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DREDGING PROCESS AND ITS EFFECT

PRESENTED BY INDRANIL BANERJEE


ROLL NUMBER- 001930301008

DEPARTMENT OF WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING

JADAVPUR UNIVERSITY

2ND SEMESTER, SPRING 2020


CONTENTS
• INTRODUCTION
• NECESSITY
• TYPE OF DREDGER
• MECHANICAL DREDGERS
• BUCKET LADDER DREDGER
• GRAB DREDGER
• BACKHOE DREDGER
• HYDRALIC DREDGERS
• SUCTION HOPER DREDGER
• CUTTER SUCTION DREDGER
• TRAILING SUCTION HOPPER DREDGER
• SITE INVESTIGATION
• VERIOUS SURVEYING
• CASSIFICATION OF SOILS
• DREDGER SELECTION
• DUMPING GROUNDS
• FIELD SURVEY
• EFFECTIVENESS
• IMPACT
• OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE STATUS
• ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECT OF DREDGING
• CONCLUSION
• REFERENCES
INTRODUCTION
• it is the subaqueous or underwater
excavation of soils and rock. The
process consists of four phases:
 Excavation
 Vertical transport
 Horizontal transport
 Placement or use of the material
dredged.
 A dredgers is a piece of equipment
which can dig, transport and dump
a certain amount of under water
laying soil in a certain time. The
quantity of soil moved per unit of
time is called Production.
NECESSITY
• to create a new harbor, berth or
waterway, dredging is to be done
mandatory
• Sea bed mining is also an important
part where dredging is being done
• affected by chemical spills
• underwater foundation works for
bridge piers requires dredging to be
carried out.
• To maintain navigable waterways,
• Construction and Reclamation
• Beach nourishment
• Environmental remediation
• Flood control
• Mining
TYPES OF DREDGER

• Depending upon the


method used to
transport loosened
material from the sea-
bed to the surface they Mechanical dredgers
may be classified as:
a) Mechanical dredgers
b) Hydraulic dredgers
c) Other types

Hydraulic dredgers
MECHANICAL DREDGERS.

• a) Bucket ladder dredger

• b) Grab dredger

• c) Backhoe/dipper dredger
BUCKET LADDER DREDGER
WORKING METHOD
BUCKET LADDER DREDGER
PARAMETER
GRAB DREDGER
VARIOUS TYPE OF GRAB
BACKHOE DREDGER
HYDRAULIC DREDGERS
•a) Profile or plain suction dredger
1.Barge Loading suction dredger
2.Standard plain suction dredger
3.Deep suction dredger
•b) Cutter suction dredger
•c) Trailing suction hopper dredger
SUCTION HOPER DREDGER
CUTTER SUCTION DREDGER
TRAILING SUCTION HOPPER DREDGER
SITE INVESTIGATION

1. Characterization of the material to be dredged


2. Determination of the total volume to be dredged
3. Topographic Survey for shore controls land areas
reclamation
4. The hydrographic of the dredging and disposal locations
5. Bathymetric surveys to determine bed levels
6. Geotechnical investigations to assess the nature of the
material
7. Geo-physical investigations
8. Environmental surveys_Geo-physical investigations
Meteorological Oceanographic
VERIOUS SURVEY IMAGE

• Topographic Survey

Topographic Survey Bathymetric surveys Magnetometer Surveys

single Beam Echo Sounder survey


Multi Beam Echo Sounder survey
CASSIFICATION OF SOILS
• In order to form an opinion as to the most suitable equipment
for dredging under water, and to estimate performance of
dredging equipment, it is vital to know the nature, location,
transportation and disposal quantities of materials to be
dredged. The soil classifications as per Indian Standards .
DREDGER SELECTION
ideal dredge varies between dredging projects.
Dredge selection depends on availability and cost,
and various physical characteristics
DUMPING GROUNDS

• The effects of the disposal of such wastes include the


physical blanketing of the bottom. In addition, these
spoils may be contaminated with heavy metals, oil,
or oreganos chlorine compounds, causing adverse
effects on fish populations and marine biology.
TUTICORIN PORT DREDGING PROJECT
Field Survey: August 2003

Objectives
The project’s objectives were to alleviate draught*3 restrictions by dredging port water and approach channels at Tuticorin Port in southern Tamil
Nadu, and to improve the efficiency of port operations by increasing per vessel payload, and thereby contribute to economic growth in the
state.
Outputs
The outputs of this project were as follows:
1) Dredging of approach channel
· Dredged sand volume: 580K m3
· Channel length: 2.7km (currently 1.4km)
· Channel width: 183m (virtually identical to current width)
· Design water depth: 12.5m (currently 10.2-11.4m)

2) Dredging of harbor basin


· Dredged sand volume: 1.22m m3
· Diameter of basin: 688m
Dredging to increase water depth of zones fronting individual berths (Berth VII, etc.)

· Design water depth: 11.9m (current depth of basin: 10.6m; current depth of other frontal water zones: 9.5m-11.3m)
3) Vessel types targeted
· Bulk (dry) cargo vessels: length 230m × width 32.5m × draught 10.7m
· Bulk (liquid) cargo vessels: length 235m × width 32.5m × draught 10.7m
· Container vessels: length 220m × width 30.0m × draught 10.7m
4) Civil engineering works
· Dredger model: Cutter suction dredger
· Dredge sand disposal: to be dumped in two dumping grounds within port precincts
Shore protection of areas peripheral to the dumping grounds
· Other works: greening/planting port areas
EFFECTIVENESS
• Changes in Cargo Handling Volumes, etc.
• Indices relating to the operational efficiency of the port prior to
and after the implementation of the project (shaded sections
represent the actual implementation period) are as shown below
Impact

• Initially Projected Impacts- port carriers have become


more active.
• Environmental Impacts - A report was obtained via
the fishery company also contains no adverse impacts
on the fishery industry.
• Other Socioeconomic Impacts (effects on local
residents) Other Impacts
• the volume of trade – increased rapidly from 59
thousand tons in fiscal 1999 to 326 thousand tons in
fiscal 2001 (i.e. an increase of approximately 5.5
times), since larger vessels can be used now because
of the dredging work.
Operation and Maintenance Status

• 1.Tuticorin Port receives physiographic protection from Sri Lanka,


and because of its structure, accumulation of sand due to tides
and winds is difficult, and (2) the bedrock on the ocean floor is
very hard and this is not a river port. Therefore dredging is not
generating any maintenance costs.
• To summarize the above, the project succeeded in securing the
planned water depths in the approach channel and harbor basin,
and the port is functioning as expected.
• Moreover, no maintenance costs are being generated since no
special work is necessary to maintain the water depth thanks to
the port’s geographical advantages. The executing agency is not
facing any particular problems either organizationally or
financially, and the overall sustainability of the project is deemed
to be high.
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECT OF DREDGING
Development projects have some common problems
related to the environment. The primary categories
can be summarized as being__
Water-Related Effects(sattlement,blasting ,altered
bathymetry, changing shoreline
Land-Related Effects(dust and other airborne
emissions)
Air-Related Effects(especially hydrogen sulphides)
Placement of Dredged Material(Material
contamination)
Socio-cultural Effects(work practices, site selection)
CONCLUSION
• it can be stated that every type of dredger has its own
applied working area in which its production is
optimal in a technical way as well as in an
economical way. It will be clear that the boundaries
of these applied working areas are not strictly
determined, but are also determined by other working
conditions, which can differ from lob to job. In order
to accomplish dredging process ,different survey,
dredger selection, and environmental impact need to
be calculated, through the proper dredger selection.
REFERENCES
• 1.>http://sagarmala.gov.in/sites/default/files/dredgeguidelinesAugust2016-30146365.pdf
•  
• 2.>https://www.jandenul.com/sites/default/files/activity-category/brochures/Dredging_and_Marine_Works.pdf
•  
• 3.>https://www.damen.com/-/media/Products/Images/Clusters-groups/Dredging/Documents/Brochure_Damen_Dredging.pdf
•  
• 4.>
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/271443986_Dredging_Processes_The_Loading_Process_of_a_Trailing_Suction_Hop
per_Dredge_Lecture_Notes
•  
• 5.>https://www.engr.colostate.edu/~pierre/ce_old/classes/ce717/2_OverviewofDredgingandDMD_Welp.pdf
•  
• 6.>https://www.epa.vic.gov.au/~/media/Publications/691.pdf
•  
• 7.> http://bit.ly/2XTuGoq
•  
• 8.> http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/i1883e/i1883e06.pdf
•  
• 9.> https://nptel.ac.in/courses/114106035/
•  
• 10.> http://www.imcbrokers.com/blog/overview/detail/types-of-dredgers
•  
• 11.> https://dredging.org/documents/ceda/downloads/vlasblom1-introduction-to-dredging-equipment.pdf
THANK YOU