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The Gerund 1

Герундий, как и инфинитив, сочетает в себе


свойства глагола и существительного.
Forms

Active Passive
Simple Writing Being written
Perfect Having written Having been written
Examples

Active Passive

Simple She enjoys teaching the The students enjoy


students. being taught.

Perfect The teacher The students recalled


remembered having having been taught
taught that before. that already.
В предложении герундий может выполнять следующие
функции:
1) подлежащего. Например:
Swimming is my favorite sport. — Плавание — мой любимый вид спорта.

2)  части составного сказуемого:


а) составного именного. Например:
His job is sorting mail. — Его работа — сортировать почту.
б) составного аспектного. Например:
When will you finish reading? — Когда ты закончишь читать?

3)  дополнения. Например:
I like singing.
I don’t mind doing it for you. — Я не возражаю сделать это для тебя.
I am looking forward to meeting your daughter. — Я с нетерпением жду встречи с вашей дочерью.

4)  несогласованного определения. Например:


There are different methods of teaching young children. — Существуют разные методы обучения маленьких детей.

5)  различных обстоятельств (с соответствующими предлогами). На- пример:


On arriving in London he went to the hotel.
He sent the letter after arriving in Moscow. — Он отправил письмо после приезда в Москву (обстоятельство времени).
You can help him by not doing anything. — Вы можете помочь ему, не делая ничего (обстоятельство образа действия).
He left without saying goodbye. — Он ушел не попрощавшись (обстоя-тельство образа действия).
Глаголы, которые чаще
употребляются с
герундием
Verbs of thinking and saying
1. Admit – признавать
2. Anticipate – ожидать, предвосхищать
3. Consider – думать, полагать
4. Deny – отрицать
5. Discuss – обсуждать
6. Forgive – прощать
7. Imagine – воображать
8. Mention – упоминать
9. Recall – вспоминать
10. Recollect – вспоминать, припоминать
11. Suggest - предлагать
12. Understand – понимать

 He suggested going to the cinema.


 We consider buying a new house.
Verbs of liking and disliking
1. Enjoy
2. Fancy
3. Adore
4. Dislike
5. Resent – негодовать, возмущаться
6. Detest – ненавидеть, питать отвращение
7. Dread - бояться
8. Mind

 I dread going to the dentist


 I hope you’ll enjoy using this iPhone
 Do you fancy going out to eat?
 She resented being treated like a child
Other common verbs
1. Avoid
2. Excuse
3. Escape
4. Delay
5. Include
6. Involve
7. Miss
8. Postpone
9. Practice
10. Resist
11. Risk

 I avoid meeting them


 We’ve just missed having an accident
 My work involves filing and typing letters

 НО: resist the temptation/urge to do something She resisted the temptation to


laugh.
Verbs denoting the progress of an
action (from start to finish)

1. Commence

Other verbs
1. Want (в пассивном значении)
2. Deserve
3. Require
4. Worth
(!!!) meaning “be in need of, require, lack”
After such verbs the Gerund is used in the active form though it is passive in
meaning

• The room needs painting


• The child deserves praising
The most common verbs followed by the
Infinitive
Verb + to-Infinitive
Attempt Offer
Agree Plan
Arrange Prepare
Decide Pretend
Demand Promise
Expect Refuse
Intend Tend
Fail Wish
Hesitate
Hope
Mean (intend)
Manage

She agreed to let us use her flat


I decided to go out for the evening
She failed to win a place in the finals
But: decide on doing smth
Verb + object + to-Infinitive
Force/make Remind
Help Teach
Invite Warn
Order
Persuade

He invited the friends to come over


They advised us to take this road
When I was young, we were taught to treat older people with
respect.
Verbs used with both the structures “verb + to-
Infinitive” and “verb + object + to-Infinitive”
Like Begin
Love Need
Hate Remember
Start Prefer
Attempt Propose
Ask Require
Begin Remind
Expect Try
Help Continue
Forget
Hate
Intend
Threaten

They asked to keep quiet. She asked us


to keep quiet.
The boy wanted to play. He wanted me
to play with me.
Verbs followed by the Infinitive and the Gerund
I like to come in time.
Я люблю (т. к. считаю правильным) приходить вовремя.
Love doing (in general)
Love to do – в специфических ситуациях
Verbs followed by the Infinitive and the Gerund

to go on doing smth — продолжать что-то делать


to go on to do smth — перейти к чему-то

He went on talking without a glance in my direction. — Он продолжал говорить, даже не


взглянув на меня.
After a short introduction he went on to speak about his problem. — После короткого
вступления он перешел к изложению своей проблемы.

to propose doing smth — предложить что-то сделать


to propose to do smth — предполагать (намереваться) что-то сделать

He proposed taking a decision immediately. — Он предложил принять решение немедленно.


They propose to leave very shortly. — Они намереваются очень скоро уехать.
Find

• find somebody/something doing something 


I think you’ll find more women entering the film business now.

• find somebody/something to be something


 I found the people to be charming and very friendly.
Where do you find the energy to do all these things?
Start
 Start to do focuses more on a single activity, starting point of an activity,
denotes more spontaneous actions, unprepared actions, indicating the very
beginning of the action rather than its process or continuation.

 Start to with stative verbs is more preferable: start to feel, start to seem,
start to appear, start to sound, etc.

 Start doing focuses more on continuing activity in the process,


 denotes prepared actions, not the actual start of the action.
Begin
 The moment I began to read the letter, she fainted. (= I began
the action in a specific situation.)

 He began reading at the age of four. (= He began reading as


an activity or skill, that is, as something he did regularly and
repeatedly in his life.)

 When she heard the news of her grandmother's death, she


began to cry. (= She started the action of crying at that
specific moment in that particular situation.)

 When she recovered from the accident, she began swimming


in the hope that it would help her to get back into shape. (=
She started the activity of swimming on a regular basis.)
Mean

mean to do something - I didn't mean (intend) to upset you.


mean doing something - My new job will mean (involve) (have as a result)
travelling all over the world.
Примеры (дополнительно)
Примеры (дополнительно)
Note
Герундий или инфинитив
1)  Если значение глагола остается неизменным, герундий обычно
употребляется для обозначения идеи действия или повторяющегося действия,
а инфинитив — для обозначения однократного действия. Например:
He began writing to us when he was still a schoolboy. — Он начал писать нам еще
когда был школьником.
He sat down at the table and began to write. — Он сел за стол и начал писать.

2)  В некоторых случаях, при неизменном значении глагола-сказуемого,


герундий обозначает предшествующее действие (по отношению к сказуемому),
а инфинитив — последующее.
К этой группе относятся глаголы remember, forget, regret. Например:
I’ve completely forgotten talking to him. — Я совсем забыл, что говорил с ним.
Don’t forget to drop the letter. — Не забудь опустить письмо в ящик.
Источники
• Дроздова
• Slideplayer.com
• http://www.correctenglish.ru/theory/grammar/list8/
• https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-difference-between-begin-
to-do-and-begin-doing
• https://www.thoughtco.com/list-of-verbs-followed-by-gerund-or
-infinitives-1211246
• https://dictionary.cambridge.org/ru/грамматика/британская-г
рамматика/verb-patterns-verb-infinitive-or-verb-ing
• https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/
propose
• https://www.learnathome.ru/grammar/suggest-offer.html
• http://usefulenglish.ru/grammar/infinitive-or-gerund