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Contents

Contents

Introduction
Power Semiconductor Devices
Function of a Diode
Function of a transistor
Semiconductor Device Materials
Application of Semiconductor Devices
Pros & Cons of Semiconductor Devices
Conclusion
Introduction- -
Introduction

Semiconductor devices are electronic components that


exploit the electronic properties of semiconductor
materials, like as Silicon, Germanium. These are discrete
components which are used in power devices,
compactness optical sensors, and light emitters etc. They
have the capacity of handling more than 5000 Amp. Of
current & voltage ranging more than 100000 Volt.
PowerSemiconductor
Power Semiconductordevices-
devices-

2-terminal 3-terminal 4-terminal


Rectifier Diode Bipolar transistor Octocopular
Gunn Diode Darlington transistor Hall effect sensor
Laser Diode Unjunction transistor
Zener diode Fieldeffect transistor
Sochottky Diode Thyristor
Photo Transistor TRIAC
LED IGBT
Solar cell
Photo cell
Functionof
Function ofaaDiode
Diode

⋑A semiconductor diode is a device typically made up


of a single p-n junction. The junction of a p-type and
n-type semiconductor forms a depletion region where
current conduction is reserved by the lack of mobile
charge carriers.
Continued…
Continued…

⋑When the device is forward biased, this depletion region is


reduced, allowing for significant conduction, when the diode
is reverse biased, the only less current can be achieved and
the depletion region can be extended.
Continued…
Continued…
⋑Drift is a process whereby charged
particle moves under the presence of an
electric field.
⋑Current due to the motion of charge
carriers due to the force exerted on them
by an electric field is drift Current.
⋑Diffusion is the process where charged
particle flows from higher region of
concentration to lower region of
concentration.
⋑A current in a semiconductor caused by
the diffusion of charge carriers is
Diffusion Current. 
Transistor
Transistor
⋑Bipolar junction transistors are formed by two p-n
junctions, in either p-n-p or n-p-n configuration. The middle
or base, the region between the junctions is typically very
narrow. The other regions, and their related terminals, are
known as the emitter and collector. A small current injected
through the junction between the base and emitter
change the properties of the base collector junction so it
can be conduct current even though it is reverse biased.
Continued…
Continued…
⋑ Field-effect transistor(FET) operates on the principle that
semiconductor conductivity can increased or decreased by the
presence of an electric field. An electric field can increase the
number of electrons and holes in a semiconductor, thus
changing its conductivity.
SemiconductorDevice
Semiconductor DeviceMaterials
Materials

 Silicon (Si)–
The silicon is most widely used material in
semiconductor devices. It’s having lower raw
material cost and relatively simple process. Its
useful temperature range makes it currently the
best compromise among the various competing
materials.

Germanium (Ge)-
It was a widely used in early semiconductor
material, but its thermal sensitivity makes less
useful than silicon. Nowadays, Germanium is
often alloyed with Silicon for use in very high
speed SiGe devices.
Continued….
Continued….

Gallium arsenide (GaAs)-


It is also widely used with high speed devices, but so far,
it has been difficult to form large diameter bowls of this
material, limiting the wafer diameter sizes significantly
smaller than silicon wafers thus making mass production
of GaAs devices significantly more expensive than silicon.
ApplicationofofSemiconductor
Application SemiconductorDevices-
Devices-

⋑Semiconductor devices are used in the designing of logic


gates and digital circuits.
⋑These are used in microprocessors
⋑They are used in analog circuits such as oscillators and
amplifiers.
⋑Used in high voltage applications.
Pros&&Cons
Pros Consofofsemiconductor
semiconductordevices-
devices-

⊕ require low voltage operation as compared to vacuum


tubes;
⊕being small in sizes, the circuits involving semiconductor
devices are very compact;
⊕semiconductor devices are shock proof;
⊕semiconductor devices are cheaper as compared to vacuum
tubes;
⊕semiconductor devices have an almost unlimited life;
⊖ordinary semiconductor devices cannot handle as more
power as ordinary vacuum tubes can do;
⊖semiconductor devices are temperature sensitive even a
small overheating may cause damage to them;
⊖In high frequency range, they have poor responder.
Conclusion
Conclusion

Semiconductor materials are used in electronic devices


because they are neither a good conductor nor a good
insulator and their conductivity can be controlled.
Such devices established wide range of application because
of their reliability, compactness and low cost . They are being
the key element of majority electric system including digital
communication, data processing, consumer and industrial
control protocol.
References
References

a. https://www.elprocus.com/semiconductor-devices-
types-and-applications/
b. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drift_current
c. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diffusion_current
d. http://www.electronics-tutorials.ws/transistor/
e. http://www.ece.utep.edu/courses/ee3329/ee3329/Stud
yguide/ToC/PNdiode/currents.html
Thank You !