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The Period of

Enlightenment –
Writers’
Backgrounds
ANN BEVERLY CORONA-VERBOSIDAD, MAED Eng
Instructress, College of Teacher Education
Negros Oriental State University Bayawan-Sta. Catalina Campus
* The Propaganda Movement

DR. JOSE P. RIZAL


• born on June 19, 1861 at Calamba, Laguna; died by musketry on
December 30, 1896
• Teodora Alonzo – mother and first teacher
• studied at Ateneo de Manila, started medicine at the University
of Sto. Tomas, finished at the Universidad Central of Madrid;
studied at University of Berlin, Leipzig and Heidelberg
• charged with sedition and rebellion against the Spaniards
• “Consummatum Est!” (It is finished!), Jesus Christ’s words just
before he died of crucifixion, were said to be Rizal’s last words
during his execution by firing squad at Bagumbayan
MARCELO H. DEL PILAR
• born on August 30, 1850 at Cupang, San Nicolas, Bulacan; died of
tuberculosis due to hunger and enormous privation on July 4, 1896 at
the old hospital de la Santa Creu, Barcelona, Spain
• revolutionary propagandist and satirist who marshalled the nationalist
sentiment of the enlightened Filipino ilustrados or bourgeoisie
against Spanish imperialism
• Julian H. Del Pilar – father, a noted Filipino writer; Biasa Gatmaitan
– mother; Fr. Toribio Del Pilar – brother, the priest who was banished
to the Marianas in 1872
• gave up his inheritance because of many siblings in the family
• started schooling at the school of Mr. Flores, transferred to San Jose
before UST

• after a quarrel with a parish priest at San Miguel, Manila, in 1880


during a baptism, his last year in law school was interrupted for eight
years

• established Diariong Tagalog in 1882 which exposed the evils of the


Spanish government in the country; also to avoid the false
accusations by the priests against him

• forced to travel to Spain in 1888 to flee from clerical persecution and


avoid banishment
• published a different Catechism and Passion book making fun of the priests
assisted by Fr. Serrano Laktaw, and they also made Dasalan at Tocsohan and
Kaiingat Kayo which was taken from Igat, a kind of snake fish caught in
politics

• replaced Graciano Lopez Jaena as editor of La Solidaridad in 1889 and


promoted the paper’s objectives by contacting liberal Spaniards who would
side with the Filipino cause; the paper became the medium for
governmental reform as he expanded the paper’s aims to include removing
friars and secularizing parishes; Filipinos’ active participation in
governmental affairs; freedom of speech, press freedom, and freedom of
assembly; equality before the law; assimilation and representation in the
Spanish Cortes or Parliament
• was not able to last long in La Solidaridad as he became sick, yet,
even when gravely ill and could hardly walk, he attempted to reach
Hong Kong to awaken his countrymen

• before death, rejected the assimilationist stance and started planning


an armed revolt which inspired Andres Bonfifacio’s Katipunan, a
secret revolutionary organization; asked his companions to tell his
wife and children sorry for not having been able to bid them goodbye,
to tell others our countrymen’s fate, and to continue helping the
Philippines
GRACIANO LOPEZ JAENA

• born on December 18, 1856; died of tuberculosis on January 20, 1896 in


a Barcelona charity hospital eleven months before Rizal, his best friend,
was shot at Luneta

• a most notable hero and genius; the pride of Jaro, Iloilo who won the
admiration of the Spaniards and Europeans

• a writer and orator who wrote 100 speeches published by Remigio


Garcia, the former bookstore proprietor of Manila Filatica
• in order to escape punishment from his enemies, he left the country in
1887 with the help of his rich uncle, Don Claudio Lopez, and arrived in
Valencia which was the center of the Republican movement of the
Spaniards
• gained the acquaintances of high officials like Piy Margall, Morayta,
Moret, Castelar, and Salmeron
• moved to Barcelona from Valencia and established the first magazine,
La Solidaridad, which eventually became the official voice of the
Associacion Hispano de Filipinas (Filipino-Spanish Association)
composed of Filipinos and Spaniards working reforms in the
Philippines, showing the world that a newspaperman can introduce
changes in the law and reforms for better life and progress
• a teacher to friends and relatives in the Philippines although did not
become a professor

• stood for the separation of church and state for free education, better
government and schools, freedom of worship, and for an independent
and free university, like Antonio Maria Regidor, Tomas G. del Rosario,
and Felipe Calderon

• sided with Rizal in the controversy between Rizal and Del Pilar on who
should head Associacion Hispano de Filipinas in Madrid
• returned to the country to ask for donations to continue a new
government called El Latigo Nacional or Pambansang Latigo

• sold the rights of La Solidaridad to Del Pilar who had become a lawyer
and had brought in money from his sojourn in Spain
ANTONIO LUNA
• born on October 29, 1866 in Binondo, Manila; died on June 5, 1899,
killed by Aguinaldo’s soldiers as he had instant rise to fame which
threatened Aguinaldo

• banished by the Spaniards to Spain, he joined the propaganda


movement and contributed writings to La Solidaridad; most works dealt
with Filipino customs and others are accusations against how the
Spaniards govern

• a doctor of pharmacy, writer, and patriot (known as the greatest Filipino


strategist during the Filipino-American war)
MARIANO PONCE
• born on March 22, 1863 in Baliuag, Bulacan; died on May 23, 1918 in
the Civil Hospital in Hong Kong
• assisted Lopez Jaena in establishing La Solidaridad, headed the Literary
Section of the Associacion Hispano-Filipina which was a society of
liberal Spaniards and Filipinos founded to assist in the Propaganda
Movement and which he was secretary elect
• was an editor-in-chief, managing editor, biographer, and researcher
• his works’ common themes were values of education; wrote on history,
politics, sociology, and travel
• also wrote on foreign oppression of the Filipinos and of his countrymen’s
problems
PEDRO PATERNO

• scholar, dramatic researcher, poet, novelist during the Propaganda


Movement

• joined the Confraternity of Masons and the Associación Hispano-


Pilipino to further the movement’s aims but was unfortunately
considered a traitor because he wanted to become a duke or Prince of
Luzon in the Spanish kingdom as he made peace with Spain, and he
wanted peace with the Americans in the middle of the Filipino-
American war but not one of the two governments trusted him fully
• the first Filipino writer to have escaped censorship of the press during
the last day of Spanish colonization and was recognized as the most
influential Filipino in Spain in his time; later on elected to the First
Philippine Assembly and sponsored Act 1849 which was the creation of
what would become the National Library
JOSE MA. PANGANIBAN
• born on February 1, 1863 in Mambulao, Camarines; died of tuberculosis
in August 19, 1890 at his boarding house in No. 2 Rambla de Canaletas,
Barcelona
• known for his photographic mind; a versatile writer; a Bicolano
propagandist, linguist, and essayist; one of La Solidaridad’s main writers
and contributors
• when in Spain, learned German, Italian, French, aside from Spanish and
Latin; was able to translate Die Religio und Die Religionen (Religion
and Other Religions) by Carl Julius Weber from German to Spanish
• quit his dream of becoming a doctor and joined several liberal
movements including Associacion Hispano-Filipino and La Solidaridad
which aimed for reforms

• was one of the first who signed the petition for Filipino representation in
the Spanish Cortes; worked hard in the Propaganda Movement even
when he fought against hunger and tuberculosis

• apologized to Rizal for not having his strength as before so that he could
work with his compatriots to the end; urged Rizal to continue with what
they started and sacrifice their lives, honor, and fortunes
* Period of Active Revolution
ANDRES BONIFACIO
• born on November 30, 1863 in Tondo, Manila; died on May 10, 1897
along with his brother Procopio, betrayed and shot by men of Katipunan
which he himself founded, with the execution lead by Lazaro Makapagal
on orders of the Council of War by his rival, Emilio Aguinaldo, on
charges of treason and sedition against Aguinaldo’s newly formed
Revolutionary Government which replaced Katipunan, as the two
factions in Katipunan, which are Magdalo led by Aguinaldo, and
Magdiwang which was more supportive of Bonifacio, unfortunately
became rivals with the disease they called regionalism or Cavitismo
• best known as the Father of Philippine Democracy; opted for a democratic
republican government through electing revolutionary government leaders
• also known as Father of the Katipunan and/or Father of the Philippine
Revolution for spearheading the establishment of Katipunan or Kataas-
taasang Kagalang-galang na Katipunan (KKK) ng mga Anak ng Bayan
translated literally as Highest and Most Respected Society of the Children of
the Country (other variant is Kataastaasan, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan…)
organized in Azcarraga Street in Manila on the evening of July 7, 1892 with
the aim of independence and the means of armed revolution despite Rizal’s
warning that it was unwise to launch a revolution without arms or support
from the wealthy
• emerged as the third Supremo or Supreme Leader of the KKK after
Deodato Arellano and Roman Basa (the former owned the house where
KKK was founded)

• proclaimed Filipino independence on August 23, 1896; considered as the


first president of the Philippine Republic by some historians; the
Unofficial President of the Independent Philippines; called by others as
Father of the Filipino nation

• a member of several movements in the country who fought for freedom


from hunger, poverty, and injustice
• compared with his La Liga organizers, he lacked educational attainment
or intellectual brilliance, fourth grade equivalent according to a historian
which was the basis for his disqualification as per lack of university
credentials in being an elected officer in the Tejeros Convention, but he
had the passionate drive to campaign for change in Philippine society
and was well-read, but later claims by historian says he was able to
become literate through the help of a tutor
• eldest orphan of six siblings; left school to support his younger brothers
and sisters and worked full-time in trading firms in Manila as a broker or
corridor for local raw materials like tar and rattan in the British Company
Fleming & Co., and then as a bodeguero or grocer, in another source, he
was in-charge of the warehouse inventory in the German firm Fressel &
Co., to which, the historian Ambeth Ocampo disputes that Bonifacio had
some education enough to be hired by these international firms,
describing him as literate and upwardly mobile
• called by others as a national hero, great plebeian, and self-taught orphan
but in 1954, his sister, Espiridiona, said that they were not poor as
depicted by some writers as their family business was doing fairly well,
thus, he could not be a plebeian; the middle class claim is also evidenced
by his cravat or short tie in his only surviving photo (not camisa chino,
panuelo, and folded red pajamas as he is usually portrayed) but Ocampo,
a historian, said that he could have borrowed the attire for the picture;
also classified as lower middle class compared to Aguinaldo’s being
upper class
• son of Santiago, a tailor, local politician, and river-ferry boatman, and
Catalina de Castro, a cigarette-rolling factory employee, who both died in
the 1870s from illnesses

• married to Monica, who died of leprosy at a young age, and then to


Gregoria de Jesus whom he had a child who died in infancy

• performed in moro-moro plays as a part-time theater actor before the


founding of Katipunan
EMILIO JACINTO
• born on December 15, 1875 in Trozo, Tondo, Manila; died on April 16,
1899 of malaria in Magdalena, Laguna
• known as “The Hero of the Battle of Pasong Tamo”
• Bonifacio’s intelligent assistant in establishing Katipunan, called the
Brains of the Katipunan or the Brains of the Revolution as well as the
soul of the Katipunan
• edited the Katipunan newspaper, Kalayaan; became the secretary, fiscal,
and supervisor of the manufacturing of gun powder of the Katipunan
• stopped law school at UST and joined the Katipunan at 18, became one
of the youngest members
APOLINARIO MABINI

• born on July 23, 1864 in Talaga, Tanauan, Batangas; died on May 13,
1903 at Nagtahan St., Pandacan, Manila because of poverty and neglect
• known as the Sublime Paralytic and the Brains of the Philippine
Revolution
• became the prime minister and foreign minister of the first Republic of
the Philippines
• paralyzed in January 1896, imprisoned in October 1896 by the
Spaniards, released in June 1897
• born poor and had to be a working student; became known to both his
Letran and UST professors and classmates due to his sharp memory and
his simple clothes

• became Aguinaldo’s right hand in the founding of his Republic in


Malolos

• contributed to literature with his writings on government, society,


philosophy, and politics

• in 10 years, took philosophy, obtained degrees in bachelor of arts and


high-school teacher, graduated law
JOSE PALMA
• born on June 3, 1876 in Tondo, Manila; died on February 12, 1903 of
tuberculosis
• as writer: a poet who became popular with his poem, Filipinas,
published in La Independencia, which he set to Julian Felipe’s music,
Marcha Nacional Filipina, which eventually became Himno Nacional
Filipino (The Philippine National Anthem); also a columnist in Vida
Manileña and Cuartilla Licerarias; has poems and short stories in the
publications El Comercio, La Moda Filipina, La Patria, La Union and
Revista Catolica; joined the Tagalog section of La Independencia
• as soldier: he joined the revolution against the Americans along with
Gregorio del Pilar, the youngest Filipino general who died in the
revolution
Activity – Poetry Interpretation – Online Discussion

1) GC should have the title LitD/E/F - (Very Short Name of Group)


- M2L1A. Module contains the questions.

2) Additional questions:
* Do you think that the young lives our heroes sacrificed for you
as youth were worth the sacrifice considering the lives the youth
are leading today? Why?
* What was/were the common denominator/s among
our heroes?
References
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