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Early Exclusion Elitist orientation, education, reserved for privilege


History classes, handicapped individuals were scorned and
excluded from general society.

1800s Institutionalization Separate residential schools provided care primarily for


visibly handicapped students.

1900-1950 Segregation Public education system develops, Special schools and


classes are formed. Residential schools increase and
become large

1950s and Categorization Increased numbers and categories of special classes


1960s particularly for high incidence exceptional learners.
Testing labeling emphasis. Low incidence students
remain in residential schools.
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1970S Integration Philosophical shift to promote education for


handicapped students in the least restrictive
environment. Placement alternatives are developed.
Moderate and severe handicapped students are served
within the public school.

1980s Mainstreaming Emphasis on serving the needs of the high incidence


exceptional students in the regular classroom.
Physical, social, instructional needs are met in the least
restrictive environment.

1990s Inclusion Merging of special education and regular education


into a unified education system. Student-centered,
individual learning needs are the focus.
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mary Bunch, York University
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Inclusion: A Matter of Social Justice


ASCD, October 2003
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e.g., Oakes, 1985; Slavin, 1993


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Thomas Kuhn
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Ò |   . about the ability of each individual¶s
experiences in school, in terms of learning certainly, but
also in terms of being respected for who they are.

Ò |   . recognizing different types of gifts and abilities


and providing opportunities for everyone to succeed
(everyone is good at some thing).

Ò |   .identifying individual learning needs and


providing for them.

Ò |   .the creation of a learning environment where


barriers to learning are avoided wherever possible.
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7
In any education system, the curriculum is one of the major
obstacles or tools to facilitate the development of more inclusive
system. Curriculum is often unable to meet the needs of a wide
range of different learners. In many contexts, the curriculum is
centrally designed and rigid, leaving little flexibility for local
adaptations or for teachers to experiment and try out new
approaches. The content might be distant to the reality in which
the students live, and therefore inaccessible and unmotivating.
þ 
Teachers' abilities and attitudes can be major limitations for
inclusive education. The training of staff at all levels is often
not adequate. ]here there is training it often tends to be
fragmented, uncoordinated and inadequate. If teachers do
not have positive attitudes towards learners with special
needs, it is unlikely that these children will receive
satisfactory education
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A major constraint is serious shortages of resources ± lack of


schools or inadequate facilities, lack of teachers and/or shortage of
qualified staff, lack of learning materials and absence of support.
The inadequacy of resources available to meet the basic needs in
education is a pervasive theme. It is estimated that achieving
education for all will require additional financial support by countries
and donors of about US$ 8 billion per year (Dakar Framework for
Action, 2000).
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Effective educational policy including the following points

Ò seeking and using pupil and parents perspective;


Ò Designing and enacting clear procedures for recording and
acting on racist incidents;
Ò menerating and sustaining an ethos that is open and vigilant,
and enables pupils to discuss µrace¶ issues and share concerns.
Ò Developing and communicating high expectations with clear
communication that underperformance by any group is
unacceptable.
Ò Reviewing curricular and pastoral approaches to ensure their
sensitivity and appropriateness
Ò Using ethnic monitoring as a routine and rigorous parts of the
school¶s self evaluation
1- ;     This involves establishing a shared
recognition of the existence of a problem as well as a shared
understanding of exactly what the problem
'0 
     The collaborative team needs to consider the
antecedents of the problem. Teams can ask themselves what the most
likely explanation for the occurrence of a problem is and what
variables influence the cause or causes
D0     At this stage the collaborative team looks to where it
wants to be when the problem is solved. Team need to consider
at what point the problem will be considered µsolved¶. Setting objectives
allows collaborators to plan a sequence of interventions aimed at
solving the problem.
4- |
  ( (   Having examined causes and set objectives,
the collaborative team should now be in a position to develop a plan for
solving a problem.
90 .  (( Evaluating and monitoring the process is
important in order to see if the plan is actually solving the problem or if
the collaborative team needs to revisit some of the stages.