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Chapter-1

EQUATIONS OF MOTION,
PROBLEM STATEMENT,
AND SOLUTION METHODS

1
Preview

 In this chapter, structural dynamics problem is formulated for simple


structures that can be idealized as a system with a lumped mass and a
massless supporting structure.
 Linear elastic structures as well as inelastic structures subjected to applied
dynamic force or earthquake-induced ground motion are considered.
 Four methods for solving the differential equation governing the motion of
structure are reviewed.
 The chapter ends with an overview of how our study of the dynamics
response of single-degree-of-freedom is organized in the chapters to
follow.

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1.1: Simple structures
 We begin the study of structural dynamics with simple structures, such
as pergola shown in Fig. 1.1.1 and the elevated water tank of Fig.1.1.2.

Fig-1.1.1: This pergola at the Macuto-Sheraton Hotel near


Caracas. Venezuela was damaged by the earthquake of July
29, 1967. The magnitude 6.5 even, which was centered about 3
Fig-1.1.2 15 miles from the hotel, overstrained the steel pipe columns.
1.1: Simple structures

 We are interested in understanding the vibration of these structures when


subjected to lateral (or horizontal force at top or horizontal ground motion due
to an earthquake.

 We call these structures simple because they can be idealized as a


concentrated or lumped mass m supported by a massless structure with
stiffness k in the lateral direction.

 Such an idealization is appropriate for this pergola with a heavy concrete


roof supported by light steel pipe columns, which can be assumed as
massless. The concrete roof is very stiff and the flexibility of the structure in
lateral (or horizontal) motion is provided entirely by the columns.

4
1.1: Simple structures
 The idealized system is shown in Fig. 1.1.3a with a pair of columns
supporting the tributary length of the concrete roof. This system has a
lumped mass m equal to the mass of the roof and its lateral stiffness k is
equal to the sum of the stiffnesses of individual pipe columns.

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Fig-1.1.3a
1.1: Simple structures
 A similar idealization, shown in Fig. 1.1.3b is
appropriate for the tank when it is full of water.
Sloshing of water is not possible when it is full
of water. The system has mass m equal to the
mass of the tank, supported by a relatively
light tower that can be assumed massless.
The cantilever tower supporting the water
tank provides lateral stiffness k to the Fig-1.1.3b
structure.

 For the moment we will assume that the lateral motion of these
structures is small in the sense that the supporting structures deform
within their linear elastic limit. 6
1.1: Simple structures
 We shall see later in this chapter that the differential equation
governing the lateral displacement u(t) of these idealized structures
without any external excitation-applied force or ground motion-is

mu  ku  0 (1.1.1)

 Where an overdot denotes differentiation with respect to time; thus

u denotes the velocity of the mass and u its acceleration.

 The solution of this equation, presented in Chapter 2, will show that if the
mass of the idealized system of Fig. 1.1.3 is displaced through some
initial displacement u(0), then released and permitted to vibrate freely, the
structure will vibrate back and forth about its initial equilibrium position.
7
1.1: Simple structures
 As shown in Fig.1.1.3c, the same maximum
displacement occurs oscillation after oscillation;
these oscillations continue forever and these
idealized systems would never come to rest.

 This is unrealistic, of course. Intuition suggests that


if the roof of the pergola or the top of the water tank
were pulled laterally by a rope and the rope were
Fig-1.1.3c
suddenly cut, the structure would oscillate with
ever-decreasing amplitude and eventually come to
rest.
8
1.1: Simple structures
 Such experiments were performed on laboratory models of one-story
frames, and measured records of their free vibration response are
presented in Fig. 1.1.4. As expected, the motion of these model
structures decays with time, with the decay being more rapid for the
plexiglass model relative to the aluminum frame.

Fig-1.1.4a

Figure 1.1.4: (a) Photograph


of aluminum and
plexiglass model frames
mounted on a small
shaking table used for
class room
demonstration at the
university of California at
9
Berkeley
1.1: Simple structures
Fig-1.1.4: b:
Free
vibration
record of
aluminum
model

Fig-1.1.4: c:
Free
vibration
record of
plexiglass
model 10
1.1: Simple structures

 The process by which vibration steadily diminishes in amplitude is


called “Damping”.
 In damping the kinetic energy and strain energy of the vibrating
system are dissipated by various mechanisms that we shall mention
later. For the moment, we simply recognize that an energy-
dissipating mechanism should be included in the structural
idealization in order to incorporate the feature of decaying motion
observed during free vibration tests of a structure.
 The most commonly used damping element is the viscous damper, in
part because it is the simplest to deal with mathematically. In
chapters 2 and 3, we introduce other energy-dissipating mechanisms.
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1.2: Single-Degree-of-Freedom system
 The system considered is shown schematically in Fig. 1.2.1. It consists of a
mass m concentrated at the roof level, a massless frame that provides
stiffness to the system, and a viscous damper (also known as dashpot) that
dissipates vibrational energy of the system. The beams and columns are
assumed to be inextensible axially.

(a) Applied force p(t) (b) Earthquake induced ground motion


12
Fig.1.2.1: SDF system
1.2: Single-Degree-of-Freedom system
 The system may be considered as an idealization of a one-story structure.
Each structural member (beam, column, wall etc.) of the actual structure
contributes to the inertial (mass), elastic (stiffness or flexibility), and energy
dissipation (damping) properties of the structures.
 In the idealized system, however, each of these properties is concentrated in
three separate, pure components: mass component, stiffness component,
and damping component.

 The number of independent displacements required to define the


displaced positions of all the masses relative to their original position
is called the number of “degrees of freedom” (DOFs) for dynamic
13
analysis.
1.2: Single-Degree-of-Freedom system
 More DOFs are typically necessary to define the stiffness properties
of a structure compared to the DOFs necessary for representing
inertial properties.

 Consider the one-story frame of Fig. 1.2.1, constrained to move only


in the direction of the excitation. The static analysis problem has to be
formulated with three DOFs---lateral displacement and two joint
rotations---to determine the lateral stiffness of the frame (see section
1.3).
 In contrast, the structure has only one DOF-lateral displacement-for
dynamic analysis if it is idealized with mass concentrated at one
location, typically the roof level. Thus we call this a single DOF
14
system.
1.2: Single-degree-of-freedom system

 Two types of dynamic excitation will be considered:

(i) External force p(t) in the lateral direction and

(ii) earthquake induced ground motion u g(t).

 In both cases, u denotes the relative displacement between the mass


and the base of the structure.

(a) Applied force p(t) (b) Earthquake induced ground motion


15
Fig.1.2.1: SDF system
1.3: Force-displacement relation
 Consider the system shown in Fig.1.3.1a with no dynamic excitation
subjected to an externally applied static force f s along the DOF u as
shown. The internal force resisting the displacement u is equal and
opposite to the external force fs (Fig.1.3.1b).

 It is desired to determine the relationship between the force f s and the


relative displacement u associated with deformations in the structure.

Fig.1.3.1a Fig.1.3.1b 16
1.3: Force-displacement relation
 This force-displacement relation would be linear at small deformations
and would become nonlinear at large deformations(Fig.1.3.1c), both
nonlinear and linear relations are considered (Fig. 1.3.1c and d)

 To determine the relationship between f s and u is a standard problem


in static structural analysis.

Fig.1.3.1c Fig.1.3.1d17
1.3: Force-Displacement relation
1.3.1: Linearly elastic systems
 For a linear system the relationship between the lateral force f s and resulting deformation u is
linear, that is

fs  ku ( 1 . 3 . 1)

Where k is the lateral stiffness of the system; its units are force/length.

 Implicit in eq.(1.3.1) is the assumption that the linear fs-u relationship


determined for small deformations of the structure is also valid for larger
deformations.

 This linear relationship implies that fs is a single valued function of u(i.e.


the loading and unloading curves are identical). Such a system is said to
be elastic; Hence we use the term linearly elastic system to emphasize
both properties. 18
1.3: Force-Displacement relation
1.3.1: Linearly elastic systems
 Consider the frame of Fig. 1.3.2a with bay width L, height h, elastic
modulus E and second moment of the cross-sectional area (or
moment of inertia) about the axis of bending=Ib and Ic for the beam
and columns, respectively; the columns are clamped or fixed at the
base. The lateral stiffness of the frame can readily be determined for
the two extreme cases: If the beam is rigid [i.e.,flexural rigidity
12 EIc EIc
Eb=∞(Fig. 1.3.2b)] k 
columns h3
 24
h3
( 1 .3 .2 )

19
Fig. 1.3.2(a) Fig. 1.3.2(b) Fig.1.3.2(c)
1.3: Force-Displacement relation
1.3.1: Linearly elastic systems
 For the case when beam has no stiffness [i.e., Eb=0] (Fig. 1.3.2c)
3EIc EIc
k 
columns h 3
6 3
h
( 1 .3 .3 )

 Observe that for the extreme values of beam stiffness, the lateral
stiffness of the frame is independent of L, the beam length or bay
width.

20
Fig. 1.3.2(a) Fig. 1.3.2(b) Fig.1.3.2(c)
1.3: Force-Displacement relation
1.3.1: Linearly elastic systems

 The lateral stiffness of the frame with an intermediate, realistic


stiffness of the beam can be calculated by standard procedures of
static structural analysis. The stiffness matrix of the frame is
formulated with respect to three DOFs: the lateral displacement u and
the rotations of the two beam-column joints (Fig. 1.3.2a).
 By static condensation or elimination of the rotational DOFs, the
lateral force-displacement relation of Eq.(1.3.1) is determined.

 Applying this procedure to a frame with L=2h and Eb=Ec, its lateral
stiffness is obtained (see example 1.1):

96 EIc
k ( 1 .3 .4 ) 21
7 h3
1.3: Force-Displacement relation
1.3.1: Linearly elastic systems
 The lateral stiffness of the frame can be computed similarly for any
values of b and c using the stiffness coefficients for a uniform flexural
element presented in Appendex 1.
 If shear deformations in elements are neglected, the result can be
writen in the form
24 EIc 12   1
k ( 1 .3 .5 )
h 12   4
3

I
where   b is the beam  to  column stiffness ratio( to be elaborated in
4Ic
1
sec tion( 18 . 1 . 1). For   0, , and
4

Eq.(1.3.5) reduces to the results of eqs.(1.3.3), (1.3.2), and (1.3.4),


respectively. 22
1.3: Force-Displacement relation
1.3.1: Linearly elastic systems

 The lateral stiffness is plotted as a function of  in Fig.1.3.3; it


increases by a factor of 4 as  increases from zero to infinity.

Fig. 1.3.3 23
1.3: Force-Displacement relation
1.3.1: Linearly elastic systems
 Considering u1=1, u2=0, u3=0, and calculate the stiffness coefficients.

 Applying unit deformation


at one end and
considering other fixed 24
1.3: Force-Displacement relation
1.3.1: Linearly elastic systems

According to moment-area
theorem No.1, change
in slope between two
points on elastic curve is
equal to area of the
M/E diagram between
these two points, h h
k 21   k 41  0
2E  c 2E  c
k 21  k 41 ( a)

25
1.3: Force-Displacement relation
1.3.1: Linearly elastic systems
 According to moment-area theorem No.2, tangential deviation of a certain
point with respect to tangent at other point is equal to moment of M/E
diagram between these two points,

 2h 
h h h
k 21     k 41    1
2E  c
 3  2E  c  3 
 But from eq .( a ) k 21  k 41
k  2h 2 h 2 
 21     1
2E  c  3 3 
k 21  2h 2  h 2 
    1
2E  c  3 
k 21 h 2
  1
2E  c 3
6E  c
 k 21  2 26
h
1.3: Force-Displacement relation
1.3.1: Linearly elastic systems
6E  c
 Similarly for second column. k 31  k 21  2
h
 Similarly taking moment about fixed end

k 11  h  k 21  k 41  0
k 21  k 41
k 11 
h
6E  c 6E  c
2
 2
 h h
h
12 E  c

h3
2 12 E  c
Thus for  column 
h3
24 E  c
 27
h3
1.3: Force-Displacement relation
1.3.1: Linearly elastic systems
 Now taking unit rotation, u2=1, u3=u1=0, then stiffness coefficient for beam and column will be as follows

 Similarly taking moment about fixed end

28
1.3: Force-Displacement relation
1.3.1: Linearly elastic systems
 According to theorem No. 1 of moment area method

L L
k 22   k 32  1
2E  b 2E  b
L L
 k 22   1  k 32 
2E  b 2E  b
U sin g sec ond theorem
L L L  2L 
k 22    k 32   0
2E  b 3 2E  b  3 
L L
but k 22   1  k 32 
2E  b 2E  b
L L
 1  k 32   k 32 
2E  b 2E  b
L
 1  k 32 
2E  b 29
1.3: Force-Displacement relation
1.3.1: Linearly elastic systems
 According to theorem No. 1 of moment area method
2E  b
k 32 
L
4E  b
k 22 
L
Taking moment about fixed end
k 22  k 12 L  k 32  0
k 32  k 22
k 12 
L
2E  b 4E  b

 L L
L
6E 
 2b
L
As Fy  0, Thus
k 12  k 42  0
6E  b
k 12  k 42  30
L2
1.3: Force-Displacement relation
1.3.1: Linearly elastic systems

4E  c
 Similarly for column, k 22 
L
 As element is axially rigid, so k12 is for column. Thus with u2=1 for frame

4E  b 4E  c
k 22  
L h
4E  b 4E  c
 
2h h
2E  b 4E  c
 
h h
2E  b
k 32 
L
2E  b

2h
E
 b 31
h
1.3: Force-Displacement relation
1.3.1: Linearly elastic systems

6E  c
k 12 
L2
6E  c

h
 Similarly for u3=1, u2=u1=0, calculating stiffness coefficients

6E c
k13  2
h
E
k 22  b
h
2E b 4E c
k 32  
h h
32
 Thus using relation W=k
1.3: Force-Displacement relation
1.3.1: Linearly elastic systems

 24 E  c 6E  c 6E  c 
 h3 h2 h 2  u 
fs    1
0    6E  c 4E  c 2E  b

E b   
u2 
   h2 h h h  
0   u 
6E  E b 4E  c 2E  b   3 
 2c  
 h h h h 

 
 
 24 6h 6h  u 
fs 
Ec  b 2   
1
  2 b h 2
 0   3 6 h 4h 
2
h  u 2 
h  Ic Ic  u 
0 
 2  3 
b 2  h
6 h h 4h 2  b 
 Ic Ic 

33
1.3: Force-Displacement relation
1.3.1: Linearly elastic systems

b
u sin g relation   elaborated in eq .( 18 .1 . 1)
4Ic
fs  24 6h 6h  u 1 
0   E  c 
4 h 2  8 h 2 2 
4 h  u 2 
  h3 6 h
0  6 h 4 h 2 4 h 2  8 h 2  u 3 

u sin g relation
Wk  k 11 k 12   u 
W   k k   
 u   21 22   k 

Wk  k 11  u  k 12  k
Wu  k 21  u  k 22  k Thus
fs  24 6h 6h  u 1 
0   E  c 
4h 2 1  2  2 
4 h  u 2 
  h3 6 h
0  6 h 4 h 2 4 h 2  1  2    u 3 
 34
1.3: Force-Displacement relation
1.3.1: Linearly elastic systems
EIc  u 2  
fs  3  24  u 1    6 h 6h     ( 1)
h  u
 3 
0  6 h  4 h 2 1  2  4h 2   u 2 
0   6 h  u 1    2   ( 2)
    4 h 
2
 
4 h 1  2   u 3 
Solving eq( 2 )
u 2  4 h 2  1  2   4h 2   6 h 
u     2   u 1
 3 4 h  4 h  1  2    6 h 
2

1  1  2  
1
 
 A 1   4h 2  
 1  2  
A 
1
4h 2
 1  2  2
 2 
 1  2    
Adj  
   1  2  
1  1  2    
 A 1

4 h 2 1  3  2  4      1  2   35
1.3: Force-Displacement relation
Thus
1.3.1: Linearly elastic systems

u 2   6h 1

u  4 h 2  1  3  1u 1
 3  
6 1
 1u 1
4h 1  3   
fs  24 6h 6h  u 1 
0   EIc   
  h3 6 h 4h 2 1  2  4h 2   u 2 
0  6 h 4h 2  4 h 2  1  2    u 3 

EI  u 2  
fs  3c  24  u 1    6 h 6h     ( 1)
h  u
 3 
0  6 h  4h 2 1  2  4h 2   u 2 
0   6 h  u 1      ( 2)
     4 h 
2
4 h 2  1  2    u 3 
Thus eq .( 1)
 EIc 6EIc 1 
fs  24 3   6h 6 h    u 1
 h 4 h  1  3   h 3
1 
24 EIc 6EIc  12 h  36
 u  u1
h  4 h  3   1 
3 1 3
h
1.3: Force-Displacement relation
1.3.1: Linearly elastic systems

Thus
24 EIc  3 
fs  1  4  3   1 u 1
h3  
24 EIc 12   4  3 
   u1
 12   4 
3
h
24 EIc  12   1
 u1
h 3
 12   4 
Thus lateral stiffness will be
24 EIc  12   1
k  ( 4)
h 3
 12   4 
EI
with   b
4Ic
Thus with Ib  Ic
matrix will be formed in such a way 37
1.3: Force-Displacement relation
1.3.1: Linearly elastic systems
 24 E  c 6E  c 6E  c 
 h3 h2 h 2  u 
 s 
f  1
0    6E  c 4E  c 2 E  b
 2
E b   
u2 
   h2 h 2
h h  
0   u 
6E  E b 4E  c 2E  b   3 
 2c  
 h h h h 
As EIc  EIb
Thus
fs  24 6h 6h  u 1 
0   EIc  
  h3 6 h 6h 2 h 2  u 2 
0  6 h h2 6h 2  u 3 

Thus u sin g relation

Wk  k 11 k12   u 
W   k k   
 u   21 22   k 

Wk  k 11  u  k 12  k
38
Wu  k 21  u  k 22  k
1.3: Force-Displacement relation
1.3.1: Linearly elastic systems
 So kcolumn will be derived as

 Providing unit displacement at one end using first theorem of moment area method.
k 13 L k 14 L
 0  k 13  k14
2EIc 2EIc
u sin g sec ond theorem
k 13 L  2L  k 14 L  L 
     1
2EIc  3  2EIc  3 
k 13  2 L  6EIc
 2 L    1  k 13  39
2EIc  3 L2
1.3: Force-Displacement relation
1.3.1: Linearly elastic systems
 Thus taking moment at fixed end
M=0

k 11  L  k 13  k 14  0
k 13  k 14
k 11 
L
1
u2  6 h 2
h 
2
 6h 
    2 2
 u 1
u3  h 6 h   6h 
6 1
 1u 1
7h  
EI  6 1 
fs  3c 24   6h 6 h    u 1
h  7h 1 
96 EIc
fs  3
u1
h
Thus lateral stiffness will be
96 EIc
k 3
u1 required eq . 40
h
1.3: Force-Displacement relation
1.3.1: Linearly elastic systems
 Similarly, if we assume , both ends of column will be clamped so stiffness of frame will be kcol where
Ib  

12 EIc
k 11 
L3
so summation of k 11 for both columns will be
EIc
k   k col  2  12 
L3
24 EIc
 k col  L3
required eq .

 Also, if b=0, second end


of column will be free,
first will be clamped, so
producing unit
41
deformation
1.3: Force-Displacement relation
1.3.1: Linearly elastic systems
 Thus using second theorem of moment area method
L  2L 
k 13   0 1
2EIc  3 
3EI
k 13  2 c
L
taking moment about fixed end
M  0
k 11  L  k 13  0
k 3EI
k 11  13  3 c
L L
Thus for summation of k 11
 3EI 
k  k column  2  3 c 
 L 
6EI
k column  3 c required eq .
L 42
1.3: Force-Displacement relation
1.3.1: Linearly elastic systems
 Thus using second theorem of moment area method

6EIc
k column  3
required eq .
L
Also if Ib  Ic is put in eq .( 4 ), then eq .( 4 ) will be reduced
96 EIc
k 3
required eq .
7h
Similarly if Ib  , eq .( 4 ) will be reduced
24 EIc
k  k col  3
required eq .
h
Also if Ib  0, eq .( 4 ) will be reduced
6EI
k  k col  3 c required eq .
h

43

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