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# EE-308801

Lecture No 08
Electrical Machines
Text Book: Chapter 02 (Stephen J. Chapman 5 th Ed)

## 2.4 THEORY OF OPERATION OF REAL SINGLE-PHASE

TRANSFORMERS Page 76

## Instructor: Warda Saeed

Class: EE-17 A/B
Electrical Engineering Department
1
Ideal Transformer

## Schematic symbols of a transformer

2
Ideal Transformer
• Ideal transformer is a lossless device.
• Np: No of turns on primary side
• Ns: No of turns on the secondary side.
• Then Voltage eq. is:
vP (t ) N P
 a {a is the turn ratio}
vS (t ) N S

## • The Current eq. is:

3
Ideal Transformer
In terms of phasor quantities

Vp NP Is
  a
Vs NS I p

## • Turn ratio just effects only the

magnitude of voltage & current. 4
Ideal Transformer
The dot convention is used
to determine the polarity of
the voltages and currents.

## The relationship is:

1. If Vp is +ve at dotted end w.r.t. un-
dotted end then Vs will be also +ve
at dotted end.
2. If Ip flows into the dotted end of
primary then Is will flow out of the
dotted end of secondary.

5
Power in Ideal Transformer
Primary side:
The real power supplied to the transformer by the primary circuit is:

## Pin  VP I P cos  p Where θp is the angle between Vp and Ip

Secondary side:
The real power supplied by the transformer secondary circuit is:

transformer.
P  S  0

## Power factor on primary and secondary side is the same

6
Power in Ideal Transformer
Comparison of Input and
Output Power
The same relationship applies to
Pin  Pout reactive power Q and the apparent
power S:
Pout  Vs I s cos 

## Qin  VP I P sin   VS I S sin   Qout

and
Sin  VP I P  VS I S  Sout

## Thus the output power of an ideal

transformer is equal to its input power.

7
Impedance Transformation Through a
Transformer
• The impedance of a device or an
element is defined as the ratio of
phasor voltage across it to the phasor
current through it:
VL VS
ZL  
IL IS
• The apparent impedance of
primary circuit of transformer
is:

8
Impedance Transformation
Through a Transformer
• To analyze the circuit replace the portion of
circuit on one side of the transformer by an
equivalent circuit with the same terminal
characteristics.
• The process of replacing one side of transformer
by its equivalent at the other side’s voltage level
is known as referring the first side of
transformer to the second side.

9
Impedance Transformation
Through a Transformer

10
Real Single Phase Transformer
• Primary connected to an
AC source and secondary
is open circuited
d
eind 
dt
λ is the flux linkage in the coil across
which voltage is being induced.
• Total flux linkage is the sum of the flux passing through each
turn in the coil added over all turns of the coil.
N
   i
i 1
• The average flux can be expressed as:
d
Thus eind  N
dt
11
The Magnetization Current in Real
Transformer
• When AC power is connected to the transformer a
current flows even when secondary is open circuited.
Nd
eind 
dt
1

Np  v p (t )d (t )

v p (t )  VM cos t
1

Np  VM cos t dt

VM
 sin t
N p 12
The Magnetization Current in Real
Transformer
• When an ac power source is connected to a transformer, a current flows
in its primary circuit, even when the secondary circuit is open circuited.
• This current is the current required to produce flux in a real
ferromagnetic core.
• It consists of two components:

## I. The magnetization current iM, which is the current required

to produce the flux in the transformer core
2. The core-loss current ih+e , which is the current required to
make up for hysteresis and eddy current losses

13
The magnetization curve of the
transformer core

14
The magnetization current

v p (t )  VM cos t

1

Np  VM cos t dt

VM
 sin t
Np
15
The core-loss current in a transformer

7
im

18
The Total No Load (Excitation) Current in Real Transformer

iex  im  ih  e

## The total excitation current in a typical transformer core

19
The Voltage Ratio Across a Real Transformer
When the voltage is applied on the primary side of the transformer then the
average flux produced by this voltage is:
__
1

NP  v P (t )dt

## • Some of the flux lines leave the

iron core and pass through the air
• The flux that goes through one of
the transformer coils but not the
other one is leakage flux.
• The flux in the primary coil can be
divided into two components
P  M  LP d P d M dLP
v p (t )  N P  Np  Np
dt dt dt
 eP (t )  eLP (t )
20
The Voltage Ratio Across a Real Transformer
d M dLP From these equations it is obvious that:
v p (t )  N p  Np
dt dt d M
eP (t )  N P
v p (t )  eP (t )  eLP (t ) dt
d M
eS (t )  N s
For secondary side: dt
S  M  LS eP (t ) dM eS (t )
  
NP dt NS
d s eP (t ) N P
vs (t )  N s   a
dt eS (t ) N S
d M dLS The ratio of the primary voltage
 Ns  NS caused by the mutual flux to the
dt dt secondary voltage caused by the
vs (t )  es (t )  eLS (t ) mutual flux is equal to the turn ratio
of the transformer.
21
The Voltage Ratio Across a Real
Transformer
• In a good design ϕM >> ϕLP and ϕM >> ϕLS. Therefore, ratio
of the total voltage on the primary of transformer to the
ratio of the total voltage on the secondary of a transformer
is approximately given as :
v p (t ) Np
 a Resembles the ideal transformer.
vs (t ) Ns

• The smaller the leakage flux, the closer the transformer will be to the ideal
one.

22
The Current Ratio & Dot Convention
• Connect a load on the secondary side of the transformer.
• A current flowing into the dotted end of the transformer produces a
positive mmf.

23
The Current Ratio & Dot Convention
• A current flowing into the dotted end produces +ve mmf, while a
current flowing into the undotted end produce a –ve mmf.
Fp  N p i p & Fs   N s is
Fnet  Fp  Fs  N p i p  N s is
Fnet  N p i p  N s is  R
• If both currents are entering the dotted
end, the mmf will add to each other.
• If one current enters and the other one Fnet  N p i p  N s is  0
leaves then the mmf will subtract from
each other. N p i p  N s is
• For a good designed transformer, R should be ip Ns 1
very small nearly zero, as long as the core is  
operating in unsaturated region. is Np a
• In order for mmf to be zero, current must flow in to the one dotted
end and out of the other dotted end. 24
Assumptions to Convert a Real Transformer into
Ideal Transformer
1. The core must have no hysteresis or Real
eddy current.
2. The Magnetization curve must be
an ideal one.
3. The leakage flux in the core must be
zero, (i.e. all the flux in the core
couples both the windings).
4. The resistance of the transformer
winding must be zero. Ideal

25 25
The Equivalent Circuit of a Transformer
The losses that occur in real transformers have to be accounted for in any
accurate model of transformer behavior. The major losses are:
1. Copper Losses( I2R): The resistive heating losses in the primary and
secondary winding of the transformer. They are proportional to the
square of the current in the winding.
2. Eddy Current Losses: These are resistive heating losses in the core and
are proportional to the square of the voltage applied to the
transformer.
3. Hysteresis losses: These are associated with the rearrangement of the
magnetic domains in the core during each half cycle and are nonlinear
function of applied voltage.
4. Leakage Flux(φLP φLS): The fluxes which escape the core and pass only
through one of the transformer winding. These escaped fluxes
produce a self inductance in the primary and secondary coil.

2
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