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COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT,

SOLIDARITY, AND
CITIZENSHIP
Grade 12- Socrates
LEARNING ABOUT COMMUNITIES
What is Community?

It is a small or large social unit that has


  

something in common, such as norms,


religion, values, or identity. 
WHY DO WE NEED TO LEARN
ABOUT COMMUNITIES?
Different Social Science
Disciplines
Sociology
 is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social
interaction, and culture of everyday life. It is a social science that uses
various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop
a body of knowledge about social order, acceptance, and change or social
evolution
Anthropology
 is the study of humans and human behavior and societies in the past
and present.

Political Science
 is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the
analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political
behavior.
Social Psychology
 It refers to the branch of psychology that scientifically studies
social behavior, especially the interaction and influence of
individuals and groups on each other.

Public Administration
 Is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that
studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public
service.
Human Geography
 The branch of geography dealing with how human activity affects
or is influenced by the earth’s surface
Linguistics
 Is the scientific study of language. It involves analyzing language in context.
Development Studies
 Is a multi-disciplinary branch of social science.

Economics
 Is the social science that studies the production, distribution
and consumption of goods and services.

History
 Refer to the academic discipline which uses a narrative to
examine and analyse a sequence of past events, and
objectively determine the patterns of cause and effect that
determine them.
Law
 Is a system of rules that are created and enforced through
social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
DEFINING COMMUNITY
COMMUNITY
Community • Late Middle English term

Communitas • Which means


(Latin Word) “Fellowship”

Communis • Means
“Common”
(Latin Root)
PERSPECTIVE OF A COMMUNITY
Social Science Perspective

Bond formed
by individuals
Interaction Relationships with other
individuals
Below are some general definitions of community using a social science
perspective:
 An informally organized social entity, characterized by a sense of
identity;
 A group of people living in the same defined area, sharing
common basic values, organization, and interest;
 A population which is geographically focused existing as unique
social entity with a collective identity and purpose; and
 A group of people with diverse characteristic, linked by social
ties, formed and consolidated by their collective aspirations ,
sharing and exchanging perspectives, and are collectively
engaged to do some concerted action in a geographical location or
setting.
INSTITUTIONAL PERSPECTIVE
SOCIAL INSTITUTION

Is social structure and social mechanism of social order and cooperation
that govern the behavior of its members.
Is a group of social positions, connected by social relations, performing
a social role
Institution

 Are established rules that ensure the regular and predictable


behavior of actors within a community.
CATEGORIES OF INSTITUTION
Formal Institution

Are explicitly communicated, embodied in legally codified


documents or artifacts
These serve as basis for the authority to be executed or expressed.
Informal Institutions

Are practices, norms, traditions, culture, conduct, and belief


systems of a community.
These are not codified or written, but are nonetheless
embedded in communities, operating due to the interactive
process of preference exchanges and social expectations
that occur therein.
Normative
Refers to the ideal standards, models, or conduct that is
based on what is collectively considered as appropriate or
proper
CIVIL SOCIETY PERSPECTIVE
Civil Society

 Refers to a political community of organized


groups operating within the authoritative
parameters of the state.
Non-Government Organization

 An organization that operates independently of any


government, typically one whose purpose is to
address a social or political issue.
Peoples Organization

Are independent, autonomous entities, officially registered


and acknowledged as organizations according to the rules
and standards set by the state
 Is the agency of the Government of the
Philippines responsible for regulating
the securities industry in the Philippines. In addition to its
regulatory functions, the SEC also maintains the
country's company register.
Beneficiary- Is the recipient of the results of the
development efforts
Legitimate- Lawfully/recognized organization

Bogus- Fake or Spurious organization


Social Movement

 Is a form of collective behavior which springs largely from the


attitudes and aspiration of its participants
Mass Action
 Operates based on planned strategies and tactics for pursuing goal
and objective.
ORGANIC PERSPECTIVE

 Refers to local or grassroots groups within a particular


locale that are driven and organized because of
community issues and concerns.
INDIVIDUAL
DIMENSIONS OF A
COMMUNITY
Interrelationship

 It can be facilitated through familial relations, affinities or


feeling of kinship, and social network
Organization

 Is an entity comprising multiple people, such as


an institution or an association, that has a
particular purpose. 
COMMUNITY MAP
STRUCTURAL
DIMENSIONS OF A
COMMUNITY
STRUCTURAL DIMENSION OF A COMMUNITY
Geographic Dimension

 It focuses on how a community is shaped by the


physical space it uses and the location of its
resources--- Human, natural, technological.
Socio-Political Dimension

 Refers to the relationships of power and control


between individuals and groups in a community.
Economic Dimension

 Refers to the means by which members of a


community allocate, produce, and distribute scarce
resources to address their wants and needs.
Exchange Value

 The quantified worth of a good or service


as compared to other objects in the
market.
Cultural Dimension

 It encompasses the values and beliefs that are passed


on from one generation to another.
Culture

 It refers to the people’s way of life


COMMUNITY
DYNAMICS AND
PROCESSES
TWO KINDS OF POWER STRUCTURES IN A COMMUNITY
Formal Power Structure
 Are form the legal-authoritative basis of elected and appointed government
officials and leaders of civic organization
Informal Power Structure
 Refers to the ability to lead, direct or achieve without an official leadership
title

Legal Authoritative decision-makers


 Are individuals or bodies whose authority is based on formal rules and
institution
Influencer
 The person with the most influence, who can lead others to achieve a goal or
accomplish a certain task.
Leadership

Refers to the process and qualities of command and


decisiveness with regard to the necessary actions that
ensure the welfare of the community.
Community Leader

 Are individuals selected, nominated, and appointed as stewards,


vanguard, and champions of issues relevant to a community
SOCIAL
CHANGE
TYPOLOGIES OF COMMUNITY
TYPOLOGIES OF COMMUNITY
Formal-Informal Typology
Emphasizes leadership and power relations in the community.

Formal Community

 Are characterized by institutionally structured hierarchies, which


define the relationship between authoritative and subordinate
actors and groups.
Informal Community

Are seen to typically operate through socio-cultural mechanisms


within the community structures.
Local-Global Typology
 Focuses on the scope and breadth of communities with respect to its geographic
dimensions and the reach of its other dimensions.
Local Community

 Is a group of individuals interacting within a shared environment.


Global Community

Stretches beyond the frontiers of a local community, transcending


national, supranational, and regional demarcations.
 They consist of individuals and groups who share values,
beliefs, preferences, needs, risks, interest, identities, and other
attributes beyond physical , cultural, and politico-geographic
Rural-Urban Typology
 Is based on the distinction in terms of development,
industrialization, ecological conditions, and life style.
Rural Community

Are characterized as pastoral, agricultural, and located along the


periphery of urban centers or in the countryside
Urban Community

 Are described as industrialized and commercial


centers where population density is relatively high
compared to rural communities.
Community Sector

 Is a broad set of community-based organizations that


voluntarily and autonomously function beyond government
or state.
FUNCTIONS OF A COMMUNITY

 Production-Distribution-Consumption
 Socialization
 Social Control
 Social Participation
 Mutual Support
COMMUNITY
ENGAGEMENT
DEFINED
COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT

 Is a dynamic relational process that facilitates communication, interaction,


involvement, and exchange between an organization and a community for a range
of social and organizational outcomes.
 It refers to the process of working collaboratively with and through groups
of people affiliated by geographic proximity, special interest, or similar
situations to address issues affecting the well being of those people.
SOLIDARITY

Refers to the idea of unity or feeling of agreement among


individuals with a common interest.
 is an awareness of shared interests, objectives, standards, and sympathies
cause creating a psychological sense of unity of groups or classes. 
CITIZENSHIP

 is the status of a person recognized under the custom or


law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or
belonging to a nation.
COMMUNITY ACTION AND
COMMUNITY
DEVELOPMENT
COMMUNITY ACTION

 A collective action by a community for the purposes of


arresting a crisis, addressing a challenge, solving a
problem, or accomplishing a specific outcome
PARTNERSHIP BUILDING

Refers to linking and strengthening the shared


interest of sectors and accomplish common goals
and objectives for mutual benefit
PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP

  isa cooperative arrangement between two or


more public and private sectors, typically of a
long-term nature.
COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT

 is a process where community members come together to take


collective action and generate solutions to common
problems. Community wellbeing (economic, social,
environmental and cultural) often evolves from this type of
collective action being taken at a grassroots level.
PROCESS OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT HAS THE FOLLOWING CHARACTERISTIC

It involves participation from a big segment of a community


It is participated by well informed members
It results to the decisions made through a consensus among community
member
It encourages group building, leadership development, and capacity
building among community members, while addressing the issue at hand.
It uses a systematic approach in addressing local concerns
It is an examination of community problems issues in its entity and not as
isolated and independent cases
It uses processes that are flexible and may be applied to other community
concerns.
It is initiated often as a result of a potential or locally perceived crisis
6 Cs of Successful Community
Engagement
CAPABILITY
COMMITMENT
CONTRIBUTION
CONTINUITY
COLLABORATION
CONSCIENCE
ISSUES AND
PROBLEMS OF
COMMUNITIES
ISSUE

 Is a subject matter that people argue about or discuss


COMMUNITY PROBLEMS
 Are conditions or qualifications of issues that are undesired by
members of a community
CHARACTERISTIC OF A COMMUNITY
PROBLEM
Impact It has a direct and adverse impact on a
community
Duration It frequently occurs
Scope and It affects many people within the
Range community and those in proximal areas.
Severity It disrupts community life
Equity It deprives people of moral and legal
rights
Perception It is perceived as a problem by the
community
HUMAN RIGHTS
Human Rights

 Are rights inherent to all human beings,


regardless of race, sex, nationality, ethnicity,
language, religion, or any other status.
The Universal Declaration of
Human Rights
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights
(UDHR) is a milestone document in the
history of human rights. Drafted by
representatives with different legal and
cultural backgrounds from all regions of the
world, the Declaration was proclaimed by
the United Nations General Assembly in
Paris on 10 December 1948 (General
Assembly resolution 217 A) as a common
standard of achievements for all peoples
and all nations. It sets out, for the first time,
fundamental human rights to be universally
protected and it has been translated into
over 500 languages
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Article 1 Right to Equality
Article 2 Freedom from Discrimination
Article 3 Right to Life, Liberty, Personal Security
Article 4 Freedom from Slavery
Article 5 Freedom from Torture and Degrading Treatment
Article 6 Right to Recognition as a Person before the Law
Article 7 Right to Equality before the Law
Article 8 Right to Remedy by Competent Tribunal
Article 9 Freedom from Arbitrary Arrest and Exile
Article 10 Right to Fair Public Hearing
Article 11 Right to be Considered Innocent until Proven Guilty
Article 12 Freedom from Interference with Privacy, Family, Home
and Correspondence
Article 13 Right to Free Movement in and out of the Country
Article 14 Right to Asylum in other Countries from Persecution
Article 15 Right to a Nationality and the Freedom to Change It
Article 16 Right to Marriage and Family
Article 17 Right to Own Property
Article 18 Freedom of Belief and Religion
Article 19 Freedom of Opinion and Information
Article 20 Right of Peaceful Assembly and Association
Article 21 Right to Participate in Government and in Free Elections
Article 22 Right to Social Security
Article 23 Right to Desirable Work and to Join Trade Unions
Article 24 Right to Rest and Leisure
Article 25 Right to Adequate Living Standard
Article 26 Right to Education
Article 27 Right to Participate in the Cultural Life of Community
Article 28 Right to a Social Order that Articulates this Document
Article 29 Community Duties Essential to Free and Full
Development
Article 30 Freedom from State or Personal Interference in the above
Rights
Chito Gascon
Chairman, Commission on Human Rights
WRIT OF HABEAS CORPUS
 Is a recourse in law through which a person can report an unlawful
detention or imprisonment to a court and request that the court order
the custodian of the person, usually a prison official, to bring the
prisoner to court, to determine whether the detention is lawful.
WRIT OF AMPARO
 Is a remedy available to any person whose right to privacy in life,
liberty or security is violated or threatened by an unlawful act or
omission of a public official or employee, or of a private individual or
entity engaged in the gathering, collecting or storing of data or
information regarding the person, family, home and correspondence
of the aggrieved party.
ARTICLE III
BILL OF RIGHTS
 Section 1. No person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due
process of law, nor shall any person be denied the equal protection of the laws.
 Section 2. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses,
papers, and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures of whatever
nature and for any purpose shall be inviolable, and no search warrant or
warrant of arrest shall issue except upon probable cause to be determined
personally by the judge after examination under oath or affirmation of the
complainant and the witnesses he may produce, and particularly describing the
place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized.
 Section 3.
The privacy of communication and correspondence shall be inviolable except
upon lawful order of the court, or when public safety or order requires otherwise,
as prescribed by law.
Any evidence obtained in violation of this or the preceding section shall be
inadmissible for any purpose in any proceeding.
 Section 4. No law shall be passed abridging the freedom of speech, of
expression, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble
and petition the government for redress of grievances.
 Section 5. No law shall be made respecting an establishment of religion, or
prohibiting the free exercise thereof. The free exercise and enjoyment of
religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall
forever be allowed. No religious test shall be required for the exercise of civil or
political rights.
 Section 6. The liberty of abode and of changing the same within the limits
prescribed by law shall not be impaired except upon lawful order of the court.
Neither shall the right to travel be impaired except in the interest of national
security, public safety, or public health, as may be provided by law.
 Section 7. The right of the people to information on matters of public concern
shall be recognized. Access to official records, and to documents and papers
pertaining to official acts, transactions, or decisions, as well as to government
research data used as basis for policy development, shall be afforded the
citizen, subject to such limitations as may be provided by law.
 Section 8. The right of the people, including those employed in
the public and private sectors, to form unions, associations, or
societies for purposes not contrary to law shall not be abridged.
 Section 9. Private property shall not be taken for public use
without just compensation.
 Section 10. No law impairing the obligation of contracts shall be
passed.
 Section 11. Free access to the courts and quasi-judicial bodies
and adequate legal assistance shall not be denied to any person
by reason of poverty.
 Section 12.
1. Any person under investigation for the commission of an offense shall have the right to be
informed of his right to remain silent and to have competent and independent counsel preferably
of his own choice. If the person cannot afford the services of counsel, he must be provided with
one. These rights cannot be waived except in writing and in the presence of counsel.
2.No torture, force, violence, threat, intimidation, or any other means which vitiate the free will
shall be used against him. Secret detention places, solitary, incommunicado, or other similar
forms of detention are prohibited.
3.Any confession or admission obtained in violation of this or Section 17 hereof shall be
inadmissible in evidence against him.
4. The law shall provide for penal and civil sanctions for violations of this Section as well as
compensation to the rehabilitation of victims of torture or similar practices, and their families.
 Section 13. All persons, except those charged with offenses punishable by reclusion
perpetua when evidence of guilt is strong, shall, before conviction, be bailable by sufficient
sureties, or be released on recognizance as may be provided by law. The right to bail shall
not be impaired even when the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus is suspended.
Excessive bail shall not be required.
 Section 14.
1. No person shall be held to answer for a criminal offense without due process of law.
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall be presumed innocent until the contrary
is proved, and shall enjoy the right to be heard by himself and counsel, to be informed
of the nature and cause of the accusation against him, to have a speedy, impartial, and
public trial, to meet the witnesses face to face, and to have compulsory process to
secure the attendance of witnesses and the production of evidence in his behalf.
2. However, after arraignment, trial may proceed notwithstanding the absence of the
accused: Provided, that he has been duly notified and his failure to appear is
unjustifiable.

 Section 15. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended
except in cases of invasion or rebellion, when the public safety requires it.
 Section 16. All persons shall have the right to a speedy disposition of their cases
before all judicial, quasi-judicial, or administrative bodies.
 Section 17. No person shall be compelled to be a witness against himself.
Section 18.
1.No person shall be detained solely by reason of his political beliefs and aspirations.
2.No involuntary servitude in any form shall exist except as a punishment for a crime
whereof the party shall have been duly convicted.
Section 19.
3.Excessive fines shall not be imposed, nor cruel, degrading or inhuman punishment
inflicted. Neither shall death penalty be imposed, unless, for compelling reasons involving
heinous crimes, the Congress hereafter provides for it. Any death penalty already imposed
shall be reduced to reclusion perpetua.
4.The employment of physical, psychological, or degrading punishment against any
prisoner or detainee or the use of substandard or inadequate penal facilities under
subhuman conditions shall be dealt with by law.
Section 20. No person shall be imprisoned for debt or non-payment of a poll tax.
Section 21. No person shall be twice put in jeopardy of punishment for the same offense.
If an act is punished by a law and an ordinance, conviction or acquittal under either shall
constitute a bar to another prosecution for the same act.
Section 22. No ex post facto law or bill of attainder shall be enacted.
SOCIAL JUSTICE
Social Justice

 Is a concept of fair and just relations between the


individual and society. This is measured by the
explicit and tacit terms for the distribution of wealth,
opportunities for personal activity, and social
privileges.
“Social Justice as the
humanization of laws and
the equalization of laws
and the equalization of
social and economic forces
by the so that justice may
at least be approximated”
Social Justice is a system of law that
seeks to attain the following objectives:
Respect our rights and freedoms as
individuals and as a people.
Eliminate poverty as quickly as our
resources and abilities would allow:
First, Provide everyone with their basic
material needs then improve their
standard of living and
Senator Jose W. Diokno Change institution and structures to
address inequalities
ARTICLE XIII
SOCIAL JUSTICE AND HUMAN RIGHTS
Section 1. The Congress shall give highest priority to the
enactment of measures that protect and enhance the right
of all the people to human dignity, reduce social,
economic, and political inequalities, and remove cultural
inequities by equitably diffusing wealth and political power
for the common good.
To this end, the State shall regulate the acquisition,
ownership, use, and disposition of property and its
increments.
Section 2. The promotion of social justice shall include the
commitment to create economic opportunities based on
freedom of initiative and self-reliance.
COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT
COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT

 Is a dynamic relational process that facilitates communication, interaction,


involvement, and exchange between an organization and a community for a range
of social and organizational outcomes.
 It refers to the process of working collaboratively with and through groups
of people affiliated by geographic proximity, special interest, or similar
situations to address issues affecting the well being of those people.
Four Pillars of Community Engagement
 Information
 Consultation
 Involvement
 Empowerment
Aside from the achievement of the four pillars of community
engagement, successful community engagement also entails
the guidance of various principle and goals among them:
Increase in the knowledge of community members about the
issues that are being addressed:
Encourage communities to co-create additional knowledge or
views pertaining to issues being addressed;
Shared application of knowledge and new knowledge to
address the issues of the community and;
Create opportunities for improvement, communication
channels, and engage the community in regular and
continuous exchanges.
Participatory Development

Is a process through which stakeholders influence and


share control over development initiatives and over
the decision and over the decisions and resources that
affect themselves
Core Characteristics of Participatory
Development
 Cognitive– It generates new ways
of understanding community
issues and problems
 Political– It capacitates powerless
 Instrumental– It proposes
alternative solutions

Majid Rahnema
SOCIAL EQUITY, GENDER
EQUALITY, AND
COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT
APPROACHES IN
COMMUNITY
DEVELOPMENT
COMMUNITY PROFILING
ETHNOGRAPHY AND THE
FIELD PRACTICUM
ETHICAL
CONSIDERATIONS IN
THE FIELD PRACTICUM

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