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APOMIXES

• Apo means: without


• The asexual reproduction in which embryo is
developed with out fertilization
• OCCURRENCE
• A somatic cell develop into an embryo.
• The megasporophyll doesnot do under reduction
division and develop embryo.
• The egg cell, synergid cell of ovule develop into
haploid embryo may develop into new plant
CLONING
• Cloning means to copy
• The process of asexual
reproduction to produce
genetically identical
organism derived from
single parent.
• The first cloned mammal
was sheep named dolly.
Everything you need to know
about flowers!
The Life Cycle of Flowering
Plants
The life cycle shows
the main stages in
the life of a flower,
from seed to flower
and to seed again.

This is the process


of reproduction
2 Types of Seed Plants

• Angiosperms

• Gymnosperms
Gymnosperms
• Have cones for reproduction instead
of flowers
• 4 Types
– Cycad
– Ginkgo
– Conifer
– Gnetophyte
Gymnosperms
• Cycads: look like
ferns except they
have seeds

• Ginkgo: very large


trees found mainly
in China
Gymnosperms
• Conifers: seeds
are in cones or
berrylike
structures

• Gnetophytes:
shrubs and climbing
vines
Angiosperms
• Largest group of plant in the world
• Found in all types of climates
• Produce flowers for reproduction
• SPOROPHYTE GENERATION
• In it main plant body is saprophyte
(2n) differentiate vegetative part
and reproductive part.
Angiosperms
• Parts of the flower:
– Sepals
– Petals
– Stamen
– Pistil
Sepals
sepal
• The sepals protect
the flower before
it opens.
Petals
• The petals
attract
pollinating
insects with
their bright
color and
attractive
scent.
Micro sporangium
Male Parts
• The stamens are
the male
structures of
the flower.
• Made up of two
parts:
– Anther
– Filament
Male Parts
• Anther: top part
of the stamen,
that makes
pollen.
• Filament: this is
the stalk of the
Anther
Mega sporangium
Female Parts
• Pistil is the
female structure
of flower that
has 3 parts:
– Stigma
– Style
– Ovary
Female Parts
stigma
• Stigma:
– The pollen from
another flower
collects on the
stigma’s sticky
surface.
• Style:
– raises the stigma
away from the
Ovary
Female Parts
• Ovary protects the
ovules(egg).

• Once fertilization
has taken place it
will become the
fruit.
PLANT REPRODUCTION
Plants Reproductive Structures

• Cones: Gymnosperms
– Female cones contain the ovules which
contains the egg cell
– Male cones contain pollen which are like
sperm cells
• Flowers: Angiosperms
– Pistil: female part of flower
– Stamen: Male part of flower
Pollination
• Insects visit
flowers to search
for nectar –
their food.
• But the flowers use
the insects for
their own purposes!
• As the insect probes
for nectar, its body
rubs against the
stamens.
• Pollen gets stuck on
the insect’s legs.
• You can often see bees
with a heavy load of
yellow pollen on their
hind legs.
Pollination
When the insect
visits another
flower of the same
type, the pollen will
stick to the pistal.

This is called

pollination.
Fertilization
The pollen travels
to the ovary, where
it joins with an
ovule.

This is called
fertilization.
Seeds
• Seeds: the
fertilized egg
Seed Structure:
consists of a seed
coat (protective
covering), hypocotyl,
epicotyl,Radical,cota
ledon, plumule,
microphyle
Cotyledon

Plumule

Seed coat or
Radicle
testa

Micropyle
Seeds

• The seeds develop


inside the ovary,
which grows to
become the seed
pod or fruit.
Seed Dispersal
• The seeds are
dispersed; some by
animals like insects
called entamhilous,
some by the wind
calledanemophilous,
and some by water.
Germination

If the seed lands in a suitable


place, it will germinate, and
grow into a new plant.

Then the cycle starts all over


again.
Germination of
dicotyledonous seed (epigeal)
Germination of monocotyledonous seed (hypogeal)
Factors Affecting Germination Process of Seeds:

Temperature: Extremely low or cold temperature is not


favorable for seed germination. They prefer higher
temperatures. The germination rate of seed is directly
proportional to the rise in temperature.
Moisture or water: Dry seeds do not germinate. Water is an
essential factor to trigger off the process of seed germination.
Soil: During growth, seeds require mineral elements for
further growth which is obtained from the soil. 

Light: For seed germination  light is not essential in the early


stages of germination but plays a main role in the later stages
of the life cycle of plants.