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Scheduling

Chapter 16

© 2007 Pearson Education


How Scheduling
fits the Operations Management
Philosophy

Operations As a Competitive
Weapon
Operations Strategy
Project Management Process Strategy
Process Analysis
Process Performance and Quality
Constraint Management
Process Layout Supply Chain Strategy
Lean Systems Location
Inventory Management
Forecasting
Sales and Operations Planning
Resource Planning
Scheduling

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Air New Zealand
 Flight and crew scheduling is a complex process.
 Scheduling begins with a five-year market plan.
 This general plan is further refined to a three-year
plan, and put into an annual budget in which flight
segments have specific departure and arrival times.
 Crew availability must be matched to the flight
schedule. Two types of crews–pilots and
attendants–each comes with its own set of
constraints.
 Sophisticated optimization models are used to
design generic minimum-cost schedules.
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Scheduling

 Scheduling: The allocation of resources over time


to accomplish specific tasks.
 Demand scheduling: A type of scheduling
whereby customers are assigned to a definite time
for order fulfillment.
 Workforce scheduling: A type of scheduling that
determines when employees work.
 Operations scheduling: A type of scheduling in
which jobs are assigned to workstations or
employees are assigned to jobs for specified time
periods.
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Performance Measures
 Job flow time: The amount of time a job spends in the
service or manufacturing system. Also referred to as
throughput time or time spent in the system, including
service.
 Makespan: The total amount of time required to complete a
group of jobs.
 Past due (Tardiness): The amount of time by which a job
missed its due date or the percentage of total jobs processed
over some period of time that missed their due dates.
 Work-in-process (WIP) inventory: Any job that is waiting
in line, moving from one operation to the next, being delayed,
being processed, or residing in a semi-finished state.
 Total inventory: The sum of scheduled receipts and on-
hand inventories.
 Utilization: The percentage of work time that is
productively spent by an employee or machine.
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Gantt Charts

 Gantt chart: Used as a tool to monitor the


progress of work and to view the load on
workstations.
 The chart takes two basic forms: (1) the job or activity
progress chart, and (2) the workstation chart.
 The Gantt progress chart graphically displays the
current status of each job or activity relative to its
scheduled completion date.
 The Gantt workstation chart shows the load on
the workstations and the nonproductive time.

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Gantt Progress Chart
Gantt Progress Chart for an Auto Parts Company
Start activity
Scheduled activity time
Finish activity Current
date Actual progress
Nonproductive time

Job 4/17 4/18 4/19 4/20 4/21 4/22 4/23 4/24 4/25 4/26

Ford

Plymouth

Pontiac
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Gantt Workstation Chart

Gantt Workstation Chart for Hospital Operating Rooms

© 2007 Pearson Education


Scheduling
Customer Demand
 Three methods are commonly used to schedule
customer demand:
(1) Appointments assign specific times for service
to customers.
(2) Reservations are used when the customer
actually occupies or uses facilities associated
with the service.
(3) Backlogs:
• The customer is given a due date for the
fulfillment a product order, or
• Allow a backlog to develop as customers arrive
at the system. Customers may never know
exactly when their orders will be fulfilled
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Scheduling Employees
 Rotating schedule: A schedule that rotates
employees through a series of workdays or hours.
 Fixed schedule: A schedule that calls for each
employee to work the same days and hours each
week.
 Constraints: The technical constraints imposed on
the workforce schedule are the resources provided
by the staffing plan and the requirements placed on
the operating system.
 Other constraints, including legal and behavioral
considerations, also can be imposed.
© 2007 Pearson Education
Workforce Scheduling
Example 16.1
The Amalgamated Parcel Service is open 7 days
a week. The schedule of requirements is:
Required employees
Day M T W Th F S Su
Number of employees 6 4 8 9 10 3 2

The manager needs a workforce schedule that provides two


consecutive days off and minimizes the amount of total slack capacity.
To break ties in the selection of off days, the scheduler gives
preference to Saturday and Sunday if it is one of the tied pairs. If not,
she selects one of the tied pairs arbitrarily.

© 2007 Pearson Education


Workforce Scheduling
Example 16.1 Steps 1 & 2
Required employees
Day M T W Th F S Su
Number of employees 6 4 8 9 10* 3 2
Employee 1 X X X X X

Step 1. Find all the pairs of consecutive days that exclude the
maximum daily requirements. Select the unique pair that has the lowest
total requirements for the 2 days.
Friday contains the maximum requirements (10), and the pair S–Su has
the lowest total requirements. Therefore, Employee 1 is scheduled to
work Monday through Friday.
Step 2. If a tie occurs, choose one of the tied pairs or ask the employee
to make a choice.
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Workforce Scheduling
Example 16.1 Step 3
Required employees
Day M T W Th F S Su
Number of employees 6 4 8 9 10* 3 2
Employee 1 X X X X X
Requirements 5 3 7 8 9* 3 2
Employee 2 X X X X X

Step 3. Subtract the requirements satisfied by the Employee 1 from the


net requirements for each day the employee is to work and repeat step
one.

Again the pair S–Su has the lowest total requirements. Therefore,
Employee 2 is scheduled to work Monday through Friday.
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Workforce Scheduling
Example 16.1 Step 4
Required employees
Day M T W Th F S Su
Number of employees 6 4 8 9 10* 3 2
Employee 1 X X X X X
Requirement 5 3 7 8 9* 3 2
Employee 2 X X X X X
Requirement 4 2 6 7 8* 3 2
Employee 3 X X X X X
Requirement 3 1 5 6 7* 3 2
Step 4. Repeat steps 1 through 3 until all the requirements have been
satisfied. After Employees 1, 2, and 3 have reduced the requirements,
the pair with the lowest requirements changes, and Employee 4 will be
scheduled
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Education
Workforce Scheduling
Example 16.1 Step 4 continued
Required employees
Day M T W Th F S Su
Number of employees 6 4 8 9 10* 3 2
Employee 1 X X X X X
Requirement 5 3 7 8 9* 3 2
Employee 2 X X X X X
Requirement 4 2 6 7 8* 3 2
Employee 3 X X X X X
Requirement 3 1 5 6 7* 3 2
Employee 4 X X X X X
Requirement 3 1 4 5 6* 2 1
Employee 5 X X X X X
© 2007 Pearson Education
Workforce Scheduling
Example 16.1 Step 4 continued
Required employees
Day M T W Th F S Su
Requirement 2 0 3 4 5* 2 1
Employee 6 X X X X X
Requirement 2 0 2 3 4* 1 0
Employee 7 X X X X X
Requirement 1 0 1 2 3* 1 0
Employee 8 X X X X X
Requirement 0 0 0 1 2* 1 0
Employee 9 X X X X X
Requirement 0 0 0 0 1* 0 0
Employee 10 X X X X X
© 2007 Pearson Education
Workforce Scheduling
Example 16.1
Final Schedule
Day M T W Th F S Su
Employee 1 X X X X X off off
Employee 2 X X X X X off off
Employee 3 X X X X X off off
Employee 4 off off X X X X X
Employee 5 X X X X X off off
Employee 6 off off X X X X X
Employee 7 X X X X X off off
Employee 8 X X X X X off off
Employee 9 off X X X X X off
Employee 10 X X X X X off off
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Workforce Scheduling
Example 16.1 Final Schedule
Final Schedule M T W Th F S Su
Employee 1 X X X X X off off
Employee 2 X X X X X off off
Employee 3 X X X X X off off
Employee 4 off off X X X X X
Employee 5 X X X X X off off
Employee 6 off off X X X X X
Employee 7 X X X X X off off
Employee 8 X X X X X off off
Employee 9 off X X X X X off
Employee 10 X X X X X off off Total
Capacity, C 7 8 10 10 10 3 2 50
Requirements, R 6 4 8 9 10 3 2 42
Slack, C – R 1 4 2 1 0 0 0 8
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Operations Scheduling
 Operations schedules are short-term plans
designed to implement the master production
schedule.
 Operations scheduling focuses on how best to use
existing capacity.
 Often, several jobs must be processed at one or more
workstations. Typically, a variety of tasks can be
performed at each workstation.
 Job shop: A firm that specializes in low- to
medium-volume production and utilizes job or batch
processes.
 Flow shop: A firm that specializes in medium- to
high-volume production and utilizes line or
continuous processes.
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Manufacturing Process

Shipping Department
Raw Materials

Legend:
Batch of parts
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Job Shop Dispatching
 Dispatching: A method of generating schedules in job
shops whereby the decision about which job to process next
is made using simple priority rules whenever the workstation
becomes available for further processing.
 Priority sequencing rules: The rules that specify the
job processing sequence when several jobs are waiting in line
at a workstation.
 Critical ratio (CR): A ratio that is calculated by dividing
the time remaining until a job’s due date by the total shop time
remaining for the job.
CR = (Due date – Today’s date)/Total shop time remaining
 Total Shop Time = Setup, processing, move, and expected
waiting times of all remaining operations, including the operation
being scheduled.
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Job Shop Dispatching
 Earliest due date (EDD): A priority sequencing
rule that specifies that the job with the earliest due
date is the next job to be processed.

 First-come, first-served (FCFS): A priority


sequencing rule that specifies that the job arriving
at the workstation first has the highest priority.

 Shortest processing time (SPT): A priority


sequencing rule that specifies that the job requiring
the shortest processing time is the next job to be
processed.
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Job Shop Dispatching

 Slack per remaining operations (S/RO): A


priority sequencing rule that determines
priority by dividing the slack by the number
of operations that remain, including the one
being scheduled.

S/RO = ((Due date – Today’s date) – Total shop time remaining)

Number of operations remaining

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Scheduling Jobs for
One Workstation
 Single-dimension rules: A set of rules such as
FCFS, EDD, and SPT, that bases the priority of a
job on a single aspect of the job, such as arrival
time at the workstation, the due date, or the
processing time.
 Priority rules, such as CR and S/RO, incorporate
information about the remaining workstations at
which the job must be processed. We call these
rules multiple-dimension rules.
 Multiple-dimension rules: A set of rules that apply
to more than one aspect of a job.
© 2007 Pearson Education
Example 16.2
Single-Dimension Rule Sequencing
Five engine blocks are waiting for processing. The processing times
have been estimated. Expected completion times have been agreed.
The table shows the situation as of Monday morning. Customer
pickup times are measured in business hours from Monday morning.
Determine the schedule by using the EDD rule and then the SPT rule.
Calculate the average hours early, hours past due, WIP inventory,
and total inventory for each method.
If low job flow times and WIP inventories are critical, which rule should
be chosen?

© 2007 Pearson Education


Example 16.2
Single-Dimension Rule – EDD

Job Scheduled Actual


Engine Processing Flow Customer Customer Hours
Block Begin Time Time Pickup Pickup Hours Past
Sequence Work (hr) (hr) Time Time Early Due
Ranger 0 + 8 = 8 10 10 2
Explorer 8 + 6 = 14 12 14 2
Econoline 150 14 + 3 = 17 18 18 1
Bronco 17 + 15 = 32 20 32 12
Thunderbird 32 + 12 = 44 22 44 22

Average job flow time = 23 hours Average hours early = 0.6 hour

Average hours past due = 7.2 hours Average WIP = 2.61 blocks
10 + 14 +8 18
+ 14
+ +3217++44
32 + 44
Average total inventory = 2.68 engine blocks 44
© 2007 Pearson Education 44
Example 16.2
Single-Dimension Rule – SPT

Job Scheduled Actual


Engine Processing Flow Customer Customer Hours
Block Begin Time Time Pickup Pickup Hours Past
Sequence Work (hr) (hr) Time Time Early Due
Ranger
Econoline 150 00 + 83 = 3 10
18 18 15
Explorer
Explorer 83 + 66 = 9 12
12 12
Econoline
Ranger 150 149 + 38 = 17 18
10 17 3 7
Bronco
Thunderbird 17
17 + 15
12 = 29 20
22 29 7
Bronco
Thunderbird 29
29 + 15
12 = 44 22
20 44 24

Average job flow time = 20.4 hours Average hours early = 3.6 hour

Average hours past due = 7.6 hours Average WIP = 2.32 blocks
18 + 12 +317
+ 9++20
17++ 44
29 + 44
Average total inventory = 2.73 engine blocks 44
© 2007 Pearson Education 44
Comparing the
EDD and SPT Rules
Using the previous example, a comparison of the EDD and
SPT sequencing is shown below.
EDD SPT
Average job flow time 23.00 20.40
Average hours early 0.60 3.60
Average hours past due 7.20 7.60
Average WIP 2.61 2.32
Average total inventory 2.68 2.73
• The SPT schedule has a lower average job flow time and lower WIP inventory.
• The EDD schedule has better customer service, (average hours past due) and
lower maximum hours past due.
• EDD also has a lower total inventory because fewer hours were spent waiting
for customers to pick up their engine blocks after they had been completed.
© 2007 Pearson Education
Example 16.3
Multiple-Dimension Rule – CR

Operation Time
Time at Remaining Number of
Engine to Due Date Operations Shop Time
Job Lathe (hr) (Days) Remaining Remaining CR S/RO
1 2.3 15 10 6.1 2.46
2 10.5 10 2 7.8 1.28
3 6.2 20 12 14.5 1.38
4 15.6 8 5 10.2 .78

Time remaining to due date


CR =
Shop time remaining
© 2007 Pearson Education
Example 16.3
Multiple-Dimension Rule – S/RO

Operation Time
Time at Remaining Number of
Engine to Due Date Operations Shop Time
Job Lathe (hr) (Days) Remaining Remaining CR S/RO
1 2.3 15 10 6.1 2.46 0.89
2 10.5 10 2 7.8 1.28 1.10
3 6.2 20 12 14.5 1.38 0.46
4 15.6 8 5 10.2 .78 – 0.44

Time remaining to due date – Shop time remaining


S/RO =
Number of operations remaining

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Comparing the
CR and S/RO Rules

Operation Time
Time at Remaining Number of
Engine to Due Date Operations Shop Time
Job Lathe (hr) (Days) Remaining Remaining CR S/RO
1 2.3 15 10 6.1 2.46 0.89
2 10.5 10 2 7.8 1.28 1.10
3 6.2 20 12 14.5 1.38 0.46
4 15.6 8 5 10.2 .78 – 0.44

CR Sequence = 4–2–3–1
S/RO Sequence = 4 – 3 – 1 – 2

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Priority Rule Summary
• The S/RO rule is better than the EDD rule
and the CR rule but it is much worse than
the SPT rule and the FCFS rule for this
example. FCFS = 1–2–3–4
• S/RO has the advantage of allowing SPT = 1–3–2–4
schedule changes when due dates EDD = 4–2–1–3
change. These results cannot be CR = 4–2–3–1
generalized to other situations because
only four jobs are being processed. S/RO = 4–3–1–2
Shortest Slack per
Processing Earliest Critical Remaining
FCFS Time Due Date Ratio Operation
Avg Flow Time 17.175 16.100 26.175 27.150 24.025
Avg Early Time 3.425 6.050 0 0 0
Avg Past Due 7.350 8.900 12.925 13.900 10.775
Avg WIP 1.986 1.861 3.026 3.129 2.777
Avg Total Inv 2.382 2.561 3.026 3.129 2.777
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Scheduling Jobs for
Multiple Workstations
 Priority sequencing rules can be used to schedule more than
one operation. Each operation is treated independently.
 Identifying the best priority rule to use at a particular operation
in a process is a complex problem because the output from one
process becomes the input for another.
 Computer simulation models are effective tools to determine
which priority rules work best in a given situation.
 When a workstation becomes idle, the priority rule is applied to
the jobs waiting for that operation, and the job with the highest
priority is selected.
 When that operation is finished, the job is moved to the next
operation in its routing, where it waits until it again has the
highest priority.

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Johnson’s Rule

 Johnson’s rule: A procedure that minimizes makespan


when scheduling a group of jobs on two workstations.
 Step 1. Find the shortest processing time among the jobs not
yet scheduled. If two or more jobs are tied, choose one job
arbitrarily.
 Step 2. If the shortest processing time is on workstation 1,
schedule the corresponding job as early as possible. If the
shortest processing time is on workstation 2, schedule the
corresponding job as late as possible.
 Step 3. Eliminate the last job scheduled from further
consideration. Repeat steps 1 and 2 until all jobs have been
scheduled.

© 2007 Pearson Education


Example 16.5
Johnson’s Rule at the Morris Machine Co.

Time (hr)
Motor Workstation 1 Workstation 2
M1 12 22
M2 4 5
M3 5 3
M4 15 16
M5 10 8

Eliminate
Eliminate
Eliminate
Eliminate M5
M2 M3
M1 from
and
from
from consideration.
the only job
consideration.
consideration. The
The
The next
remaining
next
next to shortest
be
shortest
shortest time
time
time is
is
Shortest time is 3 hours at workstation 2, so
M5 isat
M2
scheduled
M1 at at Workstation
is M4.
workstation
workstation #1,
#2, 1,schedule
so
so so schedule
schedule M1
M5 M2 first.
next.
next to last.
schedule job M3 last.

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Sequence = M2 M1 M4 M5 M3
Example 16.5
Johnson’s Rule at the Morris Machine Co.

The schedule minimizes the idle time of workstation 2


and gives the fastest repair time for all five motors.
No other sequence will produce a lower makespan.
Gantt Chart for the Morris Machine Company Repair Schedule
Workstation

1 M2 M1 M4 M5 M3 Idle—available
(4) (12) (15) (10) (5) for further work

2 Idle M2
(5) Idle M1
(22)
M4
(16)
M5
(8)
M3
(3)

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65
Day

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Labor-limited Environments
 The limiting resource thus far has been the number of
machines or workstations available. A more typical constraint
is the amount of labor available.
 Labor-limited environment: An environment in which
the resource constraint is the amount of labor available, not
the number of machines or workstations.
1. Assign personnel to the workstation with the job that has
been in the system longest.
2. Assign personnel to the workstation with the most jobs
waiting for processing.
3. Assign personnel to the workstation with the largest
standard work content.
4. Assign personnel to the workstation with the job that has
the earliest due date.
© 2007 Pearson Education
Linking Operations
Scheduling to the Supply Chain
 Advanced planning and scheduling (APS)
systems: Systems that seek to optimize resources across
the supply chain and align daily operations with strategic
goals. Four characteristics of these systems are:
1. Demand Planning. This capability enables companies in a
supply chain to share demand forecasts.
2. Supply Network Planning. Optimization models based on
linear programming can be used to make long-term decisions.
3. Available-to-Promise. Firms can use this capability to promise
delivery to customers by checking the availability of
components and materials at its suppliers.
4. Manufacturing Scheduling. This module attempts to
determine an optimal grouping and sequencing of
manufacturing orders based on detailed product attributes,
production line capacities, and material flows.
© 2007 Pearson Education
Solved Problem 1

 The Food Bin grocery store operates 24 hours per day, 7


days per week. At the end of the month, they calculated the
average number of checkout registers that should be open
during the first shift each day. Results showed peak needs on
Saturdays and Sundays.

1. Develop a schedule that covers all requirements while giving two


consecutive days off to each clerk. How many clerks are needed?
2. Plans can be made to use the clerks for other duties if slack or idle
time resulting from this schedule can be determined. How much idle
time will result from this schedule, and on what days?

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Solved Problem 1

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Solved Problem 1

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Solved Problem 2

 The Neptune’s Den Machine Shop specializes in overhauling outboard


marine engines. Currently, five engines with varying problems are
awaiting service. The best estimates for the labor times involved and
the promise dates (in number of days from today) are shown in the
following table. Customers usually do not pick up their engines early.

Develop separate schedules using SPT and then EDD rules. Compare them
using average job flow time, % of past due jobs, and maximum past due days.
Calculate average WIP inventory (in engines) and average total inventory.
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Solved Problem 2
SPT

EDD

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Solved Problem 2

SPT EDD

Average job flow time 9.80 15.20

% of past due jobs 40% 60%

Maximum past due days 11 7

Average WIP inventory 2.13 3.30

Average total inventory 3.52 3.52

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Solved Problem 4
Cleanup of chemical waste storage basins involves two
operations. Operation 1: Drain and dredge basin. Operation 2:
Incinerate materials. Management estimates that each
operation will require the following amounts of time (in days):

Find a schedule that minimizes the makespan. Calculate the


average job flow time of a storage basin through the two operations.
What is the total elapsed time for cleaning all 10 basins?
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Solved Problem 4
Four jobs are tied for the shortest process time: A, D, E, and H. (E and H
are tied for first place, while A and D are tied for last place.) We arbitrarily
choose to start with basin E
Dredge Incinerate
A 3 1
B 4 4
C 3 2
D 6 1
E 1 2
F 3 6
G 2 4
H 1 1
I 8 2
E H G F B J I C D A
J 4 8
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Solved Problem 4

The Gantt machine chart for this schedule


Storage basin

Dredge EH G F B J I C D A

Incinerate E H G F B J I C D A

E H G F B J I C D A

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