow or pop surrealism; an art movement
with its cultural backgrounds in underground comics, punk music, and the cultures of the street.
From drawing sketches to painting and to finally hosting his own shows like Paperview, Tano
became a painter that not only caught the Batanganeuo’s attention but people from other parts
of the country.
The Art of batangas artists
then and now
Art then and now is like being family that lives on from generation to
generation. And being an artist, it takes many struggles to find where their art

“Today’s art has no original form when all art has been recreated from the art
before. They used it as a reference to create a new one, a new art that will be
recycled and will be adapted by the next generation and that is a cycle of art,”
according to Tano.
Food for
By Christian “tano”Panaligan

What is the context of his

work ? economic,
philosophical, political social
or cultural?
Imagine that your group is a contemporary art collective.
Select and invent a different context for the artist’s work.
Interpret how the new context can affect the reading of this work.
• Creativity of design 5
• Appropriate use of symbols to represent context 5
• Presentation to the class 5
• Group cooperation 5