Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 66

m 

  
  
  

  
 
 
O




 
  
 
 

u 
  



 
 
  
  

 
The animation is done with
Centuries ago it was known that the custom motion paths (line
pressure in a container could be type) to bounce balls off the
increased dramatically by heating walls. ³Effect Options«´ was
water in it. used to set it to repeat.
@he first engine was
created using water in a
heated container. An
Egyptian named Hero
invented it.
Now when the water molecule strikes
A later inventor figured he could the front of the chamber it pushes the
propel a vehicle using steam power vehicle slightly forward. Normally, it
in the same way the Hero engine did. may bounce to the back of the
A common misconception is that the chamber and cancel this effect.
exhaust does the propelling, but how However, if there is an opening then
can steam that has left the container there will be no counter push. @he
have any effect on the chamber? vehicle received a forward push
@hey can¶t. As the water molecules without the backward push because
bounce around the chamber they the molecules are shooting out the
strike all sides imparting a small nozzle without hitting back of the
push (pressure) on where it strikes. chamber.
Eventually someone tried to push
a piston with the pressure of
steam. @he piston was also
connected to a crankshaft to turn
up and down motion into circular
motion. Unfortunately, when the
piston reached the top, the
pressure prevented it from coming
back down.

The animation of the water vapor is done


with custom motion paths (line type) to
bounce balls off the walls.
This animation is tricky because other
objects have to move at the same time. The
³Start´ setting of the objects are set to start
³With Previous´.
The top circle also spins in step with the
moving rod. The rod is the trickiest because
it moves and rotates at the same time.
A solution was to add another
chamber. With a valve the
steam can be released into a
cool chamber. @he steam will
condense to liquid water. A
vacuum will be left. A vacuum
cannot pull the piston down,
but outside air pressure can
push it down.

The animation is similar to the


previous page but with a longer
sequence.

This animation is a bit complicated


so don¶t expect to follow it if you
are new to PowerPoint
animations.
A more efficient design was to
create steam in a separate
chamber and then introduce the
high pressure to the piston
chamber as needed. Like
before, after the piston reaches
the top, the valve to the
condenser is opened (not shown
this time)..
Here¶s are some pictures of
the steam engines used in
factories.
Here¶s a portable steam
engine that could be used
around a farm.
@he early steam locomotives
were so novel that they
charged people to see them
work.
uome inventors wanted the
engine to propel a vehicle that
was both a boat and an
automobile.
@he steam locomotive was
one of the most evident ways
we put steam pressure to
work.
However, there was a new
way to create pressure and
that was with a combustible
liquid. It could be ignited
with a spark to produce gases
of carbon dioxide and water
vapor. @his was the gasoline
engine.
ë K Alteration of Latin chaos space, chaos Date: 1779
The gas engine is one of the wonders of the 19th
century. Now, within three years of the 20th
century, it is a novel machine, eagerly sought by
many people. It is thought by persons who have
not studied its principles that it is a steam-engine,
using gas or gasoline as fuel for the purpose of
making steam. This is erroneous. Gas and
gasoline in specific proportion with air are
explosive material.
In the next decade the steam engine will occupy the
same relative position to the gas engine that the flint
and steel now do to the lucifer match.
the tallow dip to the electric light...
...the stage coach to the modern electric
street cars, and civilization will record another
grand stride toward the millennium.
@he writer of that 1897
article knew gas
engines were much
cleaner burning than
the steam engines that
ran off of coal or
wood. However, he
didn¶t realize we would
pack so many of these
gas powered
automobiles together.
@he pollution again
returned.
herhaps hydrogen in the future will be our next
jump in clean burning fuel. We may choose to let
it ignite and provide pressure like current gas
engines or generate electricity using fuel cells to
power electric motors.
9 hits =
1 hit
9 sec sec
0
u  

9 
O
 

18

& 18 hits = 2 hits 
hressure comes from the
9 sec sec !
@ e bouncing molecules are done t e same way as before.
gas molecules hitting the @ is time I ave a digital clock going and a pressure gauge.
side of the container. Let¶s @ e arrow on t e gauge is made wit two arrows grouped,"
one is made transparent. @ e spin effect makes it spin in t e
count them out loud. middle. #
uo we saw that as
volume decreases the
pressure increases.
GG !'
"' !
GG ' 
' 

£athematically when one We can also show this by


value goes down as the having them multiply by
other goes up, we call it each other.
inversely proportional.
#)* +
9 hits =
1 hit
9 sec sec
0
u  

9 

18 
#)* +


We saw that we can increase pressure by reducing the !
volume, but we can also do it by increasing the
temperature and therefore the speed of the gas
K
"
molecules. At room temperature the hits are 1 hit/sec
#
#)* "+ 9 hits 2 hits #)*
=
4.5 sec sec "+

u  
9


18 
#)* + 
We are going from room temperature 27 
ºC = 300 K to double that temperature,
which is 600 Kelvin. Let¶s count the @ e faster bouncing was easy. I just !
number of collisions at this higher speed. c anged t e speed from slow (3 sec) K
"
We get twice the number of collisions and to 1.5 sec. @ ere is no word for 1.5
sec. so you set it wit t e @iming
therefore twice the pressure.
menu. #
!
+

"+

"+

uo we just saw that when temperature goes up,


so does the pressure. @his makes sense because
higher temperature means the gas molecules are
going faster, colliding more often, and hitting
harder.
hressure is proportional
to the number of gas
molecules, which we
count in moles.

Another way to increase pressure is to


increase the number of gas molecules.
@his is the approach the steam engine
used by heating water.
This animation is a
copy of the previous
ones, but the sides of
the container are
separate lines that can
be flown outward at the
same time with an
simultaneous explosion
@his is also a safety problem. Any closed graphic (from
container that has liquid in and gets Autoshapes). The
sound is added with
heated will likely increase pressure ³Effect options«´
dramatically until the container bursts.
This animation uses the
Grow/shrink emphasis
effect. It also uses the
Let¶s review what we learned. If the transparency emphasis
effect. I like it because
volume decreases the pressure will it helps show how
increase. @hen the reverse happens if pressure and volume
the volume increases. @he pressure are related.
drops as gas molecules are farther
apart.
The circle is drawn and the
line type is set to be dashed
and it is set to be 6pt thick
As we also learned, we can (Draw tool bar).
increase pressure by
introducing more molecules of The circle uses the spin
emphasis effect.
the gas into the volume.
The top part of the circle is
hidden by a black box.
 -   
-  We also learned that if temperature
doubles, the pressure doubles if
!-  volume is fixed. Or if the container
is flexible, the volume will double
with pressure staying constant. Or
both can increase such that the
product of the two doubles.
r P is pressure measured in atmospheres.
r is volume measured in Liters
r n is moles of gas present.
r  is a constant that converts the units. It's value is
0.0821 atmrL/molrK
r T is temperature measured in Kelvin.
r Simple algebra can be used to solve for any of these
values.
r P = nT = nT n=P T=P  = nT
r P T n P
@o make these quantities equal, we need a conversion
constant. We call it R (the Universal Gas Constant)
This is where I play an excerpt from the
radio program ³Car Talk.´ In the
recording the Car Talk experts mentioned
P =nT when they were explaining why
the pistons on someone¶s hatchback
wasn¶t working in the winter.
r Pressure=1 atmosphere
r olume=1 Liter
r n = 1 mole
r =0.0821
r What is the temperature?
Let¶s find what temperature the gas must be if we have the following
readings for these other properties.

Normally 1 mole of a gas at 1 atmosphere pressure takes up 22.4


liters. uo it must be very cold to only have a volume of 1 liter.
Î.   
-

/0m 1
^ry ice can achieve high pressure in the
way water does when it turns into steam.
However, dry ice doesn¶t not need much
heat. As it warms up more CO2 will
become gas causing a closed container to
explode.

This is a copy of the water animation. I


just changed the color of the liquid and
spheres to white.
uome people put dry ice in 2 liter bottles and
add a little water to warm the dry ice quickly.
@hey the put on the cap and throw the bottle out
the window. A few minutes later it explodes
with a huge boom! However, if the bottle
explodes early, this may happen«

£aybe they should have learned h =nR@


7     4


 


8
 
$"9Î/9*1
Î 2
3

4  !  5  
'G  6'  6
G
CO2= 12g/mol + 2*16g/mol = 44 g/mol
114 g 1 mol = 2.6 mol
44 g
7     4


 


8
 
$"9Î/9*1
6
" -$:3- +
:+
'  3 G

'   


32.3 atm 14.7 psi = 475 psi
1 atm
A heavy duty tire will explode around 75 psi, so we know this bottle is
going to explode at 475 psi. Remember that¶s 475 pounds every square
inch. @his bottle has about 50,000 lbs of total force pushing outwards.
CON ESIONS
r 60 mm of Hg
r 60 torr
All
r 29.9 in. of Hg Equal
r 1 Atmosphere
r 14. lbs. per sq. in.
r Temperature conversionsK
r Kelvin = Celsius + 2 ! 
 
r OC = (OF -2) x 5/9

r OF= OC x 9/5 + 2
Click on brown rectangles to popup an image. Image
will go away on its own. This is animation that uses a
trigger. It can make very interactive screens.
£anometers
from Greek   meaning

sphygmomanometer
r sphygmometer
r Greek    
pulse (from  .
to
throb)

;
O
@his is the inner mechanisms of certain pressure gauges.
When a pressure cooker is used, what
causes the increased pressure?
P =nT
P=nT
P= nT

Temperature goes from 25oC to 100oC


Turn to Kelvin by adding 2 to Celsius
29K to K 5K/29K=25% increase in pressure
þ   

 i.iii

ii.iii

 i.iii


ri
ii.iii

i.iii

i.iii
i ii ii ii

      
r ou are on a camping trip and one tire as a slow leak.
Finally it goes flat and you don·t ave a spare tire. ou
suggest crus ing some of t e dry ice you ad broug t
along and funneling it into t e tire t roug t e tire valve.
How many grams of dry ice would you need to blow up a
tire wit a volume of 80 liters and pressure of 32 psi?
Current temp is 25OC.
r C ange 32 psi to atm and 25OC to Kelvin
r 32 psi x 1 atm = 2.177 atm
14.7 psi
r 25OC= 273+25=298 K
r olve PV=nR@ for n (moles) n = PV
R@
r n = 2.177 atm x 80 Liters
r 0.0821 atmrL/molrK x 298K
r n = 7.118 moles > 7.118 mol x 44.01 g/mol = 313.3 g or 310
g
r 310 g x 1 lbs per 454 grams = 0.68 lbs.
'G 6 'G 6

   

'G 6 'G 6


 
'G 'G We can take advantage of the fact
that the R constant is the same even if
  the conditions of the gas changes.

*  
* 

 '

    
<
m

 

 

"  
  
8
<
-  '-$ 
u= 
$ $ 
  
'G 'G
  !

Single condition problem


r 3 pounds (1,362 g) of dry ice (frozen CO2) is packed in a 1 gallon
(3.785 L) glass jar. W at will be t e pressure in t e jar after t e dry ice
turns to gas and warms to 20OC? (report pressure in psi and assume
t e jar doesn't explode)
r C ange 1,362g to moles 1,362g x 1 mole = 30.95 moles
44.01 g
r C ange 20OC to 293 K
r olve PV=nR@ for P P = nR@ P = 30.95 mole x 0.0821atmrL/molrK x
293K
V 3.785 Liter
r P = 196.7 atm. C ange to pi ± 196.7 atm x 14.7 pi = 2,891 pi
1 atm
r P = 2,891 pi
O2
Kr

Gases are special in that no matter what the gas is,


the number of atoms (or molecules) in a set volume is
the same.
@       
    
 
The periodic table
reports the atomic mass
of all elements. For
elements that are gases,
the mass listed is what
22.4 liters (~5 gal.) of
that gas would weigh at
standard temperature
and pressure (0oC, 1 atm).
Diatomic gases are
double that weight.
2 + O2 = 80% x 28 + 20% of 32 = 22.4 + 6.4 = 28.8 >> 1

H3 (ammonia) 14 + 3 = 17 17/28.8 = 0.6 t e denity of air.

Cl2 = 35.5 + 35.5 = 71 71/28.8 = 2.49 time t e denity of air.

Gaoline = C8H18 > 6*12 + 1*18 = 90 90/28.8 ~ 3 time eavier

HCl ( ydrogen c loride= 1 +35.5 = 36.5 36.5/28.8 = 1.27


r 520 gas cylinders (168 tons) of chlorine gas was first used as
a chemical weapon at Ypres, France in 1915. 5,000 soldiers
(about 1/ American) died and 15,000 injured.
r The density of chlorine kept the gas close to the ground.
r Natural gas (methane) CH4
r Propane CHCH2CH
r Acetone CHCOCH
r Carbon monoxide CO
r Hydrogen cyanide HCN
r Hydrogen sulfide H2S
r Carbon dioxide CO2

Using the heriodic @able calculate the density of these compounds in


the vapor phase. Assume standard temperature and pressure.
In 1984 in a village in the African nation of Cameroon«.

Using the heriodic @able calculate the density of these compounds in


the vapor phase. Assume standard temperature and pressure.
@here is a lake known as Nyos. It¶s a beautiful lake that
fills the cauldron of a ancient volcano. Nothing about
On the itnight
givesofclues to the danger
the apocalypse, that rests
Ephriam Cheinwas
its deep
in hiswaters.
mud brick
house on a cliff above Nyos. Around 9 h.£., Che heard a rumbling
that sounded like a rockslide. @hen a strange white mist rose from the
lake. He went to bed, feeling ill.
At first light, Che
headed downhill.
Nyos had turned a
dull red. He noticed
the silence; the
morning sounds of
songbirds and insects
were absent. He also
saw dead animals.
Frightened, he ran
farther along the lake
and downhill to the
village. @here, nearly
every one of the
village's 1,000
residents was dead,
including his parents,
siblings, aunts and
uncles. It was the end
of the world, or so
Che believed.
Eye witnesses said they saw an invisible river coming down the hill knocking
down brush and small trees. It traveled at about 50 mph but could not be seen.

All told, some 1,800 people perished around Lake Nyos. Later the killer was
found to be carbon dioxide, which is not considered toxic, but its high density
keeps it close to the ground causing asphyxiation. ^ensity also caused it to
flow down the hillsides asphyxiating more people.
ucientists found the carbon dioxide had been building up over time at the
bottom layer of the lake. £agma vents were pumping CO2 into the lake
forming carbonic acid (H2CO3) which essentially is carbonated water. @he
water pressure kept it from decomposing in to CO2 gas which would float and
dissipate. However, a rock slide or small earthquake triggered the carbonic
acid to decompose into CO2 causing the lake to explode.
@o prevent build up of CO2 scientists installed pipes that reach down to the
depths and trigger a release of CO2. @his huge fountain is only powered by
the release of CO2.
'G 6
'G  6
£olar mass

£olar mass  6


'G

An automated early warning device could be designed to pump samples


of air into a 4.0 liter container until the pressure was 3.0 atmospheres. At
that point the container is weighed and the temperature taken. Let¶s say
the net weight is 21 grams and the temperature is 33OC (91OF). What
molar mass would the device calculate?
Molar mass = 21g x 0.0821 atm‡L/mol‡K x (273+33) K
.0 atm x 4.0 L
Molar mass = 44 g/mole, which indicates that the air is mostly CO2, so
the alarm is sounded.
#$  

  
* > -0
#$  !-0
 #  0
!  
G  ?> 
G #<# @ $ 
; = gT
' 
P
#*
;/12"
;
2"

On a lighter note, let¶s solve an issue about this little people


basketball game. @he basketball seems too light. Calculate what
kind of gas the basketball is filled with.