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m The production processes are not perfect!
m Which means that the output of these processes will not be
perfect ± correct and deterministic.
m Successive runs of the same production process will produce
non-identical parts.
m Alternately, seemingly similar runs of the production process
will vary, by some degree, and impart the variation into the
some product characteristics.
m Because of these variations in the products, we need
probabilistic models and robust statistical techniques to
analyze quality of such products.
m o matter how carefully a production process is controlled,
these quality measurements will vary from item to item, and
there will be a probability distribution associated with the
population of such measurements.
m If all important sources of variations are under control in a
production process, then the slight variations among the
quality measurements usually cause no serious problems.
m Such a process should produce the same distribution of quality
measurements no matter when it is sampled, thus this is a
³stable system.´
m
bjective of quality control is to develop a scheme for
sampling a process, making a quality measurement of interest
on sample items, and then making a decision as to whether or
not the process is in the stable state, or ³in control.´
m If the sample data suggests that the process is ³out of control,´
a cause is for the abnormality is sought.
m A common method for making these decisions involves the
use of control charts.
m These are very important and widely used techniques in
industry, and everyone in the industry, even if not directly
related to quality control, should be aware of these.
—    
  
m ½ethodology for Õ  
 
  


   and signaling the need to take corrective
action.
m When 
 
are present, the system said to be
      .
m If the variations are due to ÕÕ  
alone, the process
is said to be      .
m SPC relies heavily on control charts.
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Process Control
Product Control

Variables Attributes Variables Attributes

¦, R chart c, p, np chart Acceptance Sampling (Single/Double


Sampling Plan)
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0 Why Use a Control Chart?
± To Õ  ,  , and Õ 
process performance over time by
studying variation and its source.
0 What Does a Control Chart Do?
± Focuses attention on detecting and monitoring process variation over
time;
± Distinguishes 
 from ÕÕ  causes of variation, as a guide to
local or management action;
± Serves as a tool for ongoing control of a process;
± Helps improve a process to perform consistently and predictably for
higher quality, lower cost, and higher effective capacity;
± Provides a common language for discussing process performance.
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0 How Do I Use Control Charts?


± There are many types of control charts. The control
charts that you or your team decides to use should be
determined by the type of data that you have.

± Use the following tree diagram to determine which


chart will best fit your situation.
nly the most
common types of charts are addressed.
m Attributes ± A performance characteristics  




 
 in the product or service under
consideration.
m º amples:
rder is either complete or incomplete; an invoice
can have one, two, or more errors.
m Attributes data are  

 



  
  
 Õ   
    .
m Attributes measurements typically represented as proportions
or rates. e.g. rate of errors per opportunity.
m Typically measured by ³Go-o Go´ gauges.
m Variable ± Continuous data that is concerned with degree of
conformance to specifications.
m Generally e pressed with statistical measures such as 


    
  .
m Sophisticated instruments (caliper) used.

m In statistical sense, attributes inspection less efficient than


variable inspection.
m Attribute data requires larger sample than variable inspection
to obtain same amount of statistical information.
m ½ost quality characteristics in service industry are attributes.
 

6  

u Statistical Process Control (SPC) can be


thought of as the application of statistical
methods for the purposes of quality control
and improvement.

u Quality Improvement is perhaps foremost


among all areas in business for application
of statistical methods.
6  66 
 

0 Initiate data collection:


± Run the process untouched, and gather sampled data.
± Record data on an appropriate Control Chart sheet or
other graph paper. Include any unusual events that occur.
0 Calculate the appropriate statistics and control limits:
± Use the appropriate formulas.
0 Construct the control chart(s) and plot the data.
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0 Center line (CL) positioned at the estimated mean


0 Upper and lower one standard deviation lines (U1SL and
L1SL) positioned one standard deviation above and
below the mean.
0 Upper and lower two standard deviation warning lines
(U2SWL and L2SWL) positioned at two standard
deviations above and below the mean.
0 Upper and lower control lines (UCL and LCL) positioned
at three standard deviations above and below the mean.
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r ¦ bar¶ Chart


rTypically used to monitor process centrality (or location)
rLimits depend on the measure is used to monitor process dispersion
r(R or S may be used).

r S¶ or  Standard Deviation¶ Chart:


rUsed to monitor process dispersion

r R¶ or  Range¶ Chart:


rAlso used to monitor process dispersion
   

0 m = 20 to 40 initial samples of n observations each.


0 ¦i = mean of ith sample
0 Si = standard deviation of ith sample
0 Ri = range of ith sample

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0 CL= ¦,
0 UCL= ¦ A2R,
0 UCL= ¦- A2R
0 U2SWL= ¦ 2A2R/3
0 L2SWL= ¦- 2A2R/3
0 U1SL= ¦ A2R/3
0 L1SL= ¦- A2R/3
A2 is a constant that depends only on n.
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0 CL= R
0 UCL= D4R
0 LCL= D3R
0 U2SWL= R 2(D4-1)R/3
0 L2SWL= R- 2(D4-1)R/3
0 U1SL= R (D4-1)R/3
0 L1SL= R- (D4-1)R/3
0 where D3 and D4 depend only on n
6  66 

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6  66 

Championship Card Company (CCC) produces collectible


sports cards of college and professional athletes.
CCCs card-front design uses a picture of the athlete, bordered
all-the-way-around with one-eighth inch gold foil. However,
the process used to center an athlete¶s picture does not function
perfectly.
Five cards are randomly selected from each 1000 cards produced
and measured to determine the degree of off-centeredness of each
card¶s picture. The measurement taken represents percentage
of total margin (.25´) that is on the left edge of a card. Data
from 30 consecutive samples is included with your materials,
and summarized on the following slides.
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0 Application of all eight PATs to the ¦-bar chart indicated a


violation of PAT 1 (one point plotting above the UCL) at sample
2. Apparently, a successful process adjustment was made, as
suggested by e amination of the remainder of the chart.
0 Application of PATs one through four to the R chart indicated a
violation of PAT 1 at sample 29. ½easures would be investigated
to reduce process variation at that point. The violation was a
³close call´ and was out of character with the remainder of the
data.
0 We are close to being able to apply PDCA to the process for the
purpose of achieving lasting process improvements.
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0 CL= S
0 UCL= B4S
0 LCL= B3S
0 U2SWL= S 2(B4-1)S/3
0 L2SWL= S- 2(B4-1)S/3
0 U1SL= S (B4-1)S/3
0 L1SL= S- (B4-1)S/3
0 where B3 and B4 depend only on n
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