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Обучение смысловому чтению

в 5-11 классах: эффективные приемы


и контроль результатов

А. В. Конобеев, к. пед. н.

2020
Смысловое чтение

1 Что такое смысловое чтение?

В чем его отличие от других видов


2
чтения?
Какие приемы помогают обучать
3 смысловому чтению?
Как контролировать умение
4 смыслового чтения?
Согласны ли вы, что…

1. если в тексте вы знаете значение каждого


слова, то вы понимаете текст?

2. если ученик может ответить


на вопросы по тексту,
то он этот текст понял?
Проверим себя

C++ (/ˌsiːˌplʌsˈplʌs/ "see plus plus") is a general-purpose programming language. It has imperative


, object-oriented and generic programming features, while also providing facilities for low-level 
memory manipulation.

What kind of language is C++?

What programming features does it possess?

What facilities does C++ provide?


Значение и смысл

Л. С. Выготский:

«Если «значение» слова является объективным


отражением системы связей и отношений, то
«смысл» – это привнесение субъективных аспектов
значения соответственно данному моменту и
ситуации»
(«Мышление и речь», 1934)
Значение и смысл

A linguistics professor was lecturing to his class one day. "In


English," he said, "a double negative forms a positive. In
some languages though, such as Russian, a double negative is
still a negative.

However," he pointed out, "there is no language wherein a


double positive can form a negative.»

A voice from the back of the room piped up, "Yeah, right."
Смысловое чтение

При смысловом чтении читатель не просто извлекает


информацию, а интерпретирует ее, наделяет ее смыслом,
извлекает скрытый смысл.

Опытный читатель использует смысловое чтение, о чем


свидетельствует появление смысловых догадок в процессе
чтения.
Всегда ли нужно смысловое чтение?

Какое чтение скорее всего нужно,


информационное или смысловое, когда вы
читаете:

 расписание уроков;
 инструкцию к стиральной машине;
 стихотворение;
 рекламное объявление;
 рассказ?
I Shall Not Care

When I am dead and over me bright April 


Shakes out her rain-drenched hair, 
Tho' you should lean above me broken-hearted, 
I shall not care. 

I shall have peace, as leafy trees are peaceful 


When rain bends down the bough, 
And I shall be more silent and cold-hearted 
Than you are now. 

Sara Teasdale
От чего может зависеть смысл?

На понимание / интерпретацию смысла могут влиять:

Синтаксис:

Waitress: Say. You're pretty cute, you know that?

Jeeves: Thank you. So I have been informed.


От чего может зависеть смысл?

Знание ситуации:
A mother with three noisy children has been waiting in line at the market. When it is her turn, the cashier asks if she would mind
waiting while she runs to the restroom. The mother says, "Of course not - why in the world would you think I would mind?"
От чего может зависеть смысл?

1. Коннотация: The room reeked of tobacco vs The room


smelled of tobacco

2. Пунктуация: A woman without her man is nothing. vs A


woman, without her man is nothing!

3. Интонация: I never said she stole your money.


Как научить смысловому чтению?

Shadow reading для отработки


интонации и передачи смысла
(например, электронные книги с
озвученным текстом)

Приемы для обучения извлечению


смысла
и интерпретации текста.
Вероятностное прогнозирование

Pre-reading: Look at the title/illustrations/list of words from the text.


What do you think the story is going to be about? Look at the list of statements. Whish ones do you
think are correct?

While-reading: What do you think is going to happen next?

Post-reading: Look at the list of statements again. Which are correct?


Correct the ones that are wrong.
Вероятностное прогнозирование

Look at the title of the poem.


What do you think the poem is going to be about?

One Perfect Rose


by Dorothy Parker

What words are you likely to see in this poem?


Вероятностное прогнозирование

Here are some words from the poem.


What do you think the poem is going to be about?
 he

 love

 amulet

 fragile leaves

 messenger

 heart

 sent me
Reading

Read the first part of the poem.


Were your guesses correct?

A single flow'r he sent me, since we met.


All tenderly his messenger he chose;
Deep-hearted, pure, with scented dew still wet
One perfect rose.

I knew the language of the floweret;


"My fragile leaves," it said, "his heart enclose."
Love long has taken for his amulet
One perfect rose.

What do you think the last stanza of the poem is about?


Reading

Read the end of the poem to see if you were correct:

Why is it no one ever sent me yet


One perfect limousine, do you suppose?
Ah no, it's always just my luck to get
One perfect rose.
Reading

What traits of character do you think the author of the poem has?
Why do you think so?

A single flow'r he sent me, since we met.


All tenderly his messenger he chose;
Deep-hearted, pure, with scented dew still wet--
One perfect rose.

I knew the language of the floweret;


"My fragile leaves," it said, "his heart enclose."
Love long has taken for his amulet
One perfect rose.

Why is it no one ever sent me yet


One perfect limousine, do you suppose?
Ah no, it's always just my luck to get
One perfect rose.
Поиск ответов

Вопросы, ответы на которые «разбросаны» по нескольким


частям текста.
Для ответа на вопрос нужно соединить несколько частей
информации и интерпретировать ее.
Например:
What kind of person was aunt Anne?
Barbara in Brittany

CHAPTER I.

AUNT ANNE.
Barbara entered the nursery with rather a worried look on her face. "Aunt Anne is coming to-morrow, children," she announced.

"To-morrow!" exclaimed a fair-haired boy, rising from the window-seat. "Oh, I say, Barbe, that's really rather hard lines—in the
holidays, too."

"Just as we were preparing to have a really exciting time," sighed Frances, who was her brother's close companion and ally.

"I know it's a little hard," Barbara said consolingly, sitting down beside them and taking one of the twins on her lap, while the other
leaned up against her. "But you will all try to be good and nice to her, won't you? She went away with a bad opinion of us last time,
and it worries mother. Besides, we mustn't forget that she was father's sister."

"I can't think how she ever came to be," sighed Frances. "She's so dreadfully particular, and we always seem naughtier when she's
here. But we'll make an effort, Barbara."

"And you won't run away as soon as she speaks to you, Lucy?" Barbara went on, looking at the little girl in her lap. "It's rude, you
know. You must try to talk nicely when she wants you to."
Barbara in Brittany

Aunt Anne was feeling almost as much embarrassed by the presence of so many children as they were by that of
their aunt, but her sense of duty was strong, and she began to make conversation with the one nearest her—who
happened to be Lucy.
"What are you doing in lessons now, Lucy?"
Lucy looked solemn.
"Chiefly history," she said.
Frances laughed.
"It's only stories," she exclaimed, "that Barbara tells her and Dick."
"It's history," repeated Lucy indignantly; "isn't it, Dick? It's all about England."
"I should have thought writing was more suitable for a little girl like you."
«Критическое чтение»

Во время чтения (например, информационного текста)


ученики отмечают информацию:

++ соответствует тому, что я знаю

+ новая для меня информация

- противоречит тому, что я знаю

? надо обсудить
«Критическое чтение» - 2

Во время чтения ученики отмечают


информацию:

Знал
Новая

Хочу узнать больше


Контроль смыслового чтения

Основное внимание контроля – не на том, сколько информации ученик усвоил, а


на том, как он ее интерпретировал, насколько аргументированные выводы сделал.

Возможные задания:
1. Match the characters and the descriptions of their personalities. Explain your
choice.
2. In the following list tick the topics which are not present in the story.
3. “Aunt Anne didn’t laugh”. Why? “She did a strange thing” –
why did this thing seem strange?
4. Write an annotation of the book / Make a book trailer.
5. Передача содержания в другой форме (инфографика, демотиватор, комикс,
основанное на фактах оценочное суждение и т.д.);
Бесплатные ресурсы

Создание демотиваторов:
11
demotivators.to , demconstructor.ru

Создание инфографики:
22
canva.com , infogram.com

Создание комиксов, storyboards,


мультфильмов:
33
toondoo.com , renderforest.com , toonytool.com
Организация обучения смысловому чтению

На уроках:

 через задания к текстам в учебниках;

 через тексты для домашнего чтения;

 через проектные работы и веб-квесты.

Во внеурочной деятельности:

 «Клуб английской литературы»;

 театральный кружок.