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Chapter 5

Rizal's Life: Exile,

Trial, and Death
Exile in Dapitan
﴿ July 17, 1892 – Rizal left Manila sailing through the
Islands of Mindoro and Panay.
﴿ He reached Dapitan – a remote town in Mindanao
which was under the missionary jurisdiction of the
﴿ July 31, 1896 – Dapitan became the solitary
﴿ His stay in the town was more than a life in
﴿ Rizal lived in the resisdence of Capt.
• Because he did not agree with the conditions of
Fr. Pablo Pastells – a superior of Jesuit Priests
• The ff. are the conditions:
1. Rizal must retract his errors concerning religion
2. Rizal must perform the church rites and make
confession of his past life
3. Rizal must present himself in an exemplary
manner as a spanish subject and a man of religion
The commandant came to realize that Rizal was like
any other culprit, Gov. Gen. Despujol gave Rizal
complete freedom to roam anywhere in Dapitan in
return he wrote a poem entitled “ A DON RICARDO
CARCINERO on Aug. 26, 1892
All About Faith
• Rizal had a scholarly debate with Fr.
Pastells ragarding religion which revealed
a anticlerical Rizal
• They both have religious differences and
remained good friends
• Fr. Pastells gave Rizal a famous Catholic
book by Fr. Thomas “IMITACION DE
The Awakening of Dapitan
1. Architectural ad Engineering Works
2. The Doctor is “In”
3. Rivaling the Best in Europe
4. From Lotto to Lot; Farmer to Trader
5. Once a Poet, Always a Poet
6. A Polyglot
7. Inventions and Scientific Works
8. Tree of Knowledge
9. The “Sweet Foreigner”
10. A Talk in the Garden
11. “Nails in the Coffin”
12. The Trap is Laid
The Awakening of Dapitan
In July 1892, Rizal reached Dapitan as a
prisoner, he found it as sleepy little town,
but soon became awake
His stay improved his artisitic and literacy
skills, doing agricultural and civic projects
engaging in business activities, his careers
and achievements in different fields.
Archtiectural and Engioneering works

• When Rizal obtained the title Perito agrimensor

from ateneo municipal, he already had practical
knowledge in surveying.
• He widened his knowledge by reading
engineering books
• He successfully provided a sound water system
in the province by directing it and following the
contour of a valley and crossing several gullies
with bamboo tubes “ I want to do all I can for
this town” a letter for Fr. Pastells
The Doctor is “IN”
• Rizal provided free medicine to his patients and
most are underprivileged.
• He had wealthy patients like Don Ignacio who
paid him 300 for restoring his sight, an
Englishman who gave him 500 and Aklanon
haciendero Don Francisco Azcorraga who paid
him a cargo od sugar
• August 1893 – his skill was put to test when
Doña Teodora ignored her son’s instructions and
removed the bandages causing infections.
Rivaling the best in EUrope
• Together with his friend Fr. Francisco Sanchez he
helped remake the plaza which he jokingly said
“must rival the best in europe”.
• They helped the citizens place lampposts at
every corner for Dapitan’s first lighting system
• Commandant Carcinero sent for the new plaza
twenty-four iron benches and twenty-six
hundred meters of wire.
From Lotto to Lot; Farmer to
• Rizal devoted time in planting important crops
and fruit bearing trees in his 16 hectare land.
• He bought the land along the bay a few hundred
meters east of the town of Dapitan and built
himself a small little house.
• He imported agricultural machinery and
introduced native farmers of Dapitan the
modern agricultural methods.
• Rizal also visualized havong an agricultural
colony in Sitio Ponot within Sindangan Bay
• The adventurous Rizal with his partner,
Ramon Carreon, tried his luck in the
fishing, hemp and copra industries
• He requested the two good fishermen be
sent to Dapitan
• To teach the fisher folks new fishing
methods using the big net called Pukutan
Once a Poet, Always a poet
• It will be reaclled that when Rizal left Hong Kong
for Manila in 1892, only his sister Lucia had gone
with him. The rest of his family remained at
Hong Kong
• August 26, 1893 – Trinidad and Doña Teodora
left hongkong and proceeded to where Rizal
• Rizal wrote another poem in response to a
request from his mother , who had all his life
inspired his poetry,
• Oct. 22 1895 – he sent the poem “ Mi Ritero”
A Polyglot
• Rizal studied and made comparisons in the
Bisayan and Malayan languages, existing
in the region.
• Rizal knew 22 languages
• Tagalog, Ilocano, Bisayan, Subanun,
Spanish, Latin, Greek, English, French,
German, Arabic, Malayan, Hebrew,
Sanskrit, Dutch, Catalan, Italian, Chinese,
Japanese, Portuguese, Swedish and
Inventions & Scientific
• Sulpukan- a particular type of lighter he
invented during his medical practice in
Calamba. Sent to Blumentritt as a gift
• Its mechanism is based on principle of
compressed air.
• Wooden brick maker- 6000 bricks a day
• They explored jungles and searched for
specimens, which are sent to museums in
Europe, ex. Dresden Museum.
• Researches and studies in fields of
ethnography, archaeology, geology,
anthropology, and geography
• Three species Rizal discovered:
• Draco rizali, a flying dragon
• Apogonia rizali, a small beetle
• Rhacophorus rizali, a rare frog
Tree of knowledge
• Talisay, near Dapitan, he established a
school with his farm and hospital, Sixteen
boys attended class. And instead for
charging them, he made them do
community projects.
• Reading, writing in English, Spanish,
geography, history, mathematics, technical
work, nature study, morals, gymnastics
and sports.
• No formal room, conducted from 2:00 to
4:00 pm, hammock, long bamboo bench
• Talisay tree
• Himno a Talisay- honor for talisay, his
student sing
The Sweet Foreigner
• Josephine Bracken- slender, blond, blue
eyes, well-dressed and light countenance
• From Hongkong to Dapitan in February
1895 with his foster father , George Taufer
and Manuela Orlac , mistress of someone
in Manila Cathedral
• Julio Llorente – Rizal’s friend who
recommended him to his group.
• He tried to bridge this gap between his
relatives and Miss B.
• March 14 1895 – as letter to Dona
Teodora,” Please treat Josephine as a
person whom I esteem and much
appreciated, and I would not like to see
exposed and abandoned.”
• Decided to marry each other Returned to
Dapitan to marry but Fr. Pedro refused.
Bracken, she gave birth to a premature
baby boy who lived only for three hours.
Named Francisco
A Talk in the Garden
• Andres Bonifacio seek advice from Rizal
• May 2, 1896 - at Bitukang Manok River
in Pasig, a secret meeting happened with
Pio Valenzuela as representative of the
group to be sent to Dapitan. He used the
name Procorpio Bonifacio.
• Aboard steamship Venus, he arrived at
bay in June 21, 1896., Together with him
is Josephine Bracken, Narcissa and
Angelica Lopez.
• Valenzuela together with Raymundo Mata,
and Rufino Magnos.
• He told him of their plans but Rizal
objected for two reasons:
• Filipinos were still unprepared for a
bloody revolution
• The Katipunan lacked machinery
• Rizal also advised to attract all wealthy and
influential persons of Manila with the help
of Antonio Luna. Valenzuela on the other
hand told their plan to save Rizal but he
disagreed because of his word of honor.
“Nails in the Coffin”
• Rizal offered his services as military doctor
to the Cuban revolution informed by
Ferdinand Blumentritt, saying yellow
fever spread out.
• Dec. 17, 1895- Rizal sent letter to
Governor General Ramon Blanco, about
rendering service to Cuba but not until
July 30, 1896, when he received a letter
dated July 1, 1896.
• Rizal’s life can be compared to the young
moth allured by the flame of the oil lamp.
His burning desire to help and leave for
Cuba would not mean triumph for the
enemies’ doubt but actually nails to his
The Trap is laid
• July 31, 1896 - Rizal’s four-year exile
suddenly ended. He left onboard the
steamer ship España together with
Josephine, Narcissa, Angelica, three
nephews, and six students
• August 6, 1896 – arrived at Manila, he
was supposedly board the Isla de Luzon
to Spain, but it left ahead of time. Instead,
he was transferred to the Spanish cruiser
• End of August 1896 – Bonifacio and the
Katipuneros stipulated the revolution. Rizal
learned about it and in effect-
• He was prohibited from leaving the vicinity
but were allowed to have visitors. He fell
to the deadly Spanish trap.
“El Ultimo Viaje”
• August 30, 1896 – eight province of
Luzon were put under martial law by Gov.
General Blanco
• Days later he was transferred to Isla de
Panay and met Capt. Alemany. And was
givenm the best cabin. He wrote a letter
for his mother “everything is in the hands
of the Divine Providence”
• He was given a new cabin, No. 22, and the
boat anchored near Manila.
A “Dangerous Fipino”
• Gov. General Blanco and the Ministers of War
and the colonies stated him as “Dangerous
• He learned the lies and became object of
malicious talks and informed
• San Roque was being bombarded and 600
Filipinos were ordered shot
• The Capt. informed him that he was implicated
with the revolution and realized he was being
duped by the Spanish officials
• Oct. 3, 1896 – arrived in Barcelona and
Rizal as prisoner. His warden was the
Military Commander of Barcelona, General
Eulogio Despujol.
• Imprisoned in Montjuich Castle after three
days then onboard Colon and left for
Manila. He was put behind bars before
reaching port.
• Confiscated Diary, handcuffed
Last Attempt to Save a Hero

• Antonio Maria Regidor

• two telegrams
• Mr. Fort
• England tried to aid Rizal, three times.
• English woman who interviewed the
Queen Regent
• Ambeth Ocampo's words, “a kangaroo
court that sentenced him to death”
“Thrilla in Manila”
• November 3, 1896, Colon reached Manila.
• Rizal was transferred under heavy guard from
the ship to Fort Santiago
• The rest of Manila had been frightened by the
insurecction and in their fear
• Executions were made public to dishearten
• Governor-General Camilo de Polavieja, an ardent
terrorist, superseded the nly man, Blanco, who
had dared to remain calm.
“Fishing” Evidence
After fishing for as much evidence as possible
(some of which were planted and fabricated), on
November 20, 1896, the preliminary investigation
on Rizal began. Durng the five-day investigation,
Rizal was informed of the charges against him
before Judge Advocate Colonel Francisco Olive.
Rizal was put under interrogation without t benefit
of knowing who testified against him. Presented
before him were to kinds of evidence -
documentary and testimonial.
The prosecution then presented
15 documents against Rizal
1. A letter to Antonio Luna to Mariano Ponce proving that
Rizal helped organize La Solidaridad
2. A letter of Rizal to his sister, written in August 20, 1890
4. Kundiman, a poem is calling for Liberty, but mistakenly
ascribed to Rizal. He denied having written it.
6. A Masonic document bearing a dreadful words: “Liberty,
Equality, Fraternity.”
7. A letter of Rizal from Hong Kong dated May 24, 1892
13. Copyofaspeech by Emilio Jacinto in a Katipunan
15. The poem Rizal wrote for his boys in Dapitan, “Hymno A
The documents 3, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 14 are
omitted from the list because they were
harmless. The testimony of the ten “witnesses”
seemed to be as weak as the documents. Pio
Valenzuela had a chance to witness and so gain
revenge on Rizal.
Two of the witnesses said Rizal was Honorary
President of the Katipunan. Several witnesses
said they “believed” the La Liga Filipina planned
separation from the islands. One witness said
that Rizal's sister had gone to charter a boat and
to help Rizal escape from Dapitan.
On December 11, 1896, the information of
charges formally read to Rizal in his prison cell
in Fort Santiago. He was accused of being “the
principal organizer of the Philippine Revolution;
and founder of societies, periodicals, and boks
dedicated to propagating ideas of rebellion.
On December 15, 1896, Rizal wrote a
manifesto to his people appealing to them to
stop the necessary shedding of blood and to
achieve their liberties using education and
The “Kangaroo Trial”
On December 26, 1896, around 8:00 am,
Rizal was fetchedto a building called Cuartel de
Espana and brought to trial before a military
court composed of seven military officers
headed by Lt. Col. Jose Togores Arjona.
He was even denied the right of counsel, for
he was only permitted to choose his advocate
from a list of strange young Spanish officers
who were untrained in the law.
After Judge Advocate Dominguez opened the
trial, it was followed by Atty. Alcocer's reiteration of
the charges against Rizal. Urging the court that the
latter be punished with death. Accordingly, the
three crimes accused him were “rebellion, sedition,
and illegal association” - the penalty for the first
two being life imprisonment to death, while the
last, correctional imprisonment an a charge of 325
to 3, 250 pesos.
According to Rizal, there were twelve points to
prove his innocence:
1. As testified by Pio Valenzuela, Rizal was against rebellion.
2. He had not written a letter addressed to the Katipunan
compromising revolutionary elements.
3. Without his knowledge, his name was used by the Katipunan;
if he was guilty, he could have escaped while he was in
4. If he was guilty, he should have left the country while in exile;
he should not have built a home, bought a parcel of land, or
established a hospital in Dapitan.
5. If he was the leader of the revolution, the revolutionists
should have consulted him.
6. He did not deny that he wrote the by-laws of the La Liga
Filipina, but to make things clear, the organization was a civic
association, not a revolutionary society.
7. After the first meeting of Liga, the association banished because of
his exile in Dapitan, thus, did not last long.
8. If the Liga was recognized nine months later, he had no idea about
9. If the Liga had a revolutionary purpose, then Katipunan should not
have been recognized.
10. If the Spanish authorities found his letters having a bitter
atmosphere, it was because in 1980 his family was being
persecuted resulting in their dispossession of properties and
deportation of all his brothers-in-law.
11. He lived an exemplary life in Dapitan - the politico-military
commanders and missionary priests in the province could attest to
12. If according to witnesses the speech he delivered at Doroteo
Ongjunco's house had inspired the revolution, then he wanted to
confront these persons. If he was for the revolution, then why did
the Katipunan send an unfamiliar emissary to him in Dapitam? It is
because all his friends were aware that he never advocate violence.
On December 28, Governor-General
Polavieja, without any remorse, therefore
signed, ordered, and sealed the execution of
Jose Rizal through firing squad at seven
o'clock in the morning of December 30,
1896, at bagumbayan.
Alone in the Cell
Capt. Rafael Dominguez, at six o'clock in
the morning on December 29, 1896, read
before him the official notice of his
execution, scheduled the next day. Rizal
immediately transferred to the prison chapel
where he spent his last hours on earth.
My dear Brother,

When you receive this letter, I shall be dead.

Tommorow at seven, I shall be shot; but I am
innocent of the crime of rebellion.
I am going to die with a tranquil conscience.
Goodbye, my dearest friend, and never think ill
of me.

Fort Santiago, December 29, 1896

(Signed) Jose Rizal
Last Masterpiece
• Rizal was not allowed to embrace his mother and
his sisters
• NO male relatives were allowed to enter his cell.
But little seven-year-old Mauricio, son of Maria,
was admitted.
• When Trinidad had come, Rizal gave his real
legacy and said to her: “I want you to have my
• Then Rizal said in English: “There is something
Of Letters and Tears
• December 29, 1896 - 8pm Rizal had his last supper then
he informed Capt. Dominguez that he forgave his
enemies including those who condemned him to death.
• December 30, 1896 - at 3am he rose up, prayed and
confessed his sins. He knelt before the altar and prayed
the rosary, once finished, he read the Imitacion de Cristo
by Tomas a Kempis.
• December 30, 1896 - at 5:30am he ate his last breakfast
of 3 hard boiled eggs. Afterwards, he signed some
memorabilia including religious pictures and books
which would be passed on to his mother, and sister,
Trinidad. To Josephine, Rizal gave the Imitacion de Cristo
as a gift.
To My Family,
I ask you for forgiveness for the pain I cause you, but someday I
shall have to die and it is better that I die now in the plentitude of my
Dear parents, brother, and sisters, give thanks to God that I may
preserve my tranquility before my death. I die resigned, hoping that
with my death you will be left in peace. Ah! it is better to die than to
live suffering. console yourselves.
I enjoin you to forgive one another the little meanness of life and
try to live united in peace and good harmony. That your parents as you
would like to be treated by your children later. Love them very much in
my memory.
Bury me in the ground. Place a stone and a cross over it. My name,
the date of my birth, and of my death. Nothing more. If later you wish
to surround my grave with fence, you can do so. No anniversaries. I
prefer Paang Bundok.
Have pity on Josephine.
My Dear Brother,
It is now four and a half years since we have seen one another, or
have we exchanged letters. This I think is not because of any lack of love
on my part or yours, but because, knowing one another so well, we do
not need to telk in order to be understood by one another.
Now I am about to die, and it is to you that I dedicate my last line, to
tell you how sorry I am to leave you alone in this life, burdened with the
weight of the family and of our old parents. I am thinking how hard you
have worked to give me a career; I have tried not to waste my time. My
brother, if the friut has been bitter, it is not my fault, but the fault of
circumstances. I know that you have suffered much for me, and I am
I assure you, brother, that I die innocent of this crime of rebelion.
That my former writings may have contributed toward it, I cannnot
wholly deny but then, I thought I had expiated for the past in my
Tell our father that I remember him, and how much! I remember his
affection, and his love since my earliest childhood. Ask him to forgive me
for the pain I have unwillingly caused him.
(Signed) Jose Rizal
To My Beloved Father, To My Dear Mother,
Pardon me for the Sra. Dna. Teodora
pain with which I repay Alonso
you for sorrows and Six o'clock in the
sacrifices for my morning, December 30,
education. I did not 1986.
want nor did I prefer it. Jose Rizal
Goodbye, father,
“To Die is to Rest”