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Intro to DWDM

Presentation_ID © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 1


Fiber Networks

• Time division multiplexing


Single wavelength per fiber Channel 1 Single
Fiber (One
Multiple channels per fiber Wavelength)
4 OC-3/STM1 channels in Channel n
OC-12/STM4
4 OC-12/STM4 channels in OC-48/STM16
16 OC-3/STM1 channels in OC-48/STM16

• Wave division multiplexing


l1
Multiple wavelengths per fiber
l2 Single Fiber
4, 16, 24, 40 channels (Multiple
per system Wavelengths)
ln
Multiple channels per fiber

Presentation_ID © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 2


WDM Basics

ESCON Channel ESCON Channel


Fibre Channel Fibre Channel
Gigabit Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet

DWDM creates parallel data channels over a common


fiber by multiplexing disparate data streams onto an ITU
defined grid of discrete wavelengths.

Presentation_ID © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 3


Metro Enterprise DWDM
Requirements
• Rich Interface support
Escon, FibreChannel, FDDI, Gigabit Ethernet,
OC-3, OC-12, OC-48
Protocol and bit-rate independence
• Scalability & Ease of Adding Services
• Protection architectures supported
• Cost: 1st installed cost and life cycle cost
• Size: Optimized for enterprise applications
• Quality / Reliability / In Service Replacement
Presentation_ID © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 4
TDM and DWDM Comparison

• TDM (SONET/SDH)
DS-1
Takes sync and async signals DS-3
and multiplexes them to a OC-1
SONET Fiber
single higher optical bit rate OC-3
OC-12 ADM
E/O or O/E/O conversion OC-48

• (D)WDM
Takes multiple optical
signals and multiplexes OC-12c
DWDM
onto a single fiber OC-48c Fiber
OADM
OC-192c
No signal format conversion

Presentation_ID © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 5


Lowering the Cost of Network

IP
Reducing unnecessary
layers of equipment ATM
significantly
Lowers equipment cost SONET/SDH
Lowers operational cost
Simplifies architecture
OPTICAL

Presentation_ID © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 6


DWDM characteristics

• Layer 1 based
• Temperature controlled lasers and
precision filters
• 50,100,200 Ghz spacing on ITU-T G.692
grid
• Many components are passive with very
high MTBF
• Very precise but fundamentally simplistic
technology
1 to 1 remapping of various input λ to specific dwdm output λ

Presentation_ID © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 7


Synchronization over DWDM
SONET Network Point-to-Point DWDM
• Synchronization • All links are asynchronous to
driven from network each other
• Router interface timed Fiber • Line synchronization
to PRS via Rx WDM driven from router
~
~ ~ ~ • Far end derives timing
OC-48c REGEN from line

Ethernet Ethernet
OC-48c DS1
T1 Gigabit SONET OC-12c OC-3c
Ethernet Network OC-48c

PRS

Presentation_ID © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 8


WDM Concepts—λ Transformation

(1) 2.488 Gbps

...
1310nm/1550nm Dense
Wavelength
Division
Multiplexing

(16) 2.488 Gbps


λ 1λ 2λ 3λ 4λ 5λ 6λ 7λ 8 …λ 16

1530-1565 nm Range
1310nm/1550nm 16 x 2.5 Gbps 40Gb/s

16 Uncorrelated Lasers 16 Wavelength Stabilized Lasers

Presentation_ID © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 9


Course WDM

• Coarse (or Wide) Wavelength Division Multiplexing refers


to less expensive systems that use wider spacing between
wavelengths, which is normally about 10 nm or greater
spacing between wavelenths.

• One very simple CWDM solution would be 1300 nm and


1550 nm wavelenths on a single fiber with a very simple
filter.

• Generally the further apart wavelengths are the more they


interfere with each other which may limit the usable
distances for CWDM

Presentation_ID © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 10


Fiber Attenuation

• Telecommunications
industry uses two
windows: 1310 nm &
1550 nm
1550
window
• 1550 nm window is
1310
window
preferred for long-haul /
DWDM applications
Less attenuation
λ
Wider window

Presentation_ID © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 11


ITU Wavelength Grid (G.692)

λ
1528.77 nm 1560.61 nm
(196.10 THz) 0.39 nm (192.10 THz)
(50 GHz)

• ITU-T λ grid is based on 193.10 THz + 50 GHz


• Its purpose is to standardize lasers not DWDM systems
• There is no standard for DWDM systems
Number and spacing of λ s are design variables

Presentation_ID © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 12


DWDM Enabling Technologies

• Stable and narrow linewidth lasers


Low-chirp and high-extinction ratio
• High-selectivity wavelength filters
Low-insertion loss and crosstalk
• High-power optical amplifiers
Low noise
Wide, flat passband

Presentation_ID © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 13


Anatomy of a DWDM System
Terminal A Terminal B

D
Transponder M E Transponder
Interfaces U M Interfaces
X U
Post- Line Line
Amplifiers Pre- X
Amp Amp Amp
Direct Direct
Connections Connections
Basic building blocks Typical configurations
Optical amplifiers 7 x 20 dB
Optical multiplexers 5 x 25 dB
Stable optical sources 3 x 33 dB

Presentation_ID © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 14


DWDM Transponder Interfaces

DWDM TRANSMITTER
From Terminal SR SONET LR-2
To Mux
Equipment RCVR 3R XMTR

PM

DWDM RECEIVER
To Terminal SR-1 SONET LR
Equipment XMTR 3R RCVR From DeMux
PM

• One transponder required per wavelength


• Full 3R functionality (re-amp, re-shape, re-time)
• Terminal side is 1310 SR, line side is 15xx LR
• Limited SONET/SDH performance monitoring
Presentation_ID © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 15
Optical Filter Technology
Fiber Bragg Grating

λ 1 ,λ 2 ,λ 3 ,...λ n λ 1, ,λ 3 ,
λ 2 ...λ n

• Low cost, based on standard. Singlemode fiber


• Ultranarrow, but hard to control filter shape

Dielectric Filter
λ 1 ,λ 2 ,λ 3 ,...λ n

λ λ 1, ,λ 3 ,
2
...λ
• Well established technology, up to 200
n
layers
• 100 GHz limit today, but good filter shape
Presentation_ID © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 16
Optical Add Drop Multiplexer
(OADM)
Terminal Terminal

D
E Drop M
Channel
M U
Amp
U X Amp
X Wavelength
Wavelength Conversion
Signal Filtering
Splitting Wavelength
Combination

Presentation_ID © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 17


Why DWDM—The Business Case

Conventional TDM Transmission—10 Gbps


40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km
TERM 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 TERM
TERM RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 TERM
TERM RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 TERM
TERM RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 TERM
RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR

OC-48
DWDM Transmission—10 Gb/s OC-48
OC-48 OC-48
OC-48
OC-48
OC-48 120 km 120 km 120 km OC-48
OA OA OA OA

4 Fibers 1 Fiber
32 Regenerators 4 Optical Amplifiers

Presentation_ID © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 18


DWDM Concepts—
Optical Amplifier

Broadband
DWDM ...
Optical
Amplification

...

λ 1λ 2λ 3λ 4λ 5λ 6λ 7λ 8…λ 16
λ 1λ 2λ 3λ 4λ 5λ 6λ 7λ 8…λ 16

Attenuated Channels Amplified Channels

All Wavelengths Amplified Simultaneously


Presentation_ID © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 19
Optical Amplifier

Pin Pout = GPin


G

• 4 THz of optical bandwidth near 1550 nm


• Nearly ideal noise performance
• Low signal distortion, low cross talk
• High-output saturation power
• Simple and efficient
Presentation_ID © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 20
EDFA
(Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier)

EDF
...
EDF
WDM
... Optical Optical
Coupler Optical
Isolator Filter Isolator

980 or 1480
Pump
Laser

• Avoids opto-electrical conversion of a repeater


• EDFAs amplify all λ s in 1550 nm window simultaneously
• Pump laser is only active part

Presentation_ID © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 21


The Limit of Optical Amplification

Total Power
OA Output Power

Signal

Optical
SNR

Noise

Number of OAs, Distance

• OAs can be cascaded over long distances


• Limit imposed by noise accumulation and finite gain

Presentation_ID © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 22


DWDM Multiple Spans

au l
Long H

• OA noise and fiber dispersion limit total


distance before regeneration
Optical-Electrical-Optical conversion
Full 3R functionality: Reamplify, Reshape, Retime
• Longer spans can be supported using back
to back systems
Presentation_ID © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 23
First Generation Optical Protection

Working

Protect

• Basic system just provides capacity


• Need protection—buy two DWDM systems
• Relies on terminal equipment for switching
• Applies mainly to Enterprise networks

Presentation_ID © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 24


Second Generation Optical
Protection

Working

Protect

• Protection migrates to DWDM equipment


Only one DWDM with protection
modules needed
Switching decision controlled by transponders
Technologies include optical switching and
OA gating

Presentation_ID © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 25


Metro DWDM

Metro DWDM is an emerging market for next generation DWDM equipment


• Metro DWDM is fundamentally different than long-haul DWDM
• Rapid-service provisioning
Protocol/bitrate transparency
Data-centric protected transport

Presentation_ID © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 26


Cisco Metro 1500

• 32 channel system
• 8 channels/shelf
• Point-to-Point and Point-to-MultiPoint
• Up to 2.5Gbps/channel, bit rate and
protocol independent
• 1+1 line level protection
• SNMP manageable

Presentation_ID © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 27


Cisco Metro 1500

• WCM with 3R Function (Retime, Regen, Reshape)


• WCM with 2R Function (Regen, Reshape)
• WDM 8 / 16 / 24 / 32 Channel (ITU-T G.692)
• Configurable Optical Add & Drop
• Network Element Manager Interface (NEMI)
– Cisco Works Manageable
– SNMP Agent
– TELNET, PPP
– GUI
• AC 240V or 110V Auto Power

Presentation_ID © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 28


Metro 1500 Chassis &
WDM Channel Modules

• 8 WCM’s / shelf. 32 WCM’s in 4 shelves


5ru / shelf up to 9 shelves in a 7 ft rack

• 6 WCM card types, 32 channels each


–Low Speed Transparent,10-200Mbps,1310nm MM/SM
–High Speed Transparent,100-1250Mbps,
1310nm MM to 100-200Mbit or SM 100-1250Mbit
–OC-12, 622Mbps with clock, 1310nm SM
–OC-48, 2.5Gbps with clock, 1310nm SM
–Gigabit Ethernet/Fiber Channel with clock, 850nm MM
–Coupling Link, 1062.5Mbps with clock, 1310nm

Presentation_ID © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 29


Metro 1500 Interface Matrix
WCMType Low High Speed 622Mb Coupling 850nm 2.5Gb/s 4 Port
Speed Trans Link 1.062/1.25 TDM
Trans 1.062Gb Gb ESCON

(Sep/Oct) (Sep/Oct)
(2 Slots)

3R=Retime, 2R 2R 3R 3R 3R 3R 2R
Regen, Reshape

2R=Regen,
Reshape
10Mbit Ethernet SM/MM N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

Sysplex Timer SM N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A


100Mbit Ethernet SM/MM SM/MM N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Needs 5db
attenuator on
M1500 local
Tx
FDDI SM/MM SM/MM N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Needs 5db
attenuator on
M1500 local
Tx
OC3 SM/MM SM/MM N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Needs 5db
ATM/SDH/SONE attenuator on
T M1500 local
Tx
ESCON SM/MM SM/MM N/A N/A N/A N/A SM/MM
Needs 5db
attenuator on
M1500 local
Tx
FICON N/A SM N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

OC12 N/A N/A SM/MM N/A N/A N/A N/A

IBMCoupling N/A N/A N/A SM N/A N/A N/A


Link
(GDPS)
Fiber Channel N/A SM N/A N/A MM N/A N/A
Needs 5dB
attenuator on
local Fiber
Channel Tx
Gigabit Ethenet N/A SM N/A N/A MM N/A N/A
Needs 5db
attenuator on
Local LX/LH
Gbic Tx
OC48 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A SM N/A

Presentation_ID © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 30


Metro 1500 Optical Components

• 4 Mux/DMux card sets


–Channels 1-8, 9-16, 17-24, 25-32
Ch 1-16 C-Band, Ch 17-32 L-Band
• Band Splitter Module (BSM)
–trunk connection + 4 band connections
• Remote Switch Module (RSM)
–Trunk A, Trunk B, common

Presentation_ID © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 31


Fiber Optic Budget

• Fiber Loss ~ 0.25 dB to 0.5dB / KM


• 26 dB Budget in the System or 21 dB for
OC48 WCM
• 2dB Loss / BSM or 4dB for pass through
in ring configurations
• 3.5dB Loss / RSM

Presentation_ID © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 32


Metro 1500 DWDM Operation

MUX DE-
MUX DMUX
MUX

Ch Ch
4 4

1) CPE input from std SM/MM laser into channel specific line card
2) Remap from std MM/SM λ to DWDM λ , e.g. channel 4
3) Transfer from line card to MUX via short external jumper
4) Aggregation of all λ s on MUX inputs into a single output connection
5) Output from MUX over dark fiber into DMUX, (Up to 100KM)
6) Separation of λ s into discrete paths by precision comb filter
7) Transfer of channel specific λ from DMUX to line card

8) Remap from DWDM λ to std MM or SM λ for connection to CPE

Presentation_ID © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 33


DWDM Benefits

• DWDM provides hundreds of Gbps of scalable


transmission capacity today
Provides capacity beyond
TDM’s capability
Supports incremental, modular growth
Transport foundation for next
generation networks

Presentation_ID © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 34