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Wave Hydrodynamics

.
Beach Terminology
The inner shelf is a friction-dominated realm where
surface and bottom boundary layers overlap.
(From Nitrouer, C.A. and Wright, L.D., Rev. Geophys., 32, 85, 1994. With permission.)
Conceptual diagram illustrating physical transport
processes on the inner shelf.
(From Nitrouer, C.A. and Wright, L.D., Rev. Geophys., 32, 85, 1994. With permission.)
Ocean Waves
Ocean waves may be classified by the generating force
(wind, seismic events, or gravitational pull of the
moon), the restoring force, (surface tension, gravity, the
earth’s rotation), or the frequency of the waves.
Idealized Ocean Wave Spectrum
Wind Waves
A wind wave is
generated by the
friction of the wind
over the water’s
surface.

As the wind blows over the surface of the water, friction and
pressure differences create small ripples in the water surface.
The wind pushes on the back side of the wave and pulls on the front,
transferring energy and momentum to the water.
As the wind continues to transfer momentum to the water, the wave
becomes higher.
Wave Growth
The area where wind waves are form and grow is called the
generation area.

The heights of the waves in the generation area are determined by three
factors: wind speed, duration, and fetch.

Higher wind speeds mean more momentum to transfer to the water,


resulting in higher waves.

Duration is the length of time the wind is blowing. The longer the
wind blows, the higher the waves and more chaotic the seas.
Fetch
Fetch is the horizontal distance that the wind blows across
the water.

Fetch is important in the early stages of wave formation, and will


control how large the wave will be at a given time.
Swell
As deep-water waves depart the generation area, they disperse with the long waves travel faster.

This sorting by wave speed creates long regular wave patterns


called swell.
Shoaling Waves
As a wave shoals (approaches the shoreline) the wave period
remains constant, causing the wavelength to decrease and the
wave height to increase.
Friction slows the bottom of the wave to while the top continues
at the same speed, causing the wave to tip forward.
When H/L, the
ratio of the wave
height to
wavelength,
reaches the
critical value of
1/7, the wave
breaks.
SEAS
Waves under
the influence of winds in a
generating area
SWELL
Waves
moved away from the generating
area and no longer influenced by
winds
SMALL AMPLITUDE/FIRST
ORDER/AIRY WAVE THEORY

1. Fluid is homogenous and


incompressible, therefore, the density is
a constant.
2. Surface tension is neglected.
3. Coriolis effect is neglected.
4. Pressure at the free surface is uniform
and constant.
5. Fluid is ideal (lacks viscosity).
SMALL AMPLITUDE/FIRST
ORDER/AIRY WAVE THEORY
6. The wave does not interact with any other
water motion.
7. The bed is a horizontal, fixed, impermeable
boundary which implies that the vertical
velocity at the bed is zero.
8. The wave amplitude is small and the wave
form is invariant in time and space.
9. Waves are plane or low crested (two
dimensional).
Can accept 1, 2, and 3
and relax assumptions 4-9
for most practical solutions.
WAVE CHARACTERISTICS

T = WAVE PERIOD
Time taken for two successive crests to pass a given
point in space
Definition of Terms
ELEMENTARY, SINUSOIDAL,
PROGRESSIVE WAVE

η =eta
WAVE CELERITY, LENGTH,
AND PERIOD
PHASE VELOCITY/WAVE CELERITY:
(C) speed at which
a waveform moves.

Relating wavelength and H2O depth to celerity, then

Since C = L/T, then is

NOTE: L
exists on
both sides of
the
equation.
When d/L >0.5 =
DEEP WATER
Since:
Here,

Then:
Since:

Then: DEEP WATER:


1. Longer waves travel faster than shorter waves.
2. Small increases in T are associated with large increases in L.
Long waves (swell) move fast and lose little energy.
Short wave moves slower and loses most energy
before reaching a distant coast.
MOTION IN A SURFACE WAVE

Local Fluid Velocities and Accelerations


(HORIZONTAL)

(VERTICAL)
Water particle displacements from mean position for
shallow-water and deepwater waves.
As waves approach a shoreline the water shallows and they change
from deepwater to transitional waves.

As water shallows the waves steepen and finally break to form surf
which surges towards the shoreline.
When surf reaches the beach it rushes up the beach face as swash
and then runs back down the slope as backwash.

Swash and backwash moves sediment up and down the beach face.
SUMMARY OF LINEAR WAVES
C = Celerity = Length/Time

Relating L (Wavelength) and D (Water Depth)

Since C = L/T, then becomes:

Since C = L/T, then becomes:


PROBLEMS
GIVEN: A wave
with a period T =
10 secs. is
propagated
shoreward from a
depth d = 200m to
a depth d = 3 m.
FIND: C and L at
d = 200m and
d = 3m.
WAVE ENERGY AND POWER
Kinetic + Potential = Total Energy of Wave System
Kinetic: due to H2O particle velocity
Potential: due to part of fluid mass being above trough.
(i.e. wave crest)
WAVE ENERGY FLUX
(Wave Power)
Rate at which
energy is
transmitted in the
direction of
progradation.
Summary of
LINEAR (AIRY) WAVE THEORY:
WAVE CHARACTERISTICS
Regions of validity for various wave theories.
HIGHER ORDER THEORIES

1. Better agreement between theoretical and


observed wave behavior.
2. Useful in calculating mass transport.

HIGHER ORDER WAVES ARE:


• More peaked at the crest.
• Flatter at the trough.
• Distribution is skewed above SWL.
Comparison of second-order Stokes’ profile with
linear profile.
USEFULNESS OF
HIGHER ORDER THEORIES
MASS TRANSPORT VELOCITY = U(2)

The distance
a
particle is
displaced
during one
wave
period.
NB: Mass transport in the direction of propagation.
HIGHER ORDER WAVES
Stokes
• Takes wave height to 2 order (H 2) and higher
nd

• Useful in higher energy environments


2nd order approximate wave profile is:
For deep H2O – Eq. reduces to:

If H/L is small, then profile can be represented by linear wave theory

TERM: Peaks crests


Flattens troughs
Conforms to shallow H2O wave profile
THIRD ORDER APPROX. (Wave Velocity)

NB. If (H/L) is small, use linear wave theory equation.


VELOCITY OF A WAVE GROUP
WAVE GROUP/WAVE TRAIN
Speed not equal to wave travel for individual waves
GROUP SPEED = GROUP VELOCITY (Cg).
INDIVIDUAL WAVE SPEED = Phase velocity or wave
celerity.
Waves in DEEP or TRANSITIONAL WATER

In SHALLOW WATER
K = .4085376 YT = 1.065959
Keulegan and Patterson (1940) Cnoidal Wave Theory
SI Units (m) Wave Height = .25 Wave Period = 2 WaterDepth =
1.1 Deep Water Length = 6.24 Present Length = 3.757897
Elliptical Modulus = .4085376

Net Onshore Displacement Umass = Mass Transport Velocity


Airy Wave Theory
LO = 6.24 L = 5.783304 Sedim
Tim U(T UMa ent
e ) ss Transp
ort

T = 2s
H=
NB. Umass
0.25m Symmetry
D=
Airy Wave Theory
LO = 6.24 L = 5.363072 Sedim
Tim U(T UMa ent
e ) ss Transp
ort

T = 2s
H=
Depth at which C.T.
0.25m took place
D=
Deformasi Gelombang
• Breaking
• Refraction
• Diffraction
• Reflection

44
Refraction

• Waves travel more slowly in shallow water


(shallower than the wave base).

• This is called refraction

• This causes the wave front to bend so it is more


parallel to shore.

• It focuses wave energy on headlands.

45
Wave Refraction

ater
Orthogonal n de p
er w
t er i
tra v el fas
es
Wav

er
hallo w wat
w ly i n s
v e l more slo
tr a
Waves

Surf / Breaker
Zone

European Coast, 1996


Beach 46
Wave Refraction
Path of crests diverge
Seabed contour and minimize impact of
waves on shore
Wave Crest

Path of crests converge and maximize


impact of waves on shore
Seabed contour
Wave crest

Shallow
Deep

47
Long shore Transport

48
Wave Diffraction

49
Wave Diffraction

Hd
r
β
Breakwate
Hi r
θ L

Wave Diffraction
Shadow
Zone

Diffraction
Energy Transfer Coeficient
( K’ )
K’ = Hd / Hi
Orthogonal Wave Crest
Orthogonal
K’ = φ (r/L,
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β ,θ )
Refleksi Gelombang

European Coast, 1996


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Refleksi Gelombang
 Untuk dinding vertikal, kedap air, dgn elevasi
diatas muka air, hampir seluruh energi akan
dipantulkan kembali ke laut.

 Hanya sebagian saja energi yang dipantulkan


jika gelombang menjalar di pantai yang agak
landai

 Refleksi tergantung pada kelandaian pantai,


kekasaran dasar laut, porositas dinding, dan
Angka Irribarren (Ir) :
tan α
Ir =
Kr = Hr / Hi Hi
Kr = fungsi (a, Lo
n, P, Ir)
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Perbedaan Gelombang

53
WAVES – BREAKING
tan β
ξ < 0.5 ξ=
Ho
Lo

0 .5 < ξ < 3 .3

ξ > 3.3

Dean and Dalrymple, 2002


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