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PLUM BING

In high rise building

Designing skyscrapers is an extremely complicated art that integrates several different


logistic operations and utilities. Plumbing is one of the more challenging problem.
ABHIMANYU MITTAL DHRUV GUPTA SHIVALI GUPTA
BASIC PLUMBING
SOIL APPLIANCES WASTE WATER APPLIANCES
•W Cs URINALS •WASH BASIN
BIDETS BATHS SHOWERS
Consists of The
Used rectangular conventional
• • profile to
for shower or shower
accommodate end bath consists of
Western washi and side panels , a shower tray or
Stall ng an outlet,
seat with urinal receiver to
cover excre overflow, holes collect water,
tory Pedestral for taps with a fixed or
organ hand held shower.
squatting s The wall
around fixed
Indian showers are lined
without with some
footrest impermeable
FLUSHING COMPONENTS Counter top material (tile)
SYSTEMS and open side is
•Glazed COMPONENTS fitted with a
Manual waterless urinals ceramic 3 WALL ALCOVE water proof
flushing pedestal bowl Bowl, Soap curtain.
conserve thousands of tray, Outlet ,
Uses 1 . 5
gallons of water •Flushing rim
gallon water •Overflow Water overflow
automated
approx . significantly reduce , Holes for
sewage connected to a
flushing waste fixing taps
Water reduced the urine passes SUPPORT
by 50 % through a floating •Inlet for S
Pressure spray – rises
flushing layer of  Blue Wall
from bowl or brackets
1 - 1 . 6 gallon Seal liquid, which forms •hand held
water req . a barrier that prevents Pedestal BASIC PLUMBING DEVICES
HANDICAP TOILETS

A 60" unobstructed opening for each


toilet room for maneuvering a
wheelchair IS not required if the door
swings out. The inside dimensions of
the toilet room which includes a water
closet and lavatory

The top of the water closet The door opening must be 32"
seat must be 17" -19" above net clear width (in between
the finished floor. Both stops). The width of the
wall-hung and floor mounted compartment must be a minimum
water closets are of 36“ and a maximum of 48".
acceptable. Only wash down The length of the compartment
water closets are permitted must be a minimum of 72”

The side grab bar must be


located within 12 inches of
the rear wall, and extended
42 inches from that
location. If the grab bar
extends to the rear wall it
must be at least 54 inches
in length. All grab bars
must be parallel to the
floor. The height of the
grab bar above the finished
floor is 33 to 36 inches
HANDCAP TOILET ARRANGEMENT
PUMPING SYSTEMS
EJECTOR
PUMPS
TURBINE a venturi
SUBMERSIBL PUMPS tube is
E PUMPS usually has added to
Designed so a turbine the
that the below the centrifuga
motor can ground l pump
be water and a
submerged driving
along with motor above
CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
the turbine it
Has an impeller mounted on a
rotory shaft which increases
the water velocity and forces
it into the casing

ROTATORY PUMPS
RECIPROCATING PUMPS Has a helical or spiral
It has aplunger that moves rotor-a turning vertical
back and forth within a shaft with a rubber
cylinder equipped with check sleeve and traps water
valves between it and the rotor
TYPES OF PUMPS
HIGH RISE
STRUCTURES
the NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION
defines a high rise building as a building with
an occupied floor that is 75 feet above the
natural ground level WATER
to be provided
REQUIREMENT
Factories where bath rooms are required
45 per
Factories where no bath rooms are head
Required to be provided
Hospital(including laundry): 30 per
a) Number of beds not exceeding100 head
b) Number of beds exceeding100
Nurses’ homes and medical quarters 340per
Hostels head
Hotel (Up to 4 Star) 450 per
Hotel(5 Star and above) head
Offices 135per
Restaurants head
Cinemas, concert halts and theatres 135per
Schools: head
a) Day schools 180per
b) Boarding schools head
NOTE — For calculating water demand 320per
for visitors a head
Consumption of 15litresp~rhead, per day maybe
45 per
taken head
70 per
seat
15per For 20 storey
seat structures
HIGH STOREY PLUMBING
DIRECT SUPPLY SYSTEM
This system is adopted when adequate pressure is available round the clock at the
topmost floor. With limited pressure available in most city mains, water from direct
supply is normally not available above two or three floors.

DIRECT PUMPING SYSTEMS Plumbing


Water is pumped directly into the engineers found
distribution out that as you
system without the aid of any overhead tank, lift water above
except a datum, you
for flushing purposes. The pumps are lose 1 pound per
controlled by a square inch for
pressure switch installed on the line. every 2.3 feet
of elevation.
Direct pumping systems are suitable for This small but
buildings where a certain amount of incremental loss
constant use of makes achieving
water is always occurring. high water
pressure at the
The system depends on a constant and top of a water
reliable column very
supply of power. Any failure in the power difficult. As
system the building get
would result in a breakdown in the water taller, another
supply problem arises
system. as the water
pressure at the
The system eliminates the requirements of bottom
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS IN MULTI of BUILDINGS
STOREY a
HYDRO NUEMATIC SYSTEMS Hydro-pneumatic system is a variation of
direct pumping system. An air-tight pressure vessel is
installed on the line to regulate the operation of the
pumps. The vessel capacity shall be based on the
cutting
and cut-out pressure of the pumping system
depending upon allowable start/stops of the pumping
system. As pumps operate, the incoming water is
the vessel, compresses the air on top. When a
predetermined pressure is reached in the vessel, a
pressure switch installed on the vessel switches off
the
pumps. As water is drawn into the system, pressure
falls into the vessel starting the pump at preset
pressure.
The air in the pressure tank slowly reduces the volume
due to dissolution in water and leakages from pipe
lines. An air compressor is also necessary to feed air
into the vessel so as to maintain the required air-
water
ratio. The system shall have reliable power supply to
avoid breakdown in the water supply.
Hydro-pneumatic system generally eliminates
the need for an over head tank and
may supply water
at a much higher pressure than
available from overhead
tanks particularly on the upper floors,
resulting in even
distribution of water at all floors

DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS IN MULTI STOREY BUILDINGS


OVER HEAD TANK DISTRIBUTION
This is the most common of the
distribution
systems adopted by various
type of buildings.
The system comprises pumping
water to one
or more overhead tanks placed
at the top most location of
the hydraulic zone.
Water collected in the
overhead tank •is In case only OHT is
provided
distributed to the , it may be
various
taken as 33.3 to 50
parts of the building by a set
percent of one day’s
of pipes located generally on
requirement
the terrace. •
•In case only UGT is
provided , it may be
taken as 50 to
150percentof one day’s
requirement

•In case combined
storage is provided , it
maybe taken as 66.6
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS IN MULTI STOREY
percent BUILDINGS
UGT and 33.4
The requirements for fitments for drainage and
sanitation for a regular building might be as
follows

REQUIREMENTS OF A RESTAURANT

OFFICE BUILDING
REQUIREMENTS
PLUMBING REQUIREMENTS
PIPING FIXTURES
water systems for high rise
buildings are typically l-
copper . tubing sizes 2 inches
and smaller are typically
assembled using 95-5 solder. in
very high buildings, stainless
steel can be used due to very
high pressure. in hospitals,
silicon iron, borosilicate
glass, propylene and PDVF are
used.

Copper pipe is available in a number of sizes


commonly:
•8 and 10 mm - for use micro bore central
heating systems
•12 and 15 mm - generally for connections to
individual taps, appliances etc.
•22, 28 and 35 mm - generally for long runs
where use of 15 mm piping would cause
excessive pressure drop
PIPING FIXTURES
PIPE SIZES

Pipes may be of
any of the
following
materials:

cast iron,
vertically cast
or centrifugally
(spun) cast,
steel
(internally
lined or coated
with bitumen or
a bituminous
composition, and
out-coated with
cement concrete
or mortar, where
necessary),
reinforced
concrete,
prestressed
concrete,
galvanized mild
steel tubes,
copper, brass,
wrought iron, PIPE RELATED BYLAWS
The realization of an economical drainage
system is added by compact grouping of fitments in
both horizontal and vertical directions. This implies
that if care is taken and ingenuity brought into play
when designing the original building or buildings to
be drained, it is possible to group the sanitary
fittings and other equipment requiring drainage; both
in vertical and horizontal planes, as to simplify the
drainage system

DISCHARGE PIPING
DRAINAGE
VENTING
For water to travel down a vertical pipe,
air is necessary. Air ventilation must be
controlled so that low pressure zones
can be created, and the flow of water can
continue. The low pressure zones should
not be placed near a fixture, or else
poor drainage could occur (often
recognized by a gulping sound and poor
flow performance). It is however okay to
place air vents in the fixtures
Drainage is another common issue in themselves to increase water flow.
skyscrapers, and is often just as
difficult to solve as water pressure
problems. When water falls vertically down
a pipe, the water will adhere to the
pipe's walls until the pipe's cross
sectional area is about one-fourth full.
Once the gravity propelled water hits a
horizontal bend in the pipe, the flow
velocity drops dramatically, and fills the
pipe considerably more due to the lost
speed. It is common practice to use relief
or yoke vents to slow the water before it
DRAINAGE
encounters a horizontal flow change. The
HEATING SYSTEMS
a) Electric Storage Heaters
1) Non-pressure or open outlet type
ELECTRI 2) Pressure type
C 3) Cistern type
STORAGE
HEATERS 4) Dual heater type

b) Gas Water Heaters


GAS WATER
1) Instantaneous type
HEATERS 2) Storage type

c) Solar Heating Systems


1) Independent roof mounted heating units
2) Centrally banked heated system

d) Central Hot Water System


1) Oil fired
2) Gas fired

CENTRAL HOT WATER SYSTEMS


HOT WATER SYSTEMS
RAIN WATER
HARVESTING
The increasing need for
green buildings and
self sufficient
buildings has made rain
water harvesting an
important part of
plumbing in high
buildings so that a
large amount of water
requirements can be met
by it

A specific minimum area has to be allotted t rain


water harvesting according to the national building
code
RAIN WATER HARVESTING REQUIREMENTS
GREY WATER REUSE
Latest water saving technologies such as waterless
urinals avoid the need to flush 0.2L of urine with 9 L
of perfectly good drinking water. Flow controls can
reduce flows from taps by over 50% without a
discernable loss of amenity values. New toilets can
reliably flush with 35% less water than previously
required. Dual flush cisterns are a given. Modern
showerheads can provide a better shower at half the
flow rate of older
The grey water
reuse and
recycling can
reduce the fresh
water
requirements by
up to 60 % Brac systems are
The grey water collected from the toilets and an example of
septic tanks can be recycled and purified. grey water
Depending on the level of purification of purification
water, it can be used in- systems
•Cooling towers and irrigation of the It saves 35% to
landscaped gardens 40% off the
the tanks can be •Flushing and toilet systems
hidden in the annual water and
•Washing and bathing purposes sewer bills
basement or under the •Drinking only if it is highly purified BRAC W-450
walkways through advanced systems GREY WATER REUSE
EFFICIENT BUILDING
REDUCE
REPLACE
REUSE

WATER CYCLE
GREEN BUILDING
PLUMBING INSTALL ON DEMAND HOT WATER
CIRCULATION
They supply the hot PUMP
water instantly
and prevents the wastage of cold water
HIGH EFFICIENCY WATER prior to the hot water. In this, the
HEATERS water is constantly moving through the
On demand systems and energy heating system and therefore, a
efficient heating systems can constant temperature is maintained
reduce the energy consumption USING WATER EFFICIENT
INSULATING HOT WATER PIPES FIXTURES
Latest water saving technologies such as
Insulating the pipes prevents the waterless urinals New toilets can
hot water from cooling down quickly reliably flush with 35% less water than
and therefore reduces the load on previously required. Dual flush cisterns
the heating system are a given. Modern showerheads can
REUSE GREY WATER provide a better shower at half the flow
Grey water can replace the fresh INSTALL FLOWrate of older
REDUCERS ON
water in various purposes and hence, FAUCETS AND SHOWER HEADS
the demand is reduced significantly •Water savings for the client
INSTALL HOT WATER HEAT •Buy retrofit aerators and screw
RECOVERY
Heat is recovered SYSTEMS
from waste water into faucet head
resulting in energy and water •These reducers are readily
savings available and are attached at the
Typically installed during new faucet head
construction under tubs and showers •
GREEN BUILDING PLUMBING TECHNIQUES
FIRE PRTECTION
SYSTEMS

one area that should not be


overlooked in any high rise building
is the fire protection systems. as a
minimum, all buildings should have
sprinkler systems and stand pipe
systems. all buildings containing
fire protection systems have large,
dedicated fire pumps to provide the
flows and pressure required at the
time of emergency.

SAND PIPE
SYSTEMS SPRINKLER SYSTEMS

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


VATIKA CITY POINT ,
GURGAON
rchitects Studio U+A ,London +Ashok Dhawan Architect
lumbing & Fire Fighting Consultants SAVIRAM Engineering Consultants Pvt. Ltd.

PROPOSED CONSTRUCTION
Area Details & Projected Population
Plot area (Net area)=7,522.4 sqm
Superstructure =13,821.76 sqm
Business use
Substructure=10,819 sqm Parking /
Utilities/BOH

PLUMBING SYSTEM
CASE STUDY
FIRST FLOOR SANITARY
PLUMBING PLANS SYSTEMS
Emphasis on
water
conservation,
better hygiene
and ease in
maintenance. All
EWCs shall be
low volume
flushing EWC (4-6
liters) with
concealed flush
valves. IWCs in
drivers’ toilets
shall be Orissa
pan with exposed
flush valves.
Washer less taps
shall be used
In the proposed
Architectural
scheme, one main
WATER SUPPLY DRAINAGE toilet core
exist. CASE STUDY
WATER REQUIREMENT
Water body / irrigation demand
Water body make-up (Assumed) = 2,000 LPD
Irrigation water demand (Assumed 15% greens) =1,500 sqm@3 l/sqm/d
= 4,500 LPD
RETAIL [ Ground and First floor ] SUBTOTAL C = 6,500 LPD
Population calculations  
TOTAL
population Retail shops 16 nos.x2 persons= 32 persons@45lpcd = 1,440 LPDWATER DEMAND [A+B+C] = 1,01,175 LPD
3 sqm@GF and 6 sqm atFF (1414.85/3+1156.23/6)= 664persons@15lpcd =Add forLPD
9,960 5% extra for equipment back-wash etc. = 5,059 LP
GROSS DAILY WATER DEMAND = 1 , 06 , 234 LPD
BUSINESS [ 2 nd floor to 11 th floor ] SAY 106 KLD [ X
calculations
se (all levels) 11250.68/10 = 1125 persons@45lpcd = 50,625 LPD
Common usage
e/service personnel 50 nos@45 lpcd = 2,250 LPD Water Balance Calculations
 
estaurant/foodcourtetc. (Assumed) ~100 seats = 7,000 LPD Domestic water demand = 71,275 lpd
SUBTOTAL A = 71,275 LPD Requirement for flushing @45% = 32,074 lpd [Water
quality Q1]
ILNG TOWER MAKE-UP ETC. Requirement for washing +drinking @55% =
39,201 lpd [Water quality Q2]
p [As/HVAC consultants input] = NIL Requirement for HVAC/DG
r washers make-up@1500lphx6 hours = 23,400 lpd [Water qualityQ1]
er demand [As/HVAC consultants input] = 9,000 LPD Requirement for landscaping etc.
tower make-up demand = 6,500 lpd [Water quality Q1]
hours] [As/Elect. Consultants input] = 14,400 LPD Equipment backwash demand
B = 23,400 LPD = 5,059 lpd [Water quality Q2]
Wastewater flow to Sewer
= 80%domestic water deman
+100% equipment backwash
= 62,079 lpd
Expected recovery from STP[if provided]
= @95% of influent
= 58 , 975 lpd SAY 59 KLD [ Y ]
NET MAXIMUM DAILY FRESH WATER CASE STUDY
STORAGE TANK
REQUIREMENT
WATER TANK CONFIGURATIONS
 
UNDERGROUND TANKS [All capacities in cum or kiloliters]
 
FIRE 200
 
RAW WATER 100
 
TREATED WATER 100
 
TOTAL STORAGE MINUS
FIRE TANK 200
 
TOTAL STORAGE
VOLUME PLANNED 1 . 82 day ’ s
 
TERRACE WATER TANKS [All capacities in cum or kiloliters]
 
FIRE 20
FLUSHING
[6 hrs’ storage]
20
TREATED WATER
[6 hrs’ storage] 15
TOTAL STORAGE MINUS
FIRE TANK 35\ UNDERGROUND STORAGE PLAN

CASE STUDY
BUILDING SETUP
SEWERAGE
WATER SUPPLY A centralized sewage treatment and
Municipal water supply shall be recycling plant shall be installed to
supplemented through deep bore-wells. take care of the discharge from the new
Based upon the physical, chemical & development. The combined discharge from
bacteriological analysis of ground water the entire premises shall be ~62cum/day.
made available from the site its The expected recovovery of recycled
suitability for domestic & DG sets water is approx. 95% i.e. 59 kLD. The
cooling tower make-up purposes shall be space requirement for the STP will be
established approx. 150 sqm . The recycled water can
The expected yield from a bore-well shall be used for flushing, air-washers and DG
be approx. 15,000 lit/hour. The average cooling tower make-up and gardening. This
yield from a bore-well for 16 hours shall help in reducing the load on
running operation shall be approx. 240 kL. fresh water resources by almost
It is WATER
STORM suggested to dig two borewells
DRAINAGE 55 % ( 47 kLD against 106 kLD )
It is proposed to do total rainwater
harvesting in this project. The average
yearly precipitation is 610 mm. The
rainwater calculations are given below:
 
Plot Area
= 7,522.4 sqm 
Average Rainfall
= 610 mm / year  PROPOSED STRUCTURE
Total Annual Catchment Precipitation =
4,588.66 kL  CASE STUDY
FIRE FIGHTING

All the fire fighting provisions shall be as per ‘National


Building Code of India 2005 Part IV Fire and Life Safety’
published by the Bureau of Indian Standards.
 
The minimum requirements for fire fighting installations
for a Business building exceeding 30 m in height in height
as per NBC are:
 
- Hose Reel (To be provided)
-Wet Riser (To be provided)
- Yard Hydrant (To be provided)
- Automatic Sprinkler System (To be provided-in entire
building)
- Manually operated Electric Fire Alarm System (To be
provided-by electrical agency)
- Automatic Detection and Alarm System (To be provided-by
electrical agency)
- Water Storage Tanks
Underground Static Water Storage Tank (200, 000 litres)
Terrace Tank (20,000 liters)
- Fire Pumps {Two Electrical (one each for hydrant and
sprinkler circuits) and One Diesel Pump of capacity 2,850
lpmand two electrical jockey pumps of 180 lmp capacity}.
- Fire Extinguishers (In all parts of the building) CASE STUDY
THAN KYOU
ABHIMANYU MITTAL DHRUV GUPTA SHIVALI GUPTA