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Andry Samuel

Rachmawati Wahyuningtyas
Yogi priasetyono



A complex sentence consists of one

independent clause, and one or more
dependent clauses. The clauses are connected
through either a subordinate conjunction or a
relative pronoun. The dependent clause may be
the first or second clause in the sentence. If
the first clause in the sentence is dependent, a
comma usually separates the two clauses1.
= In the following complex sentences, subjects are in yellow, verbs
are in green, and the subordinators and their commas (when
required) are in red.

A. When he handed in his homework, he forgot to give the

teacher the last page.
B. The teacher returned the homework after she noticed the
C. The students are studying because they have a test tomorrow.
D. After they finished studying, Juan and Maria went to the
E. Juan and Maria went to the movies after they finished

= When a complex sentence begins with a subordinator such as

sentences A and D, a comma is required at the end of the
dependent clause. When the independent clause begins the
sentence with subordinators in the middle as in sentences B, C,
and E, no comma is required. If a comma is placed before the
subordinators in sentences B, C, and E, it is wrong.
 Ê  Ê  ÊÊ  Ê 

Clauses can be independent or
dependent. Independent clauses can
potentially stand alone and are not structurally
dependent on other clauses.
If a sentence has only one clause that clause is
of course, normally an independent clause.
We have writing class today
Ê  Ê 
= A dependent clause contains a complete subject and a
complete verb as does a main clause.
½ A dependent clause always begins with a subordinate
½ It presents secondary less important information.
½ It modifies the key idea in the main clause.
½ It controls reader focus.
= Example:
Because it was very dark, the boys missed the road
Dependent clauses can·t normally stand alone. Of
course every sentence must have al least one
independent clause.

= ere is a partial list of subordinate connectives.

= They will help you to identify dependent

After Before Since Until whether

Although ow So that What Which
As If Than When While
As if In order That Where Who
because like unless whereas Why
= 1) Time: when, whenever, while, since, after, before, until, as, etc.
- I will take a vacation, when I have the time.
= 2) Place: where, wherever
- We will meet, wherever the committee decides.
= 3) Manner: as, as if
- e acted, as if he owned the place.
= 4) Comparison
- I don·t swim as well as he does.
= 5) Reason, cause, purpose: as, because, so that, in order that,
since, for fear that
- It will not be necessary to study that chapter, because you have
already read it.
6) Result: so«.that, such«.. that
- The book was so interesting that I read it in one evening.
= 7) Condition: if, whether, unless, on condition that, as / so long
as, supposing (that)
- e sign the contract on condition, that he be allowed to consult
his wife.

= Rewrite the following pairs of sentences to make one complex sentence.

= 1) Although
John is only sixteen
e has already entered a university
= 2) So that
The boys could live on little money
They decided to find an expensive place to live.
= Complete the following sentence using subordinating word.
3) ««««..Mary came to this country, she has made many friends.
a. Although
b. If
c. Since
d. Because
e. While
= 4) e will sign the contract, «««.. his wife has no
a. As
b. Since
c. So that
d. As long as
e. Even though
= 5) Alex didn·t study ««., he failed the test.
a. Consequently
b. Unless
c. In spite of
d. So long as
e. Until