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‫بسم اهلل الرحمن الرحيم‬

‫‪‬علما‪‬زدني‪‬رب‪‬وقل‪‬‬
‫( رب اشرح لي صدري ويسر لي امري‬
‫واحلل عقدة من لساني يفقهوا قولي )‬
The Islamic University Of Gaza
Faculty Of Engineering
Electrical Engineering Department
Advanced Technical English

Programmable Logic controllers (PLC)

BY : Marwan Hammouda 120030606


Sabri Mohammed Radi 120030171

To : Dr . Basil Hamad
: Functions of Controllers

 On-off control
 Sequential control
 Feedback control
 Mation control
:Control Devices

 Mechanical control
 Pneumatic control
 Electromechanical control
 Electronic control
 Computer control
Programmable Logic controllers
PLCs

 Were introduced in 1968


 Were primarily intended to replace relay
devices , so it is appropriate to be familiar
with the components used in relay devices
PLCs (continue)
 The National Electrical Manufacturing Associatioin
(NEMA) defines the PLC as

“A digitally operating electronic apparatus which uses a


programmable memory for the internal storage of
instructions by implementing specific functions such as
logic sequencing, timing, counting, and arithmetic to
control, through digital or analog input/output modules,
various types of machines or processes. The digital
computer which is used to perform the functions of a
programmable controller is considered to be within this
scope. Excluded are drum and other similar mechanical
sequencing controllers."
? Why is the PLC
 Cost effective for controlling complex systems.

 Flexible and can be reapplied to control other


systems quickly and easily
 Computational abilities allow more sophisticated
control.

Trouble shooting aids make programming easier
and reduce downtime

Reliable components make these likely to operate
for years before failure
PLC Architecture

PC
Program
Loader
Switches

Printer
I/O
Processor
Modules Machines
Cassette
Loader
Power
EPROM Memory Supply
Loader

Peripherals External Devices


: PLC Components
 Processor : The processor (CPU) scans the status of the
input peripheral , examines the control logic to see what
action to take , and then excute the appropriate output
response

 Memory : the control program and the peripheral status


are stored in the memory
ROM( Read Only Memory )
RAM (Random Access Memory),
PROM (Programmable Read Only Memory),
,EEPROM (Electric Erasable Programmable ROM)
EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read Only
Memory),
EAPROM (Electronically Alterable Programmable
PLC Components (continue)
 Input/Output :
modular plug-in periphery
Ac voltage input and output
Dc voltage input and output
Low level analog input
High level analog input and output
Specail purpose modulas
 Powre supply : Ac power
 Peripherals : Hand-Held Programmer ( HHP)
CRT programmer
Operetor console
Printer
Simulator
EPROM loader
Graphics processor
A Hand Held Programmer

An Allen-Bradley hand-held programmer for MicroLogix 1000


PLC Programming
 Ladder Diagram - most common
 Structure Text Programming (ST)
 Functional Block Programming (FB)
 Instruction List (IL)
 Sequential Function Chart (SFC)
Ladder Diagram

A ladder diagram (also called contact symbology)


is a means of graphically representing the logic
required Rail
in a relay logic system.
start emergency stop
PB1 PB2
Rung R1

R1

R1

A
PLC Ladder Diagram
INSTRUCTIONS
1) Relay,  Hint : Relay , timer
and counter
2) Timer and counter, instructions are the
3) Program control, most fundemental
because they
4) Arithmetic, correspond to what
5) Data manipulation, is on a ladder
diagram and are
6) Data transfer, and avaliable on all
7) Others, such as PLCs so we limit our
sequencers. disscusion to them
Relay
A Relay consists of two parts, the coil and the contact(s).
Contacts:
a. Normally open -| |-
b. Normally closed -|/|-
c. Positive transition sensing -|P|-
d. Negative transition sensing -|N|- contact
Coil:
a. Coil -( )-
b. negative coil -(/)-
c. Set Coil -(S)- coil

d. Reset Coil -(R)-


input
Relay (continue)

Coil:
e. Retentive memory Coil -(M)-
f. Set retentive memory Coil -(SM)-
g. Reset retentive memory Coil -(RM)-
h. Positive Transition-sensing Coil -(P)-
h. Negative Transition-sensing Coil -(N)-

(set coil latches the state, reset coil deenergize the set coil.
retentive coil retain the state after power failure.)
TIMERS AND COUNTERS
Timers:
a. Retentive on delay - Input
(RTO)- True False True
b. Retentive off delay -
(RTF)- RTO counting stop counting
resume
c. Reset -(RST)-
RTF stop counting stop

Counter:
a. Counter up -(CTU)- RTO reach PR value, output ON
RTF reach PR value, output OFF
b. Counter down -(CTD)-
PR value in 0.1 second
c. Counter reset -(CTR)-
TIMERS AND
COUNTERS(continue)

Clock
input
Register 5
Accumulator
reset
Accumulator
reset
Register

contact
contact
Contact
output
output

COUNTER TIMER
THANKS ALL