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Human Behavior

and Victimology
By : Mr. Delbert C. Regalado JR., RCrim
What is behavior?
Behavior or behaviour is the range of actions and
mannerisms made by organisms, systems, or artificial
entities in conjunction with their environment, which
includes the other systems or organisms around as well as
the physical environment. It is the response of the system
or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether internal or
external, conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and
voluntary or involuntary.
Nature and Concept of Human behavior

▪ refers to the range of behaviors exhibited by humans and


which are influenced by culture, attitudes, emotions,
values, ethics, authority, rapport, hypnosis, persuasion,
coercion and genetics.

▪ refers to the way humans act and interact. It is based on


and influenced by several factors, such as genetic make-up,
culture and individual values and attitudes.
What is Psychology?

• Is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.

• Psychology is the science of mind and behavior.


Psychology includes the study of conscious and
unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought. It
is an academic discipline of immense scope.
Classification of behavior

▪ Overt - Observable acts, movements in the outside world.

▪ Covert acts - Unobservable,  those which go on inside the


skin, They include such private events as thinking and
imagining.
Normal behavior (adaptive or adjusted)
- This is an acceptable behavior because it conforms with the
norms and standards of society.

Abnormal behavior (maladaptive/maladjusted)


- A group of behavior that is deviant from social expectations
because they go against the norms or standards of society.
Factors that affect Human Behavior
(Determinants)

▪ Biological (genes)
▪ Psychological
▪ Physiological
▪ Sociological
Other determinants of Behavior

▪ Need – is a biological requirements for well being of the


individual. Needs create drives.
▪ Drive – is a psychological state of arousal that prompts
someone to take actions.
▪ Motivation – refers to the influences that govern the
initiation, direction, intensity, and persistence of behavior.
Motivation of Human behavior

SELF DETERMINATION THEORY By Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan

Extrinsic Motivation
Extrinsic motivation comes from outside us. We do it because
we are impelled to, for example because we are told to by
someone who has power over us.

Intrinsic Motivation
Intrinsic motivation is done for internal reasons, for example
to align with values or simply for the hedonistic pleasure of
doing something.
Introjected Motivation
Identified Motivation
Introjected motivation is
similar to intrinsic motivation Identified motivation is where
in that it is internalized. The a person knows that
distinctive aspect of this is something needs doing but
that if it is not done, then the has not yet decided to do
person feels the tension of anything about it.
guilt.
Edward Maslow’s Hierarchy of
Needs
Personality Dimensions that
Affect Human Behavior
The Big Five Personality Traits
Openness
This trait features characteristics such as imagination and insight.
People who are high in this trait also tend to have a broad range of
interests. They are curious about the world and other people and
eager to learn new things and enjoy new experiences.
People who are high in this trait tend to be more adventurous and 
creative. People low in this trait are often much more traditional
and may struggle with abstract thinking.
High
• Very creative

• Open to trying new things


Low
• Focused on tackling new challenges
• Dislikes change
• Happy to think about abstract concepts
• Does not enjoy new things

• Resists new ideas

• Not very imaginative

• Dislikes abstract or theoretical


concepts
Conscientiousness
Standard features of this dimension include high levels of
thoughtfulness, good impulse control, and goal-directed
behaviors.
Highly conscientious people tend to be organized and mindful of
details. They plan ahead, think about how their behavior affects
others, and are mindful of deadlines.
High

• Spends time preparing


Low

• Finishes important tasks right away • Dislikes structure and schedules

• Pays attention to detail • Makes messes and doesn't take care


of things
• Enjoys having a set schedule
• Fails to return things or put them back
where they belong

• Procrastinates important tasks

• Fails to complete necessary or


assigned tasks
Extraversion
Extraversion (or extroversion) is characterized by excitability, sociability,
talkativeness, assertiveness, and high amounts of emotional
expressiveness.
People who are high in extraversion are outgoing and tend to gain
energy in social situations. Being around other people helps them feel
energized and excited.
People who are low in extraversion (or introverted) tend to be more
reserved and have less energy to expend in social settings. Social events
can feel draining and introverts often require a period of solitude and
quiet in order to "recharge."
High
• Enjoys being the center of attention
Low
• Likes to start conversations • Prefers solitude

• Enjoys meeting new people • Feels exhausted when having to


socialize a lot
• Has a wide social circle of friends and
acquaintances • Finds it difficult to start conversations

• Finds it easy to make new friends • Dislikes making small talk

• Feels energized when around other • Carefully thinks things through before
people speaking
• Say things before thinking about them • Dislikes being the center of attention
Agreeableness
This personality dimension includes attributes such as trust,
altruism, kindness, affection, and other prosocial behaviors.
People who are high in agreeableness tend to be more
cooperative while those low in this trait tend to be more
competitive and sometimes even manipulative.
High
• Has a great deal of interest in other
people Low
• Takes little interest in others
• Cares about others
• Doesn't care about how other people
• Feels empathy and concern for other feel
people
• Has little interest in other people's
• Enjoys helping and contributing to the problems
happiness of other people
• Insults and belittles others
• Assists others who are in need of help
• Manipulates others to get what they
want
Neuroticism
Neuroticism is a trait characterized by sadness, moodiness, and
emotional instability. Individuals who are high in this trait tend to
experience mood swings, anxiety, irritability, and sadness. Those
low in this trait tend to be more stable and emotionally resilient.
High
• Experiences a lot of stress

• Worries about many different things

• Gets upset easily


Low
• Experiences dramatic shifts in mood • Emotionally stable

• Feels anxious • Deals well with stress

• Struggles to bounce back after stressful • Rarely feels sad or depressed


events
• Doesn't worry much

• Is very relaxed
6 Personality
Approaches
1.PSYCHOANALYTIC APPROACH - Sigmund Freud
- In the psychoanalytic approach, the focus is on the
unconscious mind rather than the conscious mind. It is built on the
foundational idea that your behavior is determined by experiences from
your past that are lodged in your unconscious mind.

- Sigmund Freud 's psychoanalytic theory of personality argues


that human behavior is the result of the interactions among three
component parts of the mind: the id, ego, and superego.
ID
• is the primitive and instinctual part of the mind that contains sexual and
aggressive drives and hidden memories

• The id is the impulsive (and unconscious) part of our psyche which responds
directly and immediately to basic urges, needs, and desires. The personality of
the newborn child is all id and only later does it develop an ego and super-ego.

• The id operates on the pleasure principle (Freud, 1920) which is the idea that
every wishful impulse should be satisfied immediately, regardless of the
consequences. When the id achieves its demands, we experience pleasure
when it is denied we experience ‘unpleasure’ or tension.
The id engages in primary process thinking, which is
primitive, illogical, irrational, and fantasy oriented. This
form of process thinking has no comprehension of
objective reality, and is selfish and wishful in nature.
EGO
• The ego is 'that part of the id which has been modified by the
direct influence of the external world.’

• The ego develops to mediate between the unrealistic id and the


external real world. It is the decision-making component of
personality. Ideally, the ego works by reason, whereas the id is
chaotic and unreasonable.

• The ego operates according to the reality principle, working out


realistic ways of satisfying the id’s demands, often compromising
or postponing satisfaction to avoid negative consequences of
society. The ego considers social realities and norms, etiquette
and rules in deciding how to behave.
SUPER EGO
• The superego's function is to control the id's impulses, especially those
which society forbids, such as sex and aggression. It also has the
function of persuading the ego to turn to moralistic goals rather than
simply realistic ones and to strive for perfection.

• The superego consists of two systems: The conscience and the ideal
self. The conscience can punish the ego through causing feelings of
guilt. For example, if the ego gives in to the id's demands, the
superego may make the person feel bad through guilt.

• The ideal self (or ego-ideal) is an imaginary picture of how you ought
to be, and represents career aspirations, how to treat other people,
and how to behave as a member of society.
2. TRAIT - Gordon Alport
In psychology, trait theory (also called dispositional theory) is an approach to
the study of human personality. Trait theorists are primarily interested in the
measurement of traits, which can be defined as habitual patterns of
behavior, thought, and emotion

According to this perspective, traits are aspects of personality that are


relatively stable over time, differ across individuals (e.g. some people are
outgoing whereas others are not), are relatively consistent over situations,
and influence behavior.

Big 5 traits-extraversion (also often spelled extroversion), agreeableness,


openness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism
3. Biological - Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin's publication – On the Origin of Species (1859) – described the
process of natural selection; characteristics that are not suited to a species'
environment will die out as it struggles to survive, and with time will evolve over
generations so that only adaptive characteristics remain in future offspring.

By looking at the biological bases of human behavior, psychologists are better


able to understand how the brain and physiological processes might influence
the way people think, act, and feel.

Biological factors such as chromosomes, hormones and the brain all have a
significant influence on human behavior, for example, gender. The biological
approach believes that most behavior is inherited and has an adaptive (or
evolutionary) function.
4 Humanistic - Abraham Maslow/ Carl
Rogers

The humanistic approach emphasizes the personal worth of the


individual, the centrality of human values, and the creative, active
nature of human beings. The approach is optimistic and focuses on the
noble human capacity to overcome hardship, pain and despair.

personal responsibility and feelings of self-acceptance cause difference


in personality
5. Behavioral/Social Learning
This is an approach to psychology that focuses on how
one's environment and how external stimuli affect a
person's mental states and development and how these
factors specifically "train" a person for the behaviors they
will be exhibiting later on.
6. Cognitive

The cognitive approach in psychology is a relatively


modern approach to human behaviour that focuses on
how we think. It assumes that our thought processes
affect the way in which we behave.
The 8 Core Cognitive Capacities
1. Sustained Attention
Sustained Attention is the basic ability to look at, listen to and
think about classroom tasks over a period of time. All teaching and
learning depends on it. Without attention, new learning simply
does not happen, and issues of understanding and memory are of
no relevance.
2. Response Inhibition

Response Inhibition is the ability to inhibit one’s own response to distractions.


Imagine two children paying close attention to a lesson, when there is a sudden
noise in the hallway.The child who maintains attention has better response
inhibition.

3. Speed of Information Processing

Speed of Information Processing refers to how quickly a learner can process


incoming information. Some scientists consider speed of information processing a
central aspect of IQ. Many children with attention problems often are unable to
keep up with the lesson plan presented by the teacher.
4. Cognitive Flexibility and Control
- is the ability to change what you are thinking about, how you are thinking about it and even
what you think about it – in other words, the ability to change your mind. Cognitive flexibility is
required in multiple ways throughout the school day.

5. Multiple Simultaneous Attention


- is the ability to multitask with success. It is the ability to move attention and effort back and
forth between two or more activities when engaged in them at the same time. It makes
demands on sustained attention, response inhibition and speed of information processing, and
also requires planning and strategy.

6. Working Memory
- refers to the ability to remember instructions or keep information in the mind long enough to
perform tasks. We use simple working memory when we look at a phone number and keep it in
mind while we dial it. Working memory is the sketch pad of the mind where we put things to
think about and manipulate.
7. Category Formation

Category Formation is the ability to organize information, concepts and skills into
categories, and forms the cognitive basis for higher-level abilities like applying,
analyzing, and evaluating those concepts and skills. Categories are the basis of
language and organization of the world.

8. Pattern Recognition

Pattern Recognition and Inductive Thinking is a special ability of the human


brain to not only find patterns, but figure out in a logical way what those patterns
suggest about what will happen next. In a broad sense, pattern recognition and
inductive thinking form the basis for all scientific inquiry.
The 4 Stages of Cognitive Development
Piaget’s cognitive development
The Sensorimotor Stage
Ages: Birth to 2 Years

Major Characteristics and Developmental Changes:

• The infant knows the world through their movements and


sensations
• Children learn about the world through basic actions such as
sucking, grasping, looking, and listening
• Infants learn that things continue to exist even though they cannot
be seen (object permanence)
• They are separate beings from the people and objects around
them
• They realize that their actions can cause things to happen in the
world around them
Sensation
a. Visual-sight
b. Olfactory-smell
c. Cutaneous-touch
d. Auditory- hear
e. Gustatory- taste
The Preoperational Stage
Ages: 2 to 7 Years
Major Characteristics and Developmental Changes:

•Children begin to think symbolically and learn to use words and pictures to
represent objects.

•Children at this stage tend to be egocentric and struggle to see things from the
perspective of others.

•While they are getting better with language and thinking, they still tend to think
about things in very concrete terms.
The Concrete Operational Stage
Ages: 7 to 11 Years

Major Characteristics and Developmental Changes

• During this stage, children begin to thinking logically about concrete events

• They begin to understand the concept of conservation; that the amount of liquid in a
short, wide cup is equal to that in a tall, skinny glass, for example

• Their thinking becomes more logical and organized, but still very concrete

• Children begin using inductive logic, or reasoning from specific information to a


general principle
The Formal Operational Stage
Ages: 12 and Up

Major Characteristics and Developmental Changes:

• At this stage, the adolescent or young adult begins to think abstractly and
reason about hypothetical problems
• Abstract thought emerges
• Teens begin to think more about moral, philosophical, ethical, social, and
political issues that require theoretical and abstract reasoning
• Begin to use deductive logic, or reasoning from a general principle to specific
information
Vygotsky is most recognized for his concept of Zone of Proximal Development
(ZPD) pertaining to the cognitive development in children. According to the
Vygotsky theory of cognitive development, children who are in the zone of
proximal development for a particular task can almost perform the task
independently, but not quite there yet. They need some help in order to perform
the task successfully.
For example, a five-year-old child knows how to ride a tricycle, but she can’t ride a
bicycle (with two wheels) without his grandfather holding onto the back of her bike.
With her grandfather’s help, this little girl learns to balance her bike. With some more
practice, she can ride the bike on her own. In this scenario, we can say that the child is
in what Vygotsky would call the zone of proximal development for riding a bike.

Vygotsky’s concept of Zone of Proximal Development underscores Vygotsky’s


conviction that social influences, particularly getting instructions from someone,
are of immense importance on the cognitive development in early childhood.
Personality disorders which may lead to
criminal behavior and victimization
PERSONALITY DISORDERS
Personality disorders, formely referred to as character
disorders, are a class of personality types and behaviors
that the American Psychiatric Association (APA) define
as “an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior
that deviates markedly from the expectations of the
culture of the individual who exhibits it”. This category
includes those individuals who begin to develop a
maladaptive behavior pattern early in childhood as a
result of family, social, and cultural influences.
a) Paranoid Personality – this is characterized by suspiciousness,
hypersensitivity, rigidly, envy, excessive self-importance and argumentativeness
plus a tendency to blame others for one’s own mistakes and failures and to ascribe
evil motives to others.

b) Schizoid Personality – individuals with this personality disorder neither


deserve nor enjoy close relationship. They live a solitary life with little interest in
developing friend-ships. They exhibit emotional coldness, detachment or a
constricted affect.

c) Schizotypal Personality – individuals with this type of personality disorder


exhibit odd behaviors based on a belief in magic or superstition and may report
unusual perceptual experiences.
d) Histrionic Personality – this is characterized by attempt to be the center of
attention through the use of theatrical and self-dramatizing behavior. Sexual
adjustment is poor and interpersonal relationships are stormy.

e) Narcissistic Personality – individuals with this type of personality have a


pervasive sense of self-importance. They are preoccupied by fantasies of unlimited
success, power and they often demand excessive admiration and attention.

f) Antisocial Personality – this is characterized by a lifelong history of inability


to conform to social norms. They are irritable and aggressive and may have repeated
physical fights. These individuals also have a high prevalence of morbid substance
abuse disorders.
g) Borderline Personality – this is characterized by instability, reflected in
drastic mood shifts and behavior problems. Individuals with this type of personality
are acutely sensitive to real or imagined abandonment and have a pattern of
repeated unstable but intense interpersonal relationshhips that alternate between
extreme idealization and devaluation. Such individuals may abuse substances or
food, or be sexually promiscuous.

h) Avoidant Personality – individuals with this personality are fearful of


becoming involved with people because of excessive fears of criticism or rejection.

i) Dependent Personality – this is characterized by inability to make even


daily decisions without excessive advice and reassurance.
j) Compulsive Personality – this is characterized by excessive concern with
rules, order efficiency and work coupled with insistence that everyone do things
their way and an inability to express warm feelings.

k) Passive-Aggressive Personality – the individual with personality


disorder is usually found to have overindulged in many things during the early years
to the extent that the person comes to anticipate that his needs will always be met
and gratified.