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AC CONVERTER

(INVERTER)
AC Converter
• General concept
• Principle operation of inverters
 Single phase half bridge
 Single phase full bridge
• Operation of cycloconverter
 Concept of Cycloconverter
 Single phase Cycloconverter
 Three phase Cycloconverter
• Pulse Width Modulation Technique
A solid-state AC – AC converter or ( AC
Converter) converts an AC waveform to
another AC waveform, where the output
voltage and frequency can be set arbitrarily.

AC-AC converters can be categorized as


follows:

i). Indirect AC-AC (or AC-DC-AC)


converters (i.e., with rectifier, DC link and
inverter)
ii). Cycloconverters
3
Inverter
• DEFINITION: Converts DC to AC power
by switching the DC input voltage (or
current) in a pre-determined sequence so
as to generate AC voltage (or current)
output.
• General block diagram
IDC Iac

+ +

VDC Vac


•TYPICAL APPLICATIONS:

– Un-interruptible power supply (UPS),


Industrial (induction motor) drives,
Traction, HVDC
Simple square-wave inverter (1)
• To illustrate the concept of AC waveform generation

SQUARE-WAVE
INVERTER

T1 T3
D1 D3

+ VO -
VDC
IO
T4 T2
D2 D4

EQUIVALENT
CIRCUIT

S1 S3

S4 S2
AC Waveform Generation

S1,S2 ON; S3,S4 OFF for t1 < t < t2


vO

S1 S3 VDC

VDC
t
+ vO  t1 t2
S4 S2

S3,S4 ON ; S1,S2 OFF for t2 < t < t3


vO

S1 S3

VDC t2 t3
+ vO  t

S4 S2
-VDC
AC Waveforms
INVERTER OUTPUT VOLTAGE

Vdc

 

-Vdc

FUNDAMENTAL COMPONENT
V1
4VDC

3RD HARMONIC
V1
3

5RD HARMONIC
V1
5
Harmonics Filtering
DC SUPPLY INVERTER (LOW PASS) FILTER LOAD
L
+ +
C
vO 1 vO 2

BEFORE FILTERING AFTER FILTERING


vO 1 vO 2

• Output of the inverter is “chopped AC voltage with zero DC


component”. It contain harmonics.

• An LC section low-pass filter is normally fitted at the inverter


output to reduce the high frequency harmonics.

• In some applications such as UPS, “high purity” sine wave output


is required. Good filtering is a must.
• In some applications such as AC motor drive, filtering is not
required.
Variable Voltage Variable Frequency
Capability

Vdc2 Higher input voltage


Higher frequency

Vdc1 Lower input voltage


Lower frequency
T1 T2 t

• Output voltage frequency can be varied by “period” of the square-wave


pulse.

• Output voltage amplitude can be varied by varying the “magnitude” of the DC


input voltage.

• Very useful: e.g. variable speed induction motor drive


Single-phase half-bridge inverter
Operational Details

3-wire DC source

• Consists of 2 choppers, 3-wire DC source


• Transistors switched on and off alternately
• Need to isolate the gate signal for Q1 (upper device)
• Each provides opposite polarity of Vs/2 across the load
Q1 on, Q2 off, vo = Vs/2

Peak Reverse Voltage of Q2 = Vs


Q1 off, Q2 on, vo = -Vs/2
Waveforms with resistive load
Look at the output voltage

rms value of the output voltage, Vo


1
 To
2 2
 2
2 V  Vs
Vo   0 4 dt   2
s

 To 
 
Fourier Series of the instantaneous output
voltage
ao 
vo     an cos(nt )  bn sin(nt ) 
2 n 1
ao , an  0
1  Vs 
0 
Vs
bn    sin(nt )d (t )   sin(nt )d (t ) 
   2 0
2 
2Vs
bn   n  1,3,5,...
n

2Vs
vo   sin(nt )
n 1,3,5,.. n
rms value of the fundamental component


2Vs
vo   sin nt
n 1,3,5,.. n

1 2Vs
Vo1 
2 
Vo1  0.45Vs
When the load is highly inductive
Turn off Q1 at t = To/2
Current falls to 0 via D2, L, Vs/2 lower

+
Vs/2
-

+
Vs/2
-
Turn off Q2 at t = To
Current falls to 0 via D1, L, Vs/2 upper

+
Vs/2
-

+
Vs/2
-
Load Current for a highly inductive load

Transistors are only switched on for a quarter-cycle, or 90


Fourier Series of the output current for an
RL load


vo vo 2Vs
io     sin(nt   n )
Z R  jn L n 1,3,5,... n R  (n L)
2 2

n L
 n  tan (
1
)
R
Fundamental Output Power
In most cases, the useful power

Po1  Vo1 I o1 cos 1  I o21 R


2
 2Vs 
Po1    R
 2 R  ( L)
2 2

Single-phase full-bridge inverter
Operational Details

• Consists of 4 choppers and a 3-wire DC source


• Q1-Q2 and Q3-Q4 switched on and off alternately
• Need to isolate the gate signal for Q1 and Q3 (upper)
• Each pair provide opposite polarity of Vsacross the load
Q1-Q2 on, Q3-Q4 off, vo = Vs

+ Vs -
Q3-Q4 on, Q1-Q2 off, vo = -Vs

- Vs +
When the load is highly inductive
Turn Q1-Q2 off – Q3-Q4 off
Turn Q3-Q4 off – Q1-Q2 off
Load current for a highly inductive load
CYCLOCONVERTER
CYCLOCONVERTER : CONCEPT &
DEFINATION
A cycloconverter converts a constant voltage,
constant frequency AC waveform to another
AC waveform of a lower frequency by
synthesizing the output waveform from
segments of the AC supply without an
intermediate DC link

The amplitude and frequency of converters'


output voltage are both variable.
Cycloconverter are naturally commutated and
the maximum output frequency is a fraction
of the source frequency.

Therefore, cycloconverters are low speed ac


motor drives in range up to 15 MW with
frequencies from 0 to 20 Hz
Some applications of cycloconverters are:
•Induction motor drives
•Cement mill drives
•Ship propulsion drives
•Rolling mill drives
•Scherbius drives (for speed control purposes
driving wound rotor induction motors).
•Ore grinding mills
•Mine winders
Single-phase to Single-phase (1f-1f)
Cycloconverter

This converter consists of back-to-back


connection of two full-wave rectifier circuits.

Fig 1 shows the operating waveforms for


this converter with a resistive load.
Figure 1 : single phase to single phase cycloconverter
Operation principle
• The input voltage, vs is an ac voltage at a
frequency, fi as shown in Fig. 1a.
• For easy understanding assume that all
the thyristors are fired at =0° firing angle,
i.e. thyristors act like diodes.
• Note that the firing angles are named as
p for the positive converter and N for the
negative converter.
Consider the operation of the cycloconverter to
get one-fourth of the input frequency at the output.
•For the first two cycles of vs, the positive
converter operates supplying current to the load.
It rectifies the input voltage; therefore, the load
sees 4 positive half cycles as seen in Fig.2b.
•In the next two cycles, the negative converter
operates supplying current to the load in the
reverse direction.
• The current waveforms are not shown in
the figures because the resistive load
current will have the same waveform as the
voltage but only scaled by the resistance.
• Note that when one of the converters
operates the other one is disabled, so that
there is no current circulating between the
two rectifiers.
Figure 2 : Output Waveforms
• The frequency of the output voltage, vo in Fig. 2b is
4 times less than that of vs, the input voltage, i.e.
fo/fi=1/4. Thus, this is a step-down cycloconverter.

• On the other hand, cycloconverters thathave fo/fi>1


frequency relation are called step-up
cycloconverters.

• Note that step-down cycloconverters are more


widely used than the step-up ones.
The frequency of vo can be changed by
varying the number of cycles the positive
and the negative converters work.

It can only change as integer multiples of fi


in 1f-1f cycloconverters.
• The single phase to single phase
cycloconverter can only supply a certain
voltage at a certain firing angle .
• The dc output of each rectifier is:

where V is the input rms voltage.

Then the peak of the fundamental output


voltage is

Thus varying , the fundamental output


voltage can be controlled.
Three-Phase to Single-Phase (3f-1f)
Cycloconverter

There are two kinds of three-phase to


single-phase (3f-1f) cycloconverters:
i. 3f->1f half-wave cycloconverter
ii. 3f->1f bridge cycloconverter
3f-1f half-wave cycloconverter
3f-1f bridge cycloconverter
Operation
Like the 1f-1f case, the 3f-1f cycloconverter applies
rectified voltage to the load. Both positive and
negative converters can generate voltages at either
polarity, but the positive converter can only supply
positive current and the negative converter can only
supply negative current.
The modulation of the output voltage and the
fundamental output voltage are shown in Fig. 6.
Note that a is sinusoidally modulated over the cycle
to generate a harmonically optimum output voltage.
Three-Phase to Three-Phase (3f-3f)
Cycloconverter
• The three-phase cycloconverters are mainly used in
ac machine drive systems running three phase
synchronous and induction machines.

• They are more advantageous when used with a


synchronous machine due to their output power factor
characteristics.

• A cycloconverter can supply lagging, leading, or unity


power factor loads while its input is always lagging