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IB Biology 2010/2011

Topic 6.2-Human Circulation & 6.4-Gas Exchange

RNS Science

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Circulation, Gas Exchange &
Cellular Respiration
Respiratory O2 CO2
medium Respiratory
(air of water) surface

Organismal
level
Circulatory system

Cellular level

Energy-rich
molecules Cellular respiration ATP
from food

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Overview: Trading with the Environment

• Every organism must exchange


materials with its environment
– And this exchange ultimately
occurs at the cellular level
• Transport systems

– Functionally connect the


organs of exchange with the
body cells

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Open and Closed Circulatory Systems
• More complex animals

– Have one of two types of circulatory systems:


open or closed

• Both of these types of systems have three basic


components

– A circulatory fluid (blood)

– A set of tubes (blood vessels)

– A muscular pump (the heart)

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• Draw and label a diagram of the
heart showing the four chambers,
associated blood vessels, valves
and the route of blood through the
heart.
– Care should be taken to show
the relative wall thickness of
the four chambers.

• State that the coronary arteries


supply heart muscle with oxygen
and nutrients.

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The Heart of the matter…… (sorry)
• 2 thin-walled atria and 2 thicker-walled
ventricles (left ventricle the thickest wall)
• Large artery, smaller arteries, arterioles,
capillary bed, venule, veins, large veins
• Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation

• Follow that RBC though the entire ‘double


circulation’ pattern (one or two minutes)

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• The mammalian cardiovascular system
7

Capillaries of
Anterior
head and
vena cava
forelimbs

Pulmonary
Aorta Pulmonary
9 artery
artery
6
Capillaries
of right lung Capillaries
2 of left lung
3 4
3
11
Pulmonary
vein Pulmonary
5 Left atrium vein
1
Right atrium 10
Left ventricle
Right ventricle Aorta

Posterior
vena cava Capillaries of
abdominal organs
8 and hind limbs

Figure 42.5
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The Mammalian Heart: A Closer Look
– http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/hhw/hhw_pum

– Provides a better understanding of how double


circulation works

Pulmonary artery Aorta

Pulmonary
Anterior vena cava artery

Right atrium Left


atrium

Pulmonary Pulmonary
veins veins

Semilunar Semilunar
valve valve

Atrioventricular
Atrioventricular valve
valve

Posterior
vena cava Right ventricle
Figure 42.6 Left ventricle

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• Explain the action of the heart in terms of
collecting blood, pumping blood, and opening
and closing of valves.
• A basic understanding is required, limited to
the collection of blood by the atria, which is
then pumped out by the ventricles into the
arteries.
– The direction of flow is controlled by atrio-
ventricular and semilunar valves.

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Mammalian Circulation: The Pathway
• Heart valves dictate a one-way flow of blood through
the heart

• Blood begins its flow with the right ventricle pumping


blood to the lungs

• In the lung the blood loads O2 and unloads CO2

• Oxygen-rich blood from the lungs enters the heart at


the left atrium and is pumped to the body tissues by
the left ventricle
• Blood returns to the heart through the right atrium

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• The heart contracts and relaxes
– In a rhythmic cycle called the cardiac cycle

• The contraction, or pumping, phase of the


cycle
– Is called systole

• The relaxation, or filling, phase of the cycle


– Is called diastole

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• The cardiac cycle
Semilunar 2 Atrial systole;
valves ventricular
closed diastole

0.1 sec
Semilunar
valves
0.3 sec open
0.4 sec

AV valves
open

AV valves
1 Atrial and closed
ventricular
diastole 3 Ventricular systole;
atrial diastole
Figure 42.7
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• The heart rate, also called the pulse
– Is the number of beats per minute

• The cardiac output


– Is the volume of blood pumped into the
systemic circulation per minute

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• Outline the control of the
heartbeat in terms of myogenic
muscle contraction, the role of
the pacemaker, nerves, the
medulla of the brain and
epinephrine (adrenaline).
• Histology of the heart muscle,
names of nerves or transmitter
substances are not required.

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Control of Heart Rate……
• Cardiac muscle spontaneously contracts and
relaxes without nervous system control =
myogenic muscle contraction (this must be
controlled to keep contractions unified)
• Sinoatrial node (SA) in the right atrium – sends
out a signal to initiate contraction in the atria
• Atriventricular (AV) node receives impulse from
SA node and sends an impulse for the
ventricles to contract

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More on Maintaining the Heart’s Rhythmic Beat…
• Some cardiac muscle cells are self-excitable
– Meaning they contract without any signal from the nervous system

• A region of the heart called the sinoatrial (SA) node, or pacemaker


– Sets the rate and timing at which all cardiac muscle cells contract

• Impulses from the SA node


– Travel to the atrioventricular (AV) node

• At the AV node, the impulses are delayed


– And then travel to the Purkinje fibers that make the ventricles contract

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• The control of heart rhythm
1 Pacemaker generates 2 Signals are delayed 3 Signals pass 4 Signals spread
wave of signals at AV node. to heart apex. Throughout
to contract. ventricles.

AV node Bundle
SA node branches
(pacemaker)
Heart Purkinje
apex fibers

ECG
Figure 42.8

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• The pacemaker is influenced by nerves, hormones, and
exercise:
– Exercise causes carbon dioxide levels to rise, which is
sensed by the medulla area of the brainstem
– The medulla sends a signal through a cranial nerve
(the cardiac nerve) to the SA node to increase heart
rate
– As carbon dioxide level decreases with less activity,
the medulla sends a signal through the vagus cranial
nerve to the SA to slow the rate
– Adrenalin from the adrenal gland during ‘stress’ can
also signal the SA node to pick up the heart rate

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Blood Vessel Structure and Function
• Explain the relationship between the structure
and function of arteries, capillaries and veins:
• The “infrastructure” of the circulatory system is
its network of blood vessels
• Structural differences in arteries, veins, and
capillaries correlate with their different
functions
• Arteries have thicker walls to accommodate the
high pressure of blood pumped from the heart

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• All blood vessels
– Are built of similar tissues

– Have three similar layers


Artery Vein

Basement
membrane
Endothelium 100 µm

Valve
Endothelium Endothelium

Smooth Smooth
muscle muscle
Capillary
Connective
Connective
tissue
tissue
Artery Vein

Venule
Figure 42.9 Arteriole

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• In the thinner-walled veins
– Blood flows back to the heart mainly as a
result of muscle action
Direction of blood flow
in vein (toward heart)
Valve (open)

Skeletal muscle

Valve (closed)

Figure 42.10

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Quick Comparison of Arteries, Capillaries, & Veins

Artery Capillary Vein


Carries blood away from Connects arterioles and Carries blood toward the
heart venules heart
Thick walled Wall is 1 cell thick Thin walled
No exchanges All exchanges occur No exchanges
No internal valves No internal valves Have internal valves
Internal pressure high Internal pressure low Internal pressure low

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Blood Pressure
• Blood pressure
– Is the hydrostatic pressure that blood exerts against the
wall of a vessel
• Systolic pressure
– Is the pressure in the arteries during ventricular systole

– Is the highest pressure in the arteries

• Diastolic pressure
– Is the pressure in the arteries during diastole

– Is lower than systolic pressure

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• Blood pressure
– Can be easily measured in humans
1 A typical blood pressure reading for a 20-year-old 4 The cuff is loosened further until the blood flows freely
is 120/70. The units for these numbers are mm of through the artery and the sounds below the cuff
mercury (Hg); a blood pressure of 120 is a force that disappear. The pressure at this point is the diastolic
can support a column of mercury 120 mm high. pressure remaining in the artery when the heart is relaxed.

Blood pressure
reading: 120/70

Pressure Pressure Pressure


in cuff in cuff in cuff
above 120 below 120 below 70
Rubber cuff
inflated 120 120
with air
70

Sounds
Sounds stop
audible in
stethoscope
Artery
Artery
closed

2 A sphygmomanometer, an inflatable cuff attached to a 3 A stethoscope is used to listen for sounds of blood flow
pressure gauge, measures blood pressure in an artery. below the cuff. If the artery is closed, there is no pulse
The cuff is wrapped around the upper arm and inflated below the cuff. The cuff is gradually deflated until blood
until the pressure closes the artery, so that no blood begins to flow into the forearm, and sounds from blood
flows past the cuff. When this occurs, the pressure pulsing into the artery below the cuff can be heard with
exerted by the cuff exceeds the pressure in the artery. the stethoscope. This occurs when the blood pressure
is greater than the pressure exerted by the cuff. The
pressure at this point is the systolic pressure.
Figure 42.12
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• Blood pressure is determined partly by cardiac
output
– And partly by peripheral resistance due to
variable constriction of the arterioles

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Capillary Function
• Capillaries in major organs are usually filled to
capacity
– But in many other sites, the blood supply
varies

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• Two mechanisms
– Regulate the distribution of blood in capillary
beds

• In one mechanism
– Contraction of the smooth muscle layer in the
wall of an arteriole constricts the vessel

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• In a second mechanism
– Precapillary sphincters control the flow of
blood between arterioles and venules
Precapillary sphincters Thoroughfare
channel

(a) Sphincters relaxed


Arteriole Venule
Capillaries

(b) Sphincters contracted


Arteriole Venule

(c) Capillaries and larger vessels (SEM)

Figure 42.13 a–c 20 m

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• The critical exchange of substances between
the blood and interstitial fluid
– Takes place across the thin endothelial walls
of the capillaries

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• State that blood is
composed of plasma,
erythrocytes, leucocytes
(phagocytes and
lymphocytes) and
platelets.
• State that the following
are transported by the
blood: nutrients, oxygen,
carbon dioxide,
hormones, antibodies,
urea and heat.
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Blood Composition and Function
• Blood consists of several kinds of cells
– Suspended in a liquid matrix called plasma

• The cellular elements (hematocrit)


– Occupy about 45% of the volume of blood

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Plasma
• Blood plasma is about 90% water

• Among its many solutes are


– Inorganic salts in the form of dissolved ions,
sometimes referred to as electrolytes

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• The composition of mammalian plasma
Plasma 55%

Constituent Major functions

Water Solvent for


carrying other
substances
Ions (blood electrolytes)
Sodium
Potassium Osmotic balance
Calcium pH buffering, and Separated
Magnesium regulation of blood
Chloride membrane elements
Bicarbonat permeability
e
Plasma proteins
Albumin Osmotic balance,
pH buffering
Fibrinogen Clotting

Immunoglobulins Defense
(antibodies)

Substances transported by blood


Nutrients (such as glucose, fatty acids, vitamins)
Waste products of metabolism
Respiratory gases (O2 and CO2)
Hormones Figure 42.15

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• Another important class of solutes is the
plasma proteins
– Which influence blood pH, osmotic pressure,
and viscosity

• Various types of plasma proteins


– Function in lipid transport, immunity, and blood
clotting

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Cellular Elements
• Suspended in blood plasma are two classes of
cells
– Red blood cells, which transport oxygen

– White blood cells, which function in defense

• A third cellular element, platelets


– Are fragments of cells that are involved in
clotting

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• The cellular elements of mammalian blood
Cellular elements 45%
Cell type Number Functions
per L (mm3) of blood

Erythrocytes
(red blood cells) 5–6 million Transport oxygen
and help transport
carbon dioxide
Separated
blood
elements Leukocytes 5,000–10,000 Defense and
(white blood cells) immunity

Basophil Lymphocyte

Eosinophil

Neutrophil
Monocyte
Platelets 250,000 Blood clotting
400,000
Figure 42.15

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Erythrocytes
• Red blood cells, or erythrocytes
– Are by far the most numerous blood cells

– Transport oxygen throughout the body

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Leukocytes & Platelets
• The blood contains five major types of white
blood cells, or leukocytes
– Monocytes, neutrophils, basophils,
eosinophils, and lymphocytes, which function
in defense by phagocytizing bacteria and
debris or by producing antibodies

• Platelets function in blood clotting

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Bloody Summary…..
• Components of Blood
Component Description
plasma Liquid portion of blood

erythrocytes Red blood cells(carry oxygen and carbon


dioxide)
leukocytes White blood cells (phagocytes and
lymphocytes)
platelets Cell fragments (assist in blood clotting

• Transport by Blood
What is transported What it is or does
Nutrients Glucose, amino acids, etc

Oxygen Reactant for cell respiration

Carbon dioxide Waste product of cell respiration

Hormones Transported from gland to target cell

Antibodies Protein molecules involved in immunity

Urea Nitrogenous waste (filtered out of blood by kidneys)

Heat Skin arterioles – vasodilation or vasoconstriction

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Gas Exchange

• Occurs across specialized respiratory surfaces


• Supplies oxygen for cellular respiration and disposes
of carbon dioxide
Respiratory O2 CO2
medium Respiratory
(air of water) surface

Organismal
level
Circulatory system

Cellular level

Energy-rich
molecules Cellular respiration ATP
from food

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Gas Exchange
• Distinguish between ventilation, gas exchange
and cell respiration.
– Ventilation – drawing air in and out of the lungs

– Gas Exchange – occurs at capillary beds

– Cell Respiration – see earlier stuff on


mitochondrion

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• Explain the need for a ventilation system.
– A ventilation system is needed to maintain high
concentration gradients in the alveoli.
– Humans are too thick….

• In mammals, air inhaled through the nostrils


– Passes through the pharynx into the trachea,
bronchi, bronchioles, and dead-end alveoli,
where gas exchange occurs

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• Concept 42.6: Breathing ventilates the lungs

• The process that ventilates the lungs is


breathing
– The alternate inhalation and exhalation of air
– Explain the mechanism of ventilation of the lungs in
terms of volume and pressure changes caused by the
intercostal muscles, the diaphragm and abdominal
muscles.

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Tidal Ventilation in Humans
• Lung volume increases
– As the rib muscles (external intercostals) and
diaphragm contract

• Lung Volume decreases due to


either

– Relaxation of diaphragm and external


intercostals and the natural elasticity of lung
tissue
or
– Forced out by contraction of the internal
intercostals (and abdominal muscles)
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• Draw and label a diagram of the ventilation
system, including trachea, lungs, bronchi,
bronchioles and alveoli.
– Students should draw the alveoli in an inset
diagram at a higher magnification.

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Mammalian Respiratory Systems: A Closer Look
• A system of branching ducts
– Conveys air to the lungs
Branch Branch
from the from the
pulmonary pulmonary
vein artery
(oxygen-rich (oxygen-poor
blood) blood)
Terminal
bronchiole
Nasal
cavity
Pharynx
Left
Larynx lung Alveoli

50 µm
Esophagus
Trachea

Right lung
50 µm

Bronchus

Bronchiole

Diaphragm
Heart SEM Colorized SEM

Figure 42.23
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• Describe the features of alveoli that adapt them
to gas exchange.
– This should include a large total surface area,

– a wall consisting of a single layer of flattened


cells,
– a film of moisture and a dense network of
capillaries.

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Inhaled air Exhaled air

120 27
160 0.2 Alveolar spaces
O2 CO2 O2 CO2
Alveolar 104 40
O2 CO2
epithelial
cells
CO2 O2 2
Blood Blood
1 leaving
entering
alveolar O2 alveolar

2
CO
capillaries capillaries
Alveolar
40 45 104 40
O2 CO2 capillaries O2 CO2
of lung
Pulmonary Pulmonary
arteries veins

Systemic
Systemic arteries
veins Heart
Tissue
O2
CO2 capillaries
3
Blood 4 Blood
leaving entering
tissue tissue
capillaries capillaries

40 45 CO2 O2 100 40
O2 CO2 O2 CO2

Tissue
cells
Figure 42.27 <40 >45
O2 CO2

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Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings