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14 major rivers (catchments>20,000km2)
44 medium rivers (catchments 2,000 to 20,000km2)
Combined linear length of all rivers= 29,000km
Total surface water runoff= 167.23 mhm
Fish-faunastic diversity comprises of 930
species belonging to 326 genera
accordingly India stands 9th in world for
reference freshwater mega-fish- diversity

The Ganga and the Brahmaputra river systems-


Combined linear length= 16,523km (36.72% of total)
Drainage basin area 1.0million km2 & 0.9million km2 respectively
Total water discharge= 19,000m3 / second
_  ÷ 
âThe Northern / Himalayan river systems (Ganga, Brahmaputra & Indus)
âThe Southern / Peninsular river systems (PECRS & PWCRS)
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i. One of the largest RS of the world having combined linear length=
12,500km
ii. Catchment area= 9.71 lakh km2
iii. It drains Southern slope of central Himalayas covering states of UP,
Bihar, MP, Rajasthan & W. Bengal
iv. Originates at MSL 3129m (Bhagirathi) from Gangotri and joins
Alakhnanda at Deoprayag
v. After covering 220km in mountains, enters n plain at Haridwar
vi. Its tidal confluence/ deltic region is about 320km
       
At left flank: Koshi, Gandak, Ramganga & Gomati
At right flank: Yamuna with its tributaries (Chambal, Betwa & Ken), Tons
and Sone
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Species Distribution Pattern:
i. In Head Water Stretch:   K    " 
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ii. In Plain Stretch:
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i. Originates from a great glacier mass near Mansarower lake in Tibet
at MSL 3600m, flowing eastward and thereafter westward passing
through Arunachal Pradesh for 160km enters the valley of Assam
above Sadiya.
ii. Last flowing for 480km in Bangladesh it joins Ganga at Goalando
forming a common river Padma (Width= 9.6km) meets in Bay of
Bengal through a Great Meghana estuary.
iii. Thus it drains the northern slope of central and eastern Himalayas.
iv. Combined linear length of RS= 4023km, Brahmaputra alone=
2900km.
v. Catchment area= 51 million ha and water runoff= 38 mhm.
_  Topographically Brahmaputra valley is interspersed with abandoned
beds of river which are subjected to annual inundation resulting
development of wetlands considerably in the districts of Lakhimpur,
Nowgong, North Kamrup and Goalpara.
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Through out its stretch rich in inorganic
contents "   2 
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 Zooplanktons dominate in upper reach
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âThe Brahmaputra RS harbors 126 fish species belonging to 26
families, out of which 41 species are of commercial
importance.
âOver all fish faunastic diversity similar to Ganga RS.
âUpper sector of the river is not having commercial fishery of any
significance. This segment harbours coldwater fishes " 
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âThe commercial fishery is dominated by catfishes.
âMiscellaneous group of fishes also contribute significantly to total
catch.

S. Stretch Fish Catch Trends (%)


No. Major Minor Catfish Miscl. Ä  Prawns
carps carps

  D   D  


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i. Deltic region confluence is 320km being common and
constitutes a zone dynamic interaction between
freshwater and tidal (marine) water thus maintaining
high level of productivity.
ii. The lateral expansion of the alluvial soil deposits and
the break-up of the main channel into number of
distributaries, and tidal creeks impart the terminal part
of rivers having deltas with its sea-ward face fringed
with coastal mangroves.
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i. Present streams of high ecological order and are
subjected to force of erosion (in upper reaches) and
deposition in the lower reaches.
ii. The channels in potamic zone of Ganga RS is
meandering type whereas in Brahmaputra it is of
braided type.





 
 
  
    
The major portion of Indus river system lies within Pakistan but its 5
tributaries, viz. Jhelum, Chinab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej originate
from the Western Himalayas.
       
i. In headwaters of these rivers, commercial fisheries are absent.
ii. The common fish species inhabiting are  
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a spp. and    a spp.
iii. The Beas and Sutlej contain indigenous carps and catfishes akin to the
Ganga River.
iv. The Jhelum in Jammu and Kashmir is reported to support commercial
fisheries. The species caught are  a

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Beas and Satluj soecially harbor rainbow & brown trouts in upper reaches.
The trout streams of Kashmir constitute one of the world¶s richest sport fishing waters
attracting anglers and tourists from all over the world.
Exotic  a
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Landing of snow trouts and  a

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m Combined linear length= 6,437km with a total
catchment area of 121 million ha
m It drains the entire peninsular India including-
East of Western Ghats in the West & Southern
parts of central India
m Mahanadi has its own major carp species
common with Gangetic carps
m Other rivers have carp species but not the
Gangetic carps which have been transplnted
m Tributaries of Cauvery originating from Niligiri
hillsharbour coldwater fish like trout & tench
 
  
ƒ The upper reaches harbor game fishes but
commercial fishery is non-existent due to
inaccessible terrain.
ƒ The ichthyofauna is similar to that of the Ganga
river with addition of peninsular species.
ƒ Hilsa is confined to lower reaches and together
with major carps and catfishes forms lucrative
fishery.
ƒ Data on fish production and catch per unit
effort (CPUE) is not available.
ƒ Serves as important source of natural spawn
collection of hill-stream fish who harbor in it
from its source of origin up to Hirakud reservoir
in Sambhalpur district of Orissa.
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not support commercial fishery. It has been observed
that during 1990 the river was maintaining a fish
production of 1 tonne/km/annum.
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ƒ The water resource of the river is extensively
exploited as numerous reservoirs, anicuts and
barrages have been built on the river.
ƒ The game fishes like 
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except the deltaic stretch.
ƒ The commercial fisheries comprise carps (

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Combined linear length= 3,380km
It drains the Narrow belt of Peninsular India (West of Western Ghats)

_   & 


Topographical Features-
 It originates from Amarkantak hills in Bilaspur district of M.P. at
MSL 1,057m from a pond and last flowing through Gujarat falls in
Arabian Sea through µGulf of Cambay / Khambhat¶.
 Total linear length of 1312km covering 3-states: 1o77km (M.P.), 75
(Maharasthra) & 160km (Gujarat)
 Maximum of total catchment (94,235km2) area lying in jurisdiction
of M.P & Gujarat.
 As the river having massive drop during its long course of flowing,
it has provided better opportunity for dam and barrage
constructions.
 Narmada has 41 principal tributaries of which longest one is TAWA.
 Besides 50 rivulets also join it.
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S. Category No. of Species Catch Trend
No. (commercial
importance)
1 Carps 10 (57-64%) Mahseer 23-27%, | 
  18-
19%, |   5-6%...

2 Catfishes 08 (24-38%)       12-14%,  ,


8-10%,  
4-5%,  7-
8%,     1%...

3 Murrels 02 (3-4%)   
  (2%) &     (1%)
4 Featherbac 01 (1-2%)    

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5 Spiny Eels 02 (2-3%)  


    
—    & 
Topographical Features-
 It originates from Mount Vindhya of
Satpura range at MSL 670-1000m.
 Last flowing west ward through M.P.,
Maharasthra & Gujarat falls in Arabian
Sea through µGulf of Cambay / Khambhat¶.
 Catchment 48,000km2
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