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CHAPTER 8

Hydraulic And Pneumatic Power Systems


*Section A
Principles Of Hydraulic Power
*Section B
Hydraulic System Components & Design
*Section C
Hydraulic Power System
*Section D
Hydraulic Pneumatic System
Section A
Principles Of Hydraulic Power
• A-Principles Of Hydraulic Power
• B-State of fluid pressure
• C- Pascal’s law
• D-Relation between pressure, force& area
• E-Relation between volume = area x distance
• F-Mechanical advantages in a hydraulic system
HYDRAULIC POWER
PROBABLY THE ULTIMATE
NATURAL POWER ON EARTH
??WHAT IS HYDRAULICS
Hydraulics allows us to move energy from a
power source to where we need the work
done
:Bottle Jacks
CLOSED »
SYSTEM
HIGHER »
PRESSURE
MORE »
WORKCAN BE
DONE

JACKING
Principles Of Hydraulic Power
Hydraulic: Greek word for water ,originally meant the study of
.physical behavior of water at rest and in motion
Advantages of Hydraulic system
1-Lighter weight.
2-Ease of installation.
3-Simplification of inspection.
.4-Minimum maintenance requirement
Operation are almost 100%efficient-5
Negligible loss due to fluid friction -6
Static fluid pressure
Hydrostatic paradox The pressure exerted by a column of
liquid is determined by the height of the column and is
independent of its volume or shape
Using a hand pump, pressure of 100 PSI has been built up in -
a hydraulic system. The hand pump piston is 1 inch in
diameter. A 1/2-inch line connects the hand pump to an
actuating cylinder 2 inches in diameter. What is the
pressure in the line between the hand pump and the
?actuator
A: 100 PSI. B: 150 PSI. C: 200
.PSI
A given pressure may be raised
by raising the container

Neither the shape nor the volume of the container affects


the pressure, only the height of the column has any effect
Pascal’s law -
Pressure Exerted on a fluid in an enclosed container is transmitted
equally and undiminished to all parts of the container and acts at right
angles to the enclosing walls
Relationship between Pressure, Force and Area
Pressure = force-
Area
.Pressure: amount of force exerted on a unit of area-
Pressure is a term used to indicate the force per unit area. Pressure is usually -
.expressed in pounds per square inch
Relationship between Area, Distance and Volume
volume= area × distance _
Mechanical advantage in a hydraulic system
Two major advantages over other types of mechanical
systems
Ease with which force can be transmitted over large -1
distances
Large gain in mechanical advantage made possible by -2
varying the size of pistons
Apply 501 lbs.

Force (501 lbs.) =


Area (1 sq.inch) x
Pressure (501 PSI)

F = A x P

Force (1002 lbs) =


1 square Area (2 sq.inch) x 2 square
inch area Pressure (501PSI) inch area

A 500 lb force can overcome a 1000 lb force using


Mechanical Advantage
If 2 lbs. are removed from the
small cylinder:

V = A x D

Thevolume
The same 6ofcu.in
fluid
that moves
moving outout
ofof
thethe
small cylinder,
small cylindermoves
is
6into
in. xthe large =
1 sq.in
6” cylinder.
6 cu.in 6 cu.in.
= 2 sq.in x 3 in.
3”

Volume = Area x Distance


F = A x P

500 lbs Now the 1000 lb


500 PSI acting on
1weight
sq.in. causes
causes aan
pressure of 500
upward force of
PSI in lbs
500 the on
system.
the
small piston.

1000
500 lbs
lbs.==21sq.in.
sq.in xx 500
500 PSI
PSI
Now let’s add a second large cylinder arranged
in parallel with the first.

Will the small cylinder be able to lift both


1000 lb. weights?
Add 2 lbs. to the small cylinder.
the 6 cu.in. of fluid must be divided equally
The 501 lb weight can lift both 1000 lb weights, but:
into the two large cylinders,

6”
1.5”

therefore, the large weights only move 1.5 inches each.


Section B
Hydraulic System Components & Design
A-Hydraulic fluid

B- Types of hydraulic fluid

C-Basic hydraulic system


HYDRUALIC FLUIDS
Are liquids

Any liquid may be used as a hydraulic fluid,


but we use fluids that meet specific criteria
The major characteristics considered when
selecting satisfactory liquid
Viscosity is internal resistance to flow which-1
.increases as temperature decreases
Saybolt universal viscosimeter: is instrument-
measures the number of seconds it take for a fixed
quantity of liquid (60 cc) to flow through a small orifice
of standard length and diameter at a specific
temperature…viscosity reading expressed as SSU
(seconds,saybolt,universal)
The internal resistance of a fluid which tends to-
prevent it from flowing is called viscosity
what is the viscosity of hydraulic-
?fluid
The internal resistance of a fluid which tends to
.prevent it from flowing
Saybolt Viscosimeter

Measures number of seconds


for 60cc to flow a specific
size of orifice @ a specific
temperature
-measured in seconds
Seconds, Saybolt Universal
SSU
Saybolt Viscosimeter
How the viscosimeter works
It measures how long it takes a fixed amount of
liquid (60cc) to flow through a small orifice of
.specific dimensions at a specific temperature
A multi grade oil maintains its flow across a wider
.temperature span
Flash point: is the temperature at which a liquid gives off vapor-2
in sufficient quantity to ignite momentarily (flash) when a flame
.is applied
Fire point: is the temperature at which a substance gives off-3
vapor in sufficient quantity to ignite and continue to burn when
.exposed to spark or flame
Chemical Stability: is the ability of the liquid to resist oxidation-4
.and deterioration for long periods
Where can information be obtained about the compatibility-
of fire-resistant hydraulic fluid with aircraft materials?
Manufacturer’s technical bulletins
Properties of Hydraulic fluid are
.minimum resistance -1
.incompressible -2
.good lubricant-3
.prevents corrosion -4
.not chemically attack-5
.not makes foaming -6
.high boiling point -7
.low freezing point -8
Which characteristics apply to aircraft-
?hydraulic systems
Minimum maintenance requirements. .1
. 2. Lightweight
About 80 percent operating efficiency (20 .3
.percent loss due to fluid friction)
.Simple to inspect .4
1,2,4
Which of the following lists only desirable -
.?properties of a good hydraulic fluid
Low viscosity, chemical stability, high flash
.point, high fire point
:Types of HYD fluid
All fluids readily transmit pressure
Vegetable fluid: ((MIL-H-7644)-1
,was used in past *
used with natural rubber seals*
flammable *
Dyed blue for identification*
Flushed with alcohol *
mixing between this type and others will destroy*
seals
Characteristics of MIL-H-7644 hydraulic fluid are -
blue color, vegetable base, will burn, natural rubber
seals
.?Which statement about fluids is correct -
All fluids readily transmit pressure
Which seals are used with vegetable base
?hydraulic fluids
.Natural rubber

:NOTE
When servicing aircraft hydraulic )1(
systems, use the type fluid specified in the
aircraft manufacturer’s maintenance manual
or on the instruction plate affixed to the
.reservoir or unit
Hydraulic fluids for aircraft are dyed a )2(
.specific color for each type of fluid
Mineral fluid: (MIL-H-5606) -2
kerosene- type, petroleum product*
dyed red color*
most widely used*
,has little viscosity change with temperature*
flammable under normal condition*
.)flush with naphtha, varsol or stoddard solvent*
used with 1.Synthetic rubber.. 2. Neoprene rubber seals*
What is used to flush a system normally serviced -
?with MIL-H-5606 hydraulic fluid
..Naphtha or varsol
?Petroleum base hydraulic fluid is which color -
.Red -
Synthetic fluid (Mil-H-8446)-3
the most use fluid of this type is Skydrol, (*
*Non-petroleum base
,light purple or green or amber color*
,slight heavier than water*
capable of height temperature ( -65°F-+ 225°F) and*
,pressure
it’s quite susceptible to contaminate by water from*
,the a atmosphere and must keep tightly sealed
)flushed out with trichloroethylene
used with Butyl rubber*
Skydrol: made for Phosphate ester base fluids(
One of the main advantages of skydrol is its -
.wide operating temperature
Compatability with aircraft materials-
:Chemical Stability
is the ability of the liquid to resist oxidation and deterioration for long
.periods

Health and handling-

Basic hydraulic systems-


Open hydraulic system -1
closed hydraulic system-2
HYDROELECTRIC DAM
-OPEN SYSTEM
Basic hydraulic system-
Excluding lines, which components are
required to make up a simple hydraulic
?system
.Pump, reservoir, selector valve, and actuator
Section C Hydraulic Power Hydraulic system -9
System
Evalution of the hydraulic-1 : components
power system a--Reservoir
Double acting actuator & two-2 b- Filter
–way selector valve :c-Pump
Engine –driven pump & pump-3 d-Flow control valve
–control valve e-Hydrulic pressure flow
Unloading valve &--4
valve
accumulator :f-Accumulator
Hand pump & stand pipe-5 .g-Actuator: unit
:h-Seals
Fliter & thermal relief valves-6 large aircraft hydraulic-10
Special types of aircraft-7
hydraulic system power system
Hydraulic power pack system-8
-Hydraulic system components : b- pressure control valve
1-Reservoir a-Relief valve:.
a-Un pressurized (used on low b-Regulator valve:
altitude)
c-Reducer valve
b-Pressurized
5-Accumulator:
2- Filter
a-Piston.
3-Pump:
b- Bladder.
a-Hand pump ( single action,
double action) c- Diaphragm.
b-Power pump 6-Actuator: unit.
1-constant displacement pump a-Linear actuator
a-Gear pump 1-Single acting.
b-Gerotor pump 2-Double acting (balance &
c-Piston pump unbalance).
d-Vane pump:. 3-Cushion
2- variable displacement pump b-Rotor actuator
4-valves 7-Seals:
a-Flow control valve 1-One way seal
a-Selector valve:
2-Two way seal
b-Check valve:
c-Sequence valve:
3-Back up rings
d-Priority valve:
f-Quick –disconnect valves .
e-Fuse hydraulic valve:
HYDRAULIC POWER SYSTEM
Basic hydraulic system
Consist of 1.reservoir
2.pump
3.actuator
4.selector valve
check valve .5
Double acting actuator and two- way selector valve
A double-acting actuator allows the actuator to be powered in
both directions, A two –way valve allows selection of either
side of the actuator
Engine driven pump and pump-control valve
It is similar to the two –way system driven by a hand pump .It
incorporates a bypass valve (pump-control valve) to unload the pump
when it is not being used to power the actuator
Pump control valve to prevent the rob power of engine and maintain correct *
.pressure in the system
Unloading valve and accumulator
Kick in: if the pressure decreases, the unloading*
.valve will open the press Pump to the system

Kick out: If the pressure increases the unloading*


.valve will open the pressure pump to return line
Sensor line: to sense the pressure into the*
system and to give the signal to unloading
.valve to make kick in or kick out
Relief valve: to relief excessive pressure from*
.the system
thermal relief valve: would be adjusted to a*
higher pop off pressure than any of the other
.valve in a hydraulic system
Hand pump and stand pipe
Addition of a hand pump and a standpipe provide emergency
capability in the event of fluid exhaustion to the engine
driven pump
Filter and thermal relief valve
Open center system
One of the distinguishing characteristics of an open-center selector valve
used in a hydraulic system is that

.fluid flows through the valve in the OFF position


The difference between the closed HYD system*
:and open HYD system

Open center Close center Type


System System

Series Parallel Selector Valve


Doesn't have Have Unloading valve
Only One More than one Motion
Hydraulic power pack system
Hydraulic power pack system
:Hydraulic system components
…Reservoir-1
container which keeps enough a fluid to actuate all of
.component
Types: 1- integral 2- in- line
A-unpressurized (used on low altitude)
B-pressurized….methods by aspirator (30-35psi)
by bleed air (40-45psi),
by HYD pressure (60psi)
what is the main purpose of a pressurized reservoir in a hydraulic
.system is to Prevent hydraulic pump cavitations
by bleed air (40-45psi)
Bleed air is used to pressurized hydraulic reservoirs on turbine-powered
aircraft
by HYD pressure (60psi)
The pressure of the hydraulic system can be used to
pressurized the reservoir. A pressure – reduction
mechanism is used to lower the high system pressure to a
.low pressure suitable for the reservoir
Bellows rubber: to prevent captivate when-
.aircraft makes inverted maneuvers

Note: some HYD reservoir on jet aircraft


??pressurized (why)
to get positive feed of fluid to the pump and to
get adequate supply of fluid free from
foaming
Note: the main purpose of a pressurized
reservoir in a hydraulic system is to
.Prevent hydraulic pump cavitations
Note: Hydraulic fluid reservoirs are
sometimes designed with a standpipe in
one of the outlet ports in order to assure
emergency supply of fluid. The outlet port
with the standpipe in it furnishes fluid to
the: ……..normal system power pump

Note: Many hydraulic reservoirs contain a


small quantity of fluid which is not available
to the main system pump. This fluid is
retained to supply fluid to the auxiliary
pump
Before removing the filler cap of a -
,pressurized hydraulic reservoir
A: relieve the hydraulic system pressure. relieve
.the air pressure

What is the main purpose of a pressurized -


?reservoir in a hydraulic system
.Prevent hydraulic pump cavitation

If fluid is added to a non-pressurized -


reservoir in a constant-pressure hydraulic
,system while the system is pressurized
the fluid level will increase when system
.pressure is reduced
:Filter -2
.)to keep the system clean from contamination(
a-Paper element
b-Metallic element
Note : By pass valve: that part of the filter open to relief
excess pressure when the pressure goes beyond a certain
level
-: The three types of filters are
a- Micronics-type filter
b- Two-stage type filter
c- Cuno-type filter
Hydraulic fluid filtering elements constructed of porous -
paper are normally
discarded at regular intervals and replaced with new filtering
.elements
A filter incorporating specially treated cellulose paper is
identified as a
.Micronic filter
a- Micronics-type filter
A Micronic-type filter uses a folded paper element to increase
the effective area of the filtering medium
b- Two-stage type filter
Allow the use of an extremely fine element at low flow rate
without causing an excessive pressure drop
c- Cuno-type filter
The cuno filter is sturdy enough to be used on the pressure
side of the system. A handle can be turned to clean the
disks .Contamination then fall to the bottom of the filter
where they can be removed
3-Pump:
a-Hand pump ( single action,
double action)
b-Power pump
1-constant displacement pump
a-Gear pump
b-Gerotor pump
c-Piston pump
d-Vane pump
2- variable displacement pump
pump-3
doesn’t create pressure but produce pressure when
.restricting
hand pump( single action, double action)-
power pump * constant displacement pump-
variable displacement pump *
Constant displacement pump: to give specific **
.volume of fluid at constant speed
Almost all engine-constant driven pumps have a -
shear section in their drive coupling. If the
pressure relief devices should fail, or if the pump
should seize, the shaft will shear and prevent the
.pump being further damaged
A hydraulic pump is a constant-displacement type if
.it delivers a uniform rate of fluid flow
Types of Constant displacement pump*
A-gear pump: (gear beside gear attached by flange in
case used in medium pressure)
Case pressure: low pressure maintained inside the two gears of pump which -
builds up about (15 psi) in event of pump rather than allowing air to be drown
.damaging fluid seal will be forced out of
.Note: gear mounted tight together to *minimize wear*
B-gerotor Pump (six teeth inside seven teeth
of gear, moving by engine that used in
medium pressure)
C- piston pump….high pressure hydraulic systems
often use a fixed angle piston –type pump
have (7-9) piston at proper angle, when pump rotates half
.turn some piston move from top to bottom and vise versa
A hydraulic pump is a constant-displacement type if it delivers a
uniform rate of fluid flow
What is one advantage of piston-type hydraulic motors over -
?electric motors
.There is no fire hazard if the motor is stalled
D-vane pump: gives a large a mount of fluid under low
.pressure
A variable displacement hydraulic pump:**
whose output may be varied by the pressure on the system. For high
pressure applications, this is usually done by varying the stroke, either
actual or effective, of a piston type pump
Most variable displacement hydraulic pumps of current design -
.contain a built-in means of system pressure regulation
If all regulating and relief valves fail, the shaft will-
shear and keep the pump from being more
.seriously damaged
What safety device is usually located between the *
?driving unit and hydraulic pump drive shaft
.Pump drive coupling shear section
In a gear-type hydraulic pump, a mechanical safety*
device incorporated to protect the pump from
.overload is the shear pin
When hydraulic system pressure control and relief *
units fail to function properly, how are most
?systems protected against overpressure
A shear section on the main hydraulic pump drive
.shaft
An air leak in the inlet side of a hydraulic pump will cause it -
.to chatter as it alternately gets air and then hydraulic fluid

Chattering of the hydraulic pump during operation is an -


indication
that air is entering the pump

.Chatter in a hydraulic system is caused by air in the system

What condition would most likely cause excessive -


fluctuation of the pressure gauge when the hydraulic pump
?is operating
.Inadequate supply of fluid

A hydraulic motor converts fluid pressure to rotary motion -


Aircraft landing gear that are retracted and-
lowered with an electric motor use a series-
wound motor because of its high starting
torque and a split-field motor to both raise
.and lower the gear
An electric motor used to raise and lower a -
landing gear would most likely be a
.split field series-wound motor
4-Valves
a-Flow control valve
a-Selector valve:
b-Check valve:
c-Sequence valve:
d-Priority valve:
f-Quick –disconnect valves .
e-Fuse hydraulic valve:
b- pressure control valve
a-Relief valve:.
b-Regulator valve:
c-Reducer valve
a-Flow control valve
A flow control valve select the route of flow of the
fluid through the system
selector valve: to determine the direction of fluid-1
.)open & close center valve( )direct the flow of fluid(
The most commonly used selector valve in an-
aircraft hydraulic system is
a- four-port,
.b-closed-center selector valve
Select the valve used in a hydraulic system that -
directs pressurized fluid to one end of an
actuating cylinder and simultaneously directs
.return fluid to the reservoir from the other end
Selector valve
The component in the hydraulic system that is -
used to direct the flow of fluid is the selector
.valve
What type of selector valve is one of the -
most commonly used in hydraulic systems
to provide for simultaneous flow of fluid into
?and out of a connected actuating unit
.Four-port, closed-center valve
.check valve: to allow the fluid in one direction-2
. ball type-1
. cone type-2
. swing type-3
orifice type (used on landing gear)-4
Orifice check valves are used where it is desired that flow is
unrestricted in one direction, but restricted in the other
.Landing gear systems are often use these so that the gear
doesn't extend too rapidly
The purpose of an orifice check valve is to-

.restrict flow in one direction and allow free flow in the other
Which allows free fluid flow in one direction -
?and no fluid flow in the other direction
Check valve
What type of valve in an aircraft hydraulic -
system permits fluid to flow freely in one
direction, but restricts the rate at which fluid
?is allowed to flow in the other direction
.Orifice check valve .
The purpose of restrictors in hydraulic -
systems is to
control the rate of movement of hydraulically
.operated mechanisms
:sequence valve-3
to allow some parts in the system to work in correct position or correct
.sequence that operated by mechanical
Permit actuation only when specific prior events have occurred*
The unit which causes one hydraulic operation to follow another in a*
. definite order
The unit which causes one hydraulic operation to follow -
another in a definite order is called a sequence valve
priority valve: the same as a sequence valve-4
.but operated by hydraulic
Quick disconnect valve-5
Line-disconnect valves…used to prevent the loss of fluid when units are removed
Quick disconnect valves are designed to be closed when the two lines are
disconnected and open when the two lines have been fully joined
Quick-disconnect couplings in hydraulic systems provide a means of -
quickly connecting and disconnecting hydraulic lines without loss of fluid or
.entrance of air into the system
:fuse HYD valve-6
safety device is operating in two ways
it will shut of the flow of fluid, if a sufficient.1
pressure drops
.have leak in the system.2
Note: fuse HYD operates on the principle of*
.differential in the input pressure
Designed to remain open to allow normal fluid flow*
in the line also close if the fluid flow increases
above an established rate

Some hydraulic systems incorporate a device which


is designed to remain open to allow a normal fluid
flow in the line, but closed if the fluid flow
increases above an established rate. This device
.is generally referred to as a hydraulic fuse
b- pressure control valve
:Relief valve-1
.to relief excessive pressure from the system**
Thermal relief valves: are set to relive a pressure higher than any of -
other valve, so they will not interfere with normal system operation or
.protection
Regulator valve ( Unloading valve)-2
to maintain pressure within a specified range
.Unloading valve: to control about kick in and kick out .
Unloading valve (regulator) must be temporarily set to a pressure above that of-
.the relief valve being set, or its action must be eliminated in some other way
The purpose of the pressure regulator in a -
hydraulic system is to
maintain system operating pressure within a
.predetermined range and to unload the pump
If it is necessary to adjust several pressure -
regulating valves in a hydraulic system, what
particular sequence, if any, should be followed?
Units with the highest pressure settings are
.adjusted first
Unloading valves (regulator) are used with many -
engine-driven hydraulic pumps to
.relieve the pump pressure
The purpose of a hydraulic pressure regulator is to -
prevent the system pressure from rising above a
.predetermined amount due to thermal expansion
Reducer valve: used to lower the pressure in-3
targeted portions of the hydraulic system
A flap overload valve: prevents the flaps-4
from being lowered at airspeeds which
would impose excessive structural loads

The primary function of the flap overload -


valve is to prevent the flaps from being
lowered at airspeeds which would impose
.excessive structural loads
:Accumulator-5
to hold the hydraulic under pressure, which divided into two chamber
.(air or nitrogen & hydraulic )
Types: (according separated chamber)*
.a-piston. b- bladder. C- diaphragm
Generally, the first step in removing an accumulator -
.from an aircraft is to relieve system pressure
How is the air in a hydraulic accumulator prevented from
?entering the fluid system
By physically separating the air chamber from the oil
.chamber with a flexible or movable separator
FUNCTION OF THE ACCUMULATOR
.Dampen pressure surges.1
Supplement the system pump when demand is beyond .2
.the pump’s capacity
Store power for limited operation of components if the .3
.pump is not operating
,How To check the air charge in a hydraulic accumulator *
reduce all hydraulic pressure, then observe the reading on
.the accumulator air gauge
.Air charge: to charge some components with the air-6
.Types: 1-core valve-
metal core valve-2
roll pin valve (most use at high pressure)-3
Note: use special tool to depress the stem that release the air and prevent*
.blow dirt and chip into you skin and eyes when using AN6287-1
:Actuator-7
to transfer and convert HYD pressure into linear
.motion
:Types*
… A-linear actuator
.single acting-1
.double acting (balance & unbalance)-2
cushion type (by metering rod makes-3
temporary close to the hole pressure to
)absorb the rapid motion
B-Rotor actuator
)rack and pinion type(
B-Rotor actuator
The rack –and-pinion type linear actuator converts linear
motion into rotary motion. A good example is this
exploded view of the mechanism from popular high-wing
Cessna retractable L\G
:Seals-8
to minimize internal leak and loss of pressure inside
the system
TYPES OF SEALS
Gaskets: used where no relative movement -1
between the surfaces
Packing: used where relative movement does -2
exist
ONE-WAY SEALS
Packing seal (used in motion)
.A- U-ring (single action)
B- V-ring (single action) ..chevron
C- D-ring (single action)
when installing A chevron type seal in an aircraft-
HYD cylinder, the open side of the seal should
.face the direction of fluid pressure
TWO -WAY SEALS
O-ring (double action)
:Note*
O-ring must but in the groove about 10%wider than the width of seal & -
.deep enough between the bottom of the groove
An O-ring of the appropriate size can withstand pressure up to about -
1500 PSI
BACKUP RINGS
Used to prevent O-ring from extruding under high pressure
Back up ring should be used to avoid high pressure
.damaging the seal
TYPES OF BACKUP
made of leather-1
made of Teflon -2
.Backup rings are scarfed in a certain direction
Care must be taken to install them as in (A) so that when pressure is applied as
in ( C ) ,the ring will provide smooth surface on both sides

If installed as in (B) ,the O ring can be damaged**


Air is removed from most hydraulic systems by cycling the-
components through several operating cycles (double
.acting) , a single acting (brake) by bleeding

The removal of air from an aircraft hydraulic system is -


generally accomplished
by operating the various hydraulic components through
.several cycles

Extrusion of an O-ring seal is prevented in a high-pressure -


system by the use of
.backup ring on the side of the O-ring away from the pressure

A worn hydraulic pump shaft seal can normally be detected -


by
.hydraulic fluid flowing from the pump drain line
SEAL MATERIALS
Seals may be look alike. so may be wrong Compatible color
seal installed material
Proper replacement procedure for**
replacing seal Air Blue dot
We should know
Mil-H-5606 OR stripe
material of the seal -1
its age -2 Hydraulic fluid
its hardness -3 Fuel Red dot
Proper part number substitute all that
OR strip
information
CURE DATE: the date of ring manufacture Synthetic Yellow dot
and is given in year and quarter engine oil
Another distinguish method for seals. most
rings are marked with color dots or Petroleum-base White stripe
strips to indicate compatible fluid used engine oil or
An O-ring intended for use in a lubricant
hydraulic system using MIL-H- Skydrol Green dash
5606 (mineral base) fluid will be hydraulic fluid
marked with blue strip or dot
O-RING INSTALLATION
When installing O-ring over a sharp edge or threads, the sharp portion
should be covered with paper, aluminum foil, brass shim stock, or with
a piece of plastic
To protect packing rings or seals from damage when it is necessary to
install them over or inside threaded sections, the threaded section
.should be covered with a stiff paper sleeve
Large aircraft hydraulic system
Section D
Hydraulic Pneumatic System
Advantages of using compressed air system
Air is available in exhaustible system -1
The components are simple & light in weight-2
No return line required-3
Free from temperature problems-4
There is no fire hazard-5
minimum problems of contamination -6
High- pressure system(1000-3000)psi-1
Air is usually stored in metal bottle pressure
ranging from 1000-3000 psi
Has two valves
charging valve…ground operated compressor-1
control valve…act as shutoff-2
valve to keep air trapped inside
the bottle until the system is
operated
Disadvantage
cannot be charged in flight
Medium- pressure system(100-150) -2
Doesn't include air bottle
a-For anti-icing system
b-for starting engine
c-for pressurized air for the controlling cabin pressure
Low- pressure system -3
For driven Gyro instrument
There are two types of pump are used to drive gyro
Both are vane type
Dry type: Carbon rotor -1
)no external lubricants(
wet pump: Steel rotor-2
.)lubricated by oil(
: These gyro may be driven either by
pressre method-1
. or by vacuum pump -2
Aircraft pneumatic system components -
Relief valves :is used to relief any excessive air-1
pressure inside system (prevent damage)
Relief valves are damage-preventing units that are
,preset and safetied
they protect the system from
excessive pressure buildup
that can be caused by thermal
expansion or by a compressor
.power system malfunction
Relief valves are used in
pneumatic systems as
.damage-preventing units
Pneumatic systems utilize
.relief valves
Control valves: is used to control amount of air pressure-2
inside air system
Absolute pressure regulator: is regulated the air pressure at
the inlet to the compressor which provides a stabilized
source of air for the compressor
What function does the absolute pressure regulator -
perform in the pneumatic power system? Regulates the
compressor inlet air to provide a stabilized source of air for
.the compressor
Check valves : is used to-3
… allow air flow in one direction
used in both hydraulic and
pneumatic system
Restrictor : is used to restrict air flow, reduce-4
rate of air flow
A variable orifice enables the variable pneumatic restrictor to be set for a
wide range of airflow ,from the maximum provided by the air source
down to no flow at all
Filters: is used to clean air from dirt-5
Micronic filter…consist of replaceable cartridge and relief valve-1
screen type filter…permanent wire screen, Equipped with a -2
scraper used to clean the wire screen
Disscant /moisture separator-6
Is used to dry the moisture by heating them
A moisture separator that incorporates engine--
driven compressor. That separates the moisture
from the compressed air before the air is allowed
.to expand in the system
An aircraft pneumatic system, which incorporates -
an engine-driven multistage reciprocating
compressor, also requires
.a moisture separator
In a typical high-pressure pneumatic system, if the -
moisture separator does not vent accumulated
water when the compressor shuts down, a likely
.cause is a malfunctioning solenoid dump valve
Shuttle valve: to direct either normal hydraulic system pressure or-7
.emergency air pressure into landing gear or brake actuator
The hydraulic component that automatically directs fluid from either the-
normal source or an emergency source to an actuating cylinder is
called a
.shuttle valve
The air that is expended and no longer needed when an actuating unit is -
operated in a pneumatic system is
..exhausted or dumped, usually overboard
C-Emergency back up system
The uses of Aircraft pneumatic as Emergency
: back up system for the following
passenger doors-1
nose wheel steering-2
normal gear operation-3
propller brakes-4
:Emergency back up system *
Landing gear failed emergency back up will-
move the landing gear down and lock by
compressed air or nitrogen stored in an
emergency cylinder (Nitrogen is exhausted
.overboard action)
Relief valves are used in pneumatic )1( -
systems as damage-preventing units. (2)
Check valves are used in both hydraulic and
pneumatic systems. Regarding the above
,statements
.both No. 1 and No. 2 are true
An emergency supply of fluid is often -
retained in the main hydraulic system
reservoir by the use of a standpipe. The
supply line is connected to the
.inlet of the main system pump
Emergency backup system
TYPICAL PNEUMATIC POWER SYSTEM
COMPONENTS OF TYPICAL PNEUMATIC POWER SYSTEM
compressor-1
unloading valve-2
shuttle valve -3
moisture separator -4
desiccant -5
back pressure valve -6
check valve -7
filter-8
bottles-9
reducing valve-10