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Materials Handling and Equipments

By Group - 2
Material handling-definition
•Materials handling deals with the preparation,
placement and positioning of materials with a view to
facilitate their storage, preservation and movement .
•It is a function which facilitates the movement of
materials in and outside the store house.
•According to American Materials Handling society, “it
is the art and science involving movement, packaging
and storing of materials in any form by means of
gravity, manual effort or power actuated machinery “.
Objectives
 To increase equipment and space utilisation.
 To reduce costs.
 To increase capacity
 To improve working conditions
 To improve customer service
Functions
 Handling equipments arrangement should
minimize distance moved by products and
at the same time handling equipments
should not interfere with the production
line.
 To minimize the distances moved, by
adopting shortest routes.
To design containers, packages, drums etc.
 To economise handling and to reduce
damage to the materials in transit.
 To utilize gravity for assisting materials
movement wherever possible.
 Materials handling equipments should
periodically be restored and check ups repairs
and maintenance.
 To minimize the movement involved in a
production operation.
Principles of material handling
Orientation principle: Study the problem thoroughly
before preliminary planning to identify existing methods
and problems, physical and economic constraints, and to
establish future requirements and goals.

Planning principle: Establish a plan to include basic


requirements, desirable options, and the consideration of
contingencies for all material handling and storage
activities.

Systems principle: Integrate those handling and storage


activities that are economically viable into a coordinated
system of operations, including receiving, inspection,
storage, production, assembly, packaging, warehousing,
shipping, and transportation.
. Flexibility principle: Use methods and equipment that can
perform a variety of tasks under a variety of operating
conditions.
Simplify handling by eliminating, reducing, or combining
unnecessary movements and/or equipment.

Computerization principle: Consider computerization in


material handling and storage
systems, when circumstances warrant, for improved material
and information control.
System flow principle: Integrate data flow with physical
material flow in handling and storage.
Layout principle: Prepare an operation sequence and
equipment layout for all viable system solutions, then select
the alternative system that best integrates efficiency and
effectiveness.
Unit load principle: Handle product in as large a unit load as
possible.
Space utilization principle: Make effective utilization of all
cubic space.
Standardization principle: Standardize handling methods
and equipment wherever possible.
Ergonomic principle: Recognize human capabilities and
limitations by designing material handling equipment and
procedures for effective interaction with the people using
the system.
Energy principle: Include energy consumption of the
material handling systems and material handling
procedures when making comparisons or preparing
economic justifications.
Ecology principle: Use material handling equipment
and procedures that minimize adverse effects on the
environment.

Mechanization principle: Mechanize the handling


process where feasible to increase efficiency and
economy in the handling of materials.
Overview—Material Handling
Involves diverse operations:

Manual material handling


 Carrying bags or materials
 Unpacking materials

Material handling via machine


 Forklift
 Crane
 Rigging
Bulk material handling
used to move and store bulk materials such as ore,
liquids, and cereals. This equipment is often seen on
farms, mines, shipyards and refineries.
Injuries
Lifting objects is a major
cause of back injuries in
the work place

Improper storing and


handling of material and
equipment can cause
struck by and crushed by
injuries
Hazards
Improper manual lifting or carrying
loads that are too large or heavy

Being struck by materials or being


caught in pinch points

Crushed by machines, falling


materials or improperly stored
materials

Incorrectly cutting ties or securing


devices
Manual Handling
Seek help:
• When a load is too bulky to properly
grasp or lift
• When you can’t see around or over
the load
• When you can’t safely handle the load

Attach handles to loads to reduce the


chances of getting fingers smashed.
Safe Lifting
Break load into parts
Get help with heavy or bulky items
Lift with legs, keep back straight,
do not twist
Use handling aids - such as steps,
trestles, shoulder pads, handles,
and wheels
Avoid lifting above shoulder level
Safe Lifting Training
What should be taught:
• How to lift safely
• How to avoid unnecessary
physical stress and strain
• What you can comfortably
handle without undue strain
• Proper use of equipment
• Recognizing potential hazards
and how to prevent / correct
them
Personal Protective Equipment
For loads with sharp or rough
edges, wear gloves or other
hand and forearm protection

When loads are heavy or bulky,


wear steel-toed safety shoes to
prevent foot injuries if the load
is dropped
Materials Handling Equipment

Employees must be
trained in the proper
use and limitations
of the equipment
they operate

This includes
knowing how to
effectively use
equipment such as
forklifts, cranes,
and slings
Forklifts
Center the load on the forks and as close to
the mast as possible to minimize the
potential for the truck tipping or load falling

Overloading a lift truck makes it hard to


control and could make it tip over

Place the load at the lowest position for


traveling

Don’t place extra weight on the rear of a


counterbalanced forklift to allow an overload
Operating a Forklift Safely
Keep arms and legs inside the truck
Handle only stable loads
Keep speed low - you may have to stop
Be careful when making sharp turns
with a raised load
If a load blocks your view, travel in reverse
No riders, unless there’s an approved seat
Don’t drive with forks raised
Wear safety belts or other restraint devices
Powered Industrial Truck
Training
• Truck-related topics
• Workplace-related topics
• Standard requirements
• Trainees must be supervised
by a competent person and
not endanger others
• Formal instruction
• Practical training
• Evaluation of performance
Dock Boards (Bridge plates)

Dock boards must


have handholds, or
other effective means
for safe handling.
Earthmoving Equipment
Scrapers, loaders, crawler
or wheel tractors,
bulldozers, off-highway
trucks, graders, tractors

Provide seat belts

Equipment with an
obstructed rear view can’t
be used in reverse unless
the equipment has a
signal alarm
Cranes
Check the load chart in the cab

Frequently inspect

Never lift people

Check overhead power lines

Ensure area of travel is clear


Rigging Equipment Slings
Types of slings covered are those made from alloy
steel chain, wire rope, metal mesh, natural or
synthetic fiber rope, and synthetic web.

Chain Wire rope Metal mesh Synthetic


Sling Inspection
Inspect slings:
 Each day before use
 Where service conditions
warrant
Remove them from service if
damaged or defective
Bulk material handling
It is an engineering field that is centered around the
design of equipment used for the transportation of
materials such as ores and cereals in loose bulk form. It
can also relate to the handling of mixed wastes.

Bulk material handling systems are typically composed


of moveable items of machinery such as conveyor belts,
stackers, reclaimers, bucket elevators, shiploaders,
unloaders and various shuttles, hoppers and diverters
combined with storage facilities such as stockyards,
storage silos or stockpiles.
The purpose of a bulk material handling facility is
generally to transport material from one of several
locations (i.e. a source) to an ultimate destination.
Conveyor belt
Consists of two or more pulleys, with a continuous loop
of material - the conveyor belt - that rotates about them.
Conveyors are used as components in automated
distribution and warehousing. In combination with
computer controlled pallet handling equipment this
allows for more efficient retail,
Wholesale manufacturing distribution.

It is considered a labor saving system that allows large


volumes to move rapidly through a process, allowing
companies to ship or receive higher volumes with smaller
storage space and with less labor expense.
Stacker
A stacker is a large machine used in bulk material
handling applications. A stacker's function is to pile
bulk material such as limestone, ores and cereals onto
a stockpile. A reclaimer can be used to recover the
material.

A stacker usually operates on a rail-like structure with


movable wheels, but the main operation is performed
on a fixed place.
Reclaimer
A reclaimer is a large machine used in bulk material
handling applications. A reclaimer's function is to
recover bulk material such as ores and cereals from a
stockpile. A stacker is used to stack the material.

Reclaimers are generally electrically powered by


means of a trailing cable.
Bucket elevator
A bucket elevator, also called a grain leg, is a mechanism
for hauling flowable bulk materials (most often grain or
fertilizer) vertically.

It consists of:
Buckets to contain the material;
A belt to carry the buckets
and transmit the pull;
Means to drive the belt;
Accessories for loading the buckets or picking up the
material, for receiving the discharged material, for
maintaining the belt tension and for enclosing and
protecting the elevator.
Shiploader
A Shiploader is a huge machine used for loading bulk
solid materials like iron ore, coal, fertilizers, grains
into marine vessels for transportation by sea.
Shiploaders are a very common sight in ports and
jetties from where bulk materials are exported.
Summary
Manually handling materials
• When lifting objects, lift with your legs, keep your back straight,
do not twist, and use handling aids

Using cranes, forklifts, and slings to move materials


• Watch for potential struck by and crushed by dangers
• For slings, check their load capacity, inspect them, and remove
them from service when they display signs of stress or wear

Also -
• Keep work areas free from debris and materials
• Store materials safely to avoid struck by/crushed by hazards