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‡ MIMO-OFDM is used to achieve high spectral efficiency and high link
reliability over space and frequency selective wireless channels.

‡ MIMO-OFDM capitalizes on the reduced-complexity per sub-carrier

processing of OFDM to enable an easier fulfillment of the high
capacity and/or diversity promises of MIMO systems.

‡ In spatial multiplexing, multiple independent parallel data streams are

transmitted on the MIMO channel, in an attempt to approach the
MIMO capacity.

‡ Linear precoding improves the robustness of spatial multiplexing to

rank deficiencies of the MIMO channel.

‡ Spatial multiplexing with linear precoding simply multiplies the spatial

data streams, prior to transmission, by a precoding matrix that is
designed according to some form of transmit CSI.

‡ The optimization criteria for designing the precoding matrix include

minimizing the mean squared error , maximizing the minimum distance
between two received data vectors, maximizing the minimum SNR and
maximizing the mutual information.
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‡ Interpolation is a method of constructing new data points within
the range of a discrete set of known data points.

‡ Often a number of data points are obtained by sampling or

experimentation, and Interpolation tries to construct a function
which closely fits those data points.

‡ Spatial interpolation allows an estimation of data to be made at a

particular point given that surrounding values are known.

‡ Temporal interpolation would be able to approximate the value

of a given point at a particular instance in time, even if the device
is not sensing at that exact moment. This would require that at
least one previous and one subsequent device values are available
for that particular device.

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‡ Precoding is multi-stream beamforming. In single beamforming,
the same signal is emitted from each of the transmit antennas
with appropriate phase such that the signal power is maximized
at the receiver input.

‡ The benefits of beamforming are to increase the received signal

gain, by making signals emitted from different antennas add up
constructively, and to reduce the multipath fading effect.

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‡ In spatial multiplexing, a high rate signal is split into multiple
lower rate streams and each stream is transmitted from a different
transmit antenna in the same frequency channel.

‡ Spatial multiplexing is a very powerful technique for increasing

channel capacity at higher signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). The
maximum number of spatial streams is limited by the lesser in
the number of antennas at the transmitter or receiver.

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‡ In diversity methods, a single stream is transmitted, but the signal

is coded using techniques called space-time coding.

‡ The signal is emitted from each of the transmit antennas with full
or near orthogonal coding.


‡ Makes efficient use of the spectrum by allowing overlap.

‡ OFDM is more resistant to frequency selective fading than single

carrier systems are.

‡ Eliminates ISI and IFI through use of a cyclic prefix.

‡ Using adequate channel coding and interleaving one can recover

symbols lost due to the frequency selectivity of the channel.

‡ Channel equalization becomes simpler than by using adaptive

equalization techniques with single carrier systems.

‡ It is possible to use maximum likelihood decoding with reasonable

complexity, as OFDM is computationally efficient by using FFT
techniques to implement the modulation and demodulation functions.

‡ In conjunction with differential modulation there is no need to

implement a channel estimator.

‡ Provides good protection against cochannel interference.

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‡ Sensitive to Doppler shift.

‡ Sensitive to frequency synchronization problems.

‡ High peak-to-average-power ratio (PAPR), requiring linear

transmitter circuitry, which suffers from poor power efficiency.

‡ Loss of efficiency caused by Cyclic prefix/Guard interval.


‡ Digital Audio and Video Broadcasting

‡ Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL)

‡ Wireless Networking

‡ Power-line Technology

OFDM has become one of the most popular air-link

technologies for future broadband wireless
communications. To further improve its bandwidth
efficiency and system performance, adaptive resource
allocation and smart antenna techniques have been widely.
OFDM for wireless communication has intensively been an
active research area in the past 10 years due to
implementation of DSP based algorithm using VLSI.
However there are many unsolved issues OFDM based
radio networks, such as spectrum sensing , interference
identification and transceiver design. Still some of the open
issues and remaining hurdles on the way to a full-scale
commercialization of MIMO systems are antenna issues ,
receiver complexity , system integration and signaling and
CSI at transmitter.

‡ William Stallings, ³Wireless Communications and Networking´,

Prentice Hall, 2003.
‡ Theodore S. Rappaport, ³Wireless Communications: Principles
& Practice´, Prentice Hall, 2002.
‡ www.wikipedia.com