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CONFLICT , NEGOTIATION

AND CONSENSUS

Ms. Arthi Subramanian


M. Sc. II yr
Objectives
 Explain conflict, process,
management techniques.
State the causes of conflict.
Enumerate conflict and
negotiation processes.
Understand various conflict
management styles.
Please write
Please write aa
what comes
what comes toto mind
mind when
when II
say
say
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DEFINTION
 A process that begins when one party perceives
that another party has negatively affected or is
about to negatively affect, something that the
first party cares about.

 Conflict is the dissension that occurs when 2 or


more individual with different values, interest,
goals or needs view things from different
perspectives
Definition of Conflict
(1 of 2)

A situation in which
someone
believes that his or her own
needs have been denied.
 A process that begins when an
individual or group perceives
differences and oppositions between
itself and another individual or group
about interests and resources, beliefs,
values, or practices that matter to
them.

 Conflict is defined as the internal or


external discord that results from
differences in ideas, values, or feeling
between 2 or more people( Bessie
marquis, 2009)
VIEWS ON CONFLICT
 TRADITIONAL VIEW(1930’s to 1940’s)
Conflict is harmful & need to be
suppressed and avoided.
 MODERN VIEW ( after 1970’s)

It is a natural occurrence. Conflict should


be encouraged, It is necessary for
harmonious, peaceful, cooperative
atmosphere leading to TEAM WORK
CHARACTERISTICS
1. At least 2 parties are involved

2.Difference in goals and or values

3. Interaction involves behaviors that will


defeat, reduce, suppress, or gain a
victory

4. Opposing actions and counteractions

5. Imbalance or favored power position


Types of conflict
1. Intra sender
2. Inter sender
3. Intra role
4. Personal role
5. Intra group
6. Inter group
7. Role ambiguity
8. Role overload
Sources of Conflict
Goal • Goals conflict with goals of others
Incompatibility

Different Values • Different beliefs due to unique


and Beliefs background, experience, training
• Caused by specialized tasks, careers
• Explains misunderstanding in cross-
cultural and merger relations
Sources of Conflict
Goal Three levels of interdependence
Incompatibility
Pooled Resource
Different Values
and Beliefs
A B C
Task
Interdependence Sequential
A B C

Reciprocal A

B C
Sources of Conflict
Goal
Incompatibility

Different Values
and Beliefs

Task
Interdependence
Lack of opportunity
--reliance on stereotypes
Scarce • Increases
Lack competition for resources to
of ability
Resources fulfil goals communication heightens
-- arrogant
conflict perception
Ambiguity
• Lack of rules guiding relations
Lack of motivation
• Encourages political tactics
-- conflict causes lower motivation to
Communication communicate, increases stereotyping
Problems
Sources of Conflict

 Intragroup :
 Leadership
 Task structure
 Group composition/ Size
 Cohesiveness/ group task
 External threats
 Outcomes
 Inter group :
 System differentiation
 Task interdependence
 Scarce resources
 Jurisdictional ambiguity
 Separation of knowledge
 Firm authority

 Potential sources :
 Unclear duties / roles
 Conflicts of interest
 Communication barriers
 Dependence on one another
 Relationship difference
 Response to regulation
 Unsolved prior conflict
 Potential sources :
 Unclear duties / roles
 Conflicts of interest
 Communication barriers
 Dependence on one another
 Relationship difference
 Response to regulation
 Unsolved prior conflict
 Conflict of ideas
 Dooley and Fryxell (1999) found that conflict of
ideas at the early stage of decision making (idea
formulation) was desirable.
 However, it can cause problems at a later stage
when the ideas have to be implemented.
 Conflict of feelings are often called
personality conflict
Types of Conflict
 Based on
1. Task
2. Relationship
3. Process
LEVELS OF CONFLICT
 Inter personal conflicts : between 2
individuals

 Inter group conflicts : between 2 small /


large / between a large and a small group.

- Increased group cohesiveness


- Increased production
- Stereotyping
- Hostile behviours towards the other group
INTER- PERSONAL CONFLICT
JO-HARI WINDOW
Knows about others Does not know about others

Knows OPEN SELF HIDDEN SELF


About
Himself

Does not
know about BLIND SELF UNDISCOVERED
himself SELF
 Personal – Group Conflicts : between
an individual and small / large group.
 Case study :
Hannagh is a nurse in a busy surgical ward. She has 4
bed ridden patients in her care. She has finished 2
washes and has got 2 more washes to finish. She is
due to go to her lunch break. This may create a conflict
with the rest of the staff if they believe that all baths
should be completed by noon.
 Inter personal conflicts : Within a person.
Tension due to disagreement within him /
herself.
 Result from having to make a choice

between 2 things of equal value( +ve/-


ve )
Case study :
Sarah is a nurse manager who is a mother
experiences intrapersonal role conflict when
she must choose between going to a parent
teacher conference about her child or going to
a professional nursing meeting.
INTRA PERSONAL CONFLICT
 FRUSTRATION
 GOAL CONFLICT
 ROLE CONFLICT
FRUSTRATION
 The obstacle that hinders a person in
attaining a goal is a source of a
frustration.
 It is caused by –
 Environmental Factors
 Personal inadequacies
 Conflict frustration
GOAL CONFLICT
 Conflict related to GOALS
 Three Types –
 APPROACH- APPROACH CONFLICT
 APPROACH – AVOIDANCE CONFLICT
 AVOIDANCE- AVOIDANCE CONFLICT
ROLE CONFLICT
 SOURSE OF ROLE CONFLICT –
 Competitive Environment
 Differential Reward system
 Scarce Resource
 Role Ambiguity
 Cultural Differences
The Conflict Process

Conflict
Perceptions
Sources of Manifest Conflict
Conflict Conflict Outcomes
Conflict
Emotions
Latent Conflict
(antecedent conditions)

Felt Conflict Perceived Conflict

Manifest Conflict

Conflict Resolution of
Conflict management

Conflict aftermath
 Latent : Antecedent condition predicting
conflict behaviour
 Perceived : Cognitive awareness of stressful
situation exists
 Felt : Feelings and attitudes are present and
affect the conflict
 Manifest : Overt behaviour from 3 earlier
stages
 Resolution : Tension is reduced , negotiation,
problem solving is done to find a beneficial and
mutually agreeable situation
 Aftermath : Negotiation, Peace building,
reconciliation may prevent reoccurrence /
escalation of conflict
Reaction to conflict
 Sublimation
 Vigorous physical exercise
 Increased efforts
 Identification
 Reinterpreting goals
 Substituting goals
 Rationalization
 Attention getting
 Reaction formation
 Flight into fantasy
 Projection
 Displacement
 Fixation
 Withdrawal
 Regression
 Repression
 Conversion
Escalation of Conflict tactics
 Competition
 Righteousness
 Stop listening
 Labeling
 Dealing with personalities
 Issue expansion
 Bickering
 Coalition
 Formation
 Threats
 Avoidance
 Intentional hurt
De-escalation of Conflict
 Listening
tactics
 Showing tact and concern
 Appealing to de-escalation
 Goodwill gestures
 Airing feeling
 Meta communication
 Response to all levels
 Fractionalization
 Position paper
 Problem solving
 Establishing criteria
Effects of Conflict
Undesirable effects :

 The trend is toward escalation and polarization, it


almost always yields negative results.
 Contention spreads from original to peripheral issues
 Disputants pull others into conflict
 Unresolved conflict causes alienation, violence
 Disputants scapegoat a peripheral group members
Desirable effects
 Conflict helps eliminate or reduce the likelihood
of groupthink.
 A moderate level of conflict across tasks within a
group resulted in increased group performance
while conflict among personalities resulted in
lower group performance (Peterson and Behfar,
2003)
 Prevents intellectual stagnation
 Stimulates employees curiosity
 Prevents impetus for problem solving
 Facilitates employees personal change and
maturation.
 Conflict may have some desirable consequences.
 Out of control conflict may be destructive.
 Conflict-producing behaviors are more likely from those high
in aggression, dominance, and the need for autonomy.
 An important factor related to conflict is the style of
leadership and the resulting group norms regarding conflict.
Organizational Conflict
Outcomes
Potential benefits
 Improves decision making
 Strengthens team dynamics

Dysfunctional outcomes
 Diverts energy and resources
 Encourages organizational politics
 Encourages stereotyping
 Weakens knowledge management © Photo disc. With permission.
 FUNCTIONAL CONFLICT
Conflict that support the goals of the group
and improve the performance are
functional or Constructive form of conflict. It
is Creatively managed conflict that shakes
people out of their mental ruts and give
them new points of view.
 DYSFUNCTIONAL CONFLICT
 It is a conflict that hinders group

performance due to poor


communication, lack of openness
& trust between people, failure
to be responsive to the needs &
aspirations of the others.
Task vs. Socioemotional
Conflict
 Task-related conflict
 Conflict is aimed at issue, not parties
 Basis of constructive controversy
 Helps recognize problems, identify solutions,
and understand the issues better

 Socioemotional conflict
 Conflict viewed as a personal attack
 Foundation of conflict escalation
 Leads to dissatisfaction, stress, and turnover
 Conflicts exist whenever
incompatible activities occur.
 Differences in information, beliefs,
values, interests, or desires.
 A scarcity of some resource.

 Rivalries in which one person or group

competes with another.


 Fear
Conflict Scales
2 Inventories are available to measure conflict
 1. Rahim organisational conflict inventory I
(1983)
-- 3 dimensions are measured
a.) Intrapersonal b.) Intragroup c.) Intergroup
2. Perceived conflict scale ( 1992)
4 subscales of conflict
a.) Intrapersonal b.) Interpersonal c.) Intergroup/
other department 4.) Intergroup/ support
services
- To determine how much conflict exists
- Determine causes and effects of conflict
and the relationship of conflict to other
variables of interest to nursing
administrators
- Barki and Handurik’s : Proposed
dimension : Disagreement and negative
emotions have implications for
development of another instrument
containing items that reflect 3
dimensions
APPROACHES TO CONFLICT
1.Denial : Conscious or unconscious.
2.Ignore or Suppress : “ If I don’t acknowledge
it , it’ll go away”
3.Win – Lose situation : “ I’m going to win! I’ll
get him” This leads to aggressiveness, feud.
4.Lose – Win approach : Have less power,
deny power, low self esteem.
5.Bargaining or Compromise : The parties
agree to accept a solution somewhere between
2 points of view
6. Mediation or arbitration : Involves addition of
3rd , neutral party. Each party in the conflict
presents his or her side to the mediator. The
mediator then makes a decision that’s fair to
both parties.
3 conditions ( Hasling , 1975):
1. Agree to solution
2. Agree on the mediator
3. Agree to obey decision of mediator.
7. Problem solving / collaborating : Both
parties work together for a solution. Creative,
constructive, high – risk approach.
8. Withdrawal : Not an acceptable approach.
CONFRONTATION
 According to Johnson, 1972 “ An attempt to
have the other person examine his or her
behavior , in order to engage in more
acceptable behavior”
 Face to face, direct encounter with another
person
 Both parties recognize that there’s conflict and
agree to work on it.
 Private place
 Location of the meeting : Neutral area.
 Role of the advocate, if employed.
Conflict Management
 Conflict management is defined as “the
opportunity to improve situations and
strengthen relationships” (BCS, 2004).
–proactive conflict management
–collaborative conflict management
CONFLICT MANAGEMENT
Deutsch (1971) : Variables affecting conflict
 Personal characteristics : values, goals ,
resources , beliefs
 Previous relationship : trust, respect, degree
of attachment between the parties
 Nature of the problem : size, complexity,
significance, environment/ setting, audience
 Strategies and tactics
 Consequences : Gains and looses may be
important than management
Conflict Management Styles
High
Competing Collaborating
Assertiveness

Compromising

Avoiding Accommodating

Low High
Cooperativeness
Blake and Mouton’s Conflict
Grid
 Blake and Mouton (1970) proposed a grid that
shows various conflict approaches.
 The 1,1 style is the hands-off approach, also called
avoidance.
 The 1,9 position, also called accommodation, is
excessively person-oriented.
 The 5,5 position represents a willingness to compromise.
 The 9,1 is the bullheaded approach, also called
competing.
 The optimum style for reducing conflict is the 9,9
approach, also called collaboration.
Walker and Harris (1995) offer the following
practical tips for implementing the 9,9 style.
Encouraging behavior occurs when a team
member:

1. Avoids feelings or perceptions that imply the other person


is wrong or needs to change.
2. Communicates a desire to work together to explore a
problem or seek a solution.
3. Exhibits behavior that is spontaneous and destruction-free
4. Identifies with another team member’s problems, shares
feelings, and accepts the team member’s reaction.
5. Treats other team members with respect and trust.
6. Investigates issues rather than taking sides on them.
 Blake and Mouton’s 5 styles of
Interpersonal conflict :
Forcing, Withdrawing ,Smoothing, Sharing, Problem
solving

Thomas ( 2 dimensions )
1. Assertiveness ( Satisfying one’s own concerns)
2. Cooperativeness ( Attempting to satisfy another’s
concerns)

Resulting Behaviour :
Competing, Collaborating, Compromising, Avoiding,
Accommodating
Conflict Management
Strategies
1. Emphasizing Superordinate Goals
 Emphasizing common objectives rather
than conflicting sub-goals
 Reduces goal incompatibility and
differentiation
2. Reducing Differentiation
 Removing sources of different values and
beliefs
 Generalist careers and job rotation

 Common dress code and status

 Common work experiences


3. Communication and
Understanding
Employees understand and
appreciate each other’s views
through communication
 Informal gatherings
 Formal dialogue sessions
 Relationship restructuring
 Drum sessions

G. Diggens. With permission.


Other Ways to Manage
Conflict
4. Reduce Task Interdependence
 Dividing shared resources

 Combine tasks

 Use buffers

5. Increase Resources
 Duplicate resources

6. Clarify Rules and Procedures


 Clarify resource distribution
G. Diggens. With permission.
 Change interdependence
7.Balance of power : Promote cooperation
and collaboration in accomplishing a task
8.Defining the conflict : Agreement about the
definition of the real problem.
9.Recognizing human needs : Recognition of
one’s own human needs and empathy for the
other party’s human needs.
Managing Conflict in Drum
Circles
Doug Sole leads a group of employees in
Toronto in a drum circle. Drum circles
encourage participants to learn how to
cooperatively work together in
unstructured workplaces. They also
improve mutual understanding.

G. Diggens. With permission.


Dimensions of conflict handling
intentions
Assertive

Assertiveness ---> Competing < ---


Collaborating
--->
--->
Avoiding Compromising

Un assertive Cooperativeness
Accommodating
5 steps of conflict
management
 1. Initiate a discussion, timed sensitively and held
in an environment conducive to private
discussion
 2. Respect individual difference
 3. Be empathetic with all parties
 4. Assertive dialogue, facts, clearly defined
central issue, different viewpoints, intension,
framing main issue based on common principles,
attentive listener
 5. Agree on solution which balance power and
strategies of all parties
Diane Yale (1988) outlines three
metaphorical approaches to
conflict:

 The competitive, adversarial metaphor


 Often results in a winner and loser in the resolution process.
 The problem-solving metaphor
 If [conflict] is focused on problem-solving, everything that
comes at you is seen as a problem or a solution.

 The creative orientation metaphor


Brings an innovative quality to group
conflict resolution.
A Continuum of Decision-Making Behavior
 The Continuum of Decision-Making
Behavior has been described as including
four styles of decision making:
 Tells

 Sells

 Consults

 Joins
Handling conflict situation
( Mallory. G. ,1981)
Determine problem / Group
with whom there’s conflict

Analyze the cause

Consider alternative strategies

Choose the strategy with best


results

Implement the conflict


management strategy

Evaluate
CONFLICT RESOLUTION PROCESS-
BASIC ASSUMPTIONS
 Every individual is unique
 Every individuals has the inborn potentiality to
resolve conflict.
 An Attitude of patience must be maintained
 Difference of opinions are healthy & beneficial
 Certain amount of confidentiality must be
maintained
 Anger & Conflict must be accepted.
 WIN-WIN Approach must be adopted
CONFLICT- RESOLUTION
MECHANISM
 Define the Problem
 Collects facts & Opinions
 Consider all solutions proposed
 Define the expected result
 Select the solution
 Implement the solution.
COMPETITION
 When quick decision is vital
 On important issues where unpopular
actions need implementations
 On issues vital to the organization’s
welfare & when you know you are right.
 Against people who take advantage of
non- cooperative behaviour.
COLLABORATION
 When your objective is to learn

 Find an integrative solution when


both sets of concerns are too
important to be compromised.
AVOIDANCE
 When a issue is trivial
 To let people cool down and regain
perspective.
 When others can resolve the conflict
more effectively.
ACCOMODATION
 When issues are more important to
others than yourself to satisfy others.
 To minimized loss when you are
outmatched.
 When harmony & stability are
especially important
COMPROMISE
 To achieve TEMPORARY settlements to
complex issues.
 When opponents with equal power are
committed to mutually exclusive goals
 To arrive at expedient solutions under
time pressure.
DECISION MAKING

 TYPES OF DECISION MAKERES


 MAKING OBJECTIVITY IN DECISION
 ACID TEST OF DECISION MAKING
 STEPS IN MAKING GROUP DECISION
TYPES OF DECISION
MAKERS

 COMMANDERS

They are by nature IMPATIENT and


whose eagerness leads them to jump
into quick decision.
TYPES OF DECISION
MAKERS
 CARERS
They decide on the basis of their
feelings but are concerned with
others. Since they don’t want to
hurt or disturb others, they take
long time to take decision
TYPES OF DECISION
MAKERS
 CALCULATORS

They are perfectionists. They


want all the information
before making decision.
GROUP DECISION
 Define the issue.
 Gather the alternatives.
 Assign advocacy subgroups.
 Challenge and criticize.
 Reverse perspectives.
 Reach a consensus
Conflict management
strategies
 Identify boundaries of conflict, Area of
management and disagreement, extent of each
person’s aims
 Understand factors limiting constructive conflict
management
 Aware of more issues involved
 Be open to ideas, feelings, attitudes, expressed
by people
 Be willing to accept outside to mediate conflict
Conflict management
strategies
 Defensive model – win / lose
 Separate contending parties – Assigned to
different shifts/ teams/ days on, off
 Suppress conflict – Decide not to talk about
difference
 Restrict / Isolate the conflict – Agree/
disagree about a conflict and more onto
items which they do agree about
 Smooth it over / finese it through an
organisational change
 Avoid conflict to diminish destructive effects
 Smoothing : One person “smoothes”
others involved in an effort to reduce the
emotional component of the conflict.
 Avoiding : The parties choose not to
acknowledge it or attempt to resolve it.
Causes powerlessness, frustration.
Conflict Resolution
 Compromising : Each party gives up
something it wants
 Competing : One party pursues what it
wants at the expense of the others. Leads to
anger, frustration.
 Co operating / Accommodating : One
party sacrifices his beliefs and allows the other
party to win. “ loose a battle( individual
incident) to win a war (long term outcome)”
 Collaboration : All parties set aside their
original goals an work together to establish a
priority common goal.
 Individuals should understand their own
personal triggers to better deal with conflict
situations in the workplace (Robin, 2004)

 Group members should think about other


group members early on to identify privately
those individuals and behaviors that may
push their buttons.
Conflict resolution Vs Conflict
management

 Conflict Resolution :
A solution that completely satisfies all
parties involved in the conflict.
 Conflict management :

A conscious effort to deal with conflict


and to control the problem.
 Ken Shah & Prof. Param J.
NEGOTIATIO Shah, 2005
 Definition : It is a process of
N interaction by which two or more
parties who consider that they
need to be jointly involved in an
outcome, but who initially have
different objectives, seek by the
use of argument and persuasion
to resolve their difference in order
to achieve a mutually acceptable
solution.
 Another important consideration
is that negotiation implies
acceptance by both parties that
agreement between them is
required before a decision can be
implemented
Negotiation Process
 Preparation and planning
 Definition of ground rules
 Clarification or Jurisdiction
 Bargaining and Problem Solving
 Closure and Intervention
Negotiation Theories
1. Face negotiation Theory ( Ting Toomey, 1988)
2. Cross cultural empirical tests : Revised Face negotiation
theory. Across 4 cultures : China, Japan, Germany, US
3 face concerns , 11 face work behaviour were studied.
1.Self construal (Self image – Independent, Interdependent)
2. Autonomous (Self face/Independent)
3. Connected to others ( Other face/Interdependent)
4. Low power distance – forcing style
High power distance – yielding style ( low status)
Germany : Self face, mutual face, Defending face > US
Chinese: Self face concern, 3rd party concern > Japan
Negotiation
Listen One issue
Define the problem carefully at a time

Plan
Watch Clear
Non verbal cues View of
Position

Adequate Information

Pause , Clarifying as
Summarise Needed
NEGOTIATION
Before :
1. Be prepared mentally by having done your homework
2. Determine your starting point, trade offs, bottom line
3. Look for hidden agendas of both parties
During :
1. Maintain composure
2. Role model, good communication skills, assertiveness,
flexibility
3. Avoid destructive negotiation techniques
After :
1. Restate both verbally and in writing
2. Recognize participants for their contributions
Effective Negotiator
Behaviours
 Plan and Set Goals

 Gather Information

 Communicate
Effectively

 Make Appropriate
© Corel Corp. With permission.
Concessions
Types of Negotiation ( Fisher,
2006)
1. Hard : Distributive negotiation
Win
Extreme position
Longer benefits
Dirty tricks
Deception
Threats
Ultimatum
Overpowering
Outsmarting
2. Soft :
 Prevent conflicts

 Concession

 Reach an agent

 Brainstorming

 Consensus

 Decision making

3. Potential Bargaining : Each side


4. Principled Negotiation : Integrative
Win-Win
Interest based
Neither hard nor Soft
Third-Party Objectives

Procedural
Efficiency
Fairness

Third-Party
Conflict Resolution
Objectives
Outcome
Effectiveness
Fairness
Types of Third Party
High
Intervention
Mediation Inquisition

Level of
Process
Control

Arbitration

Low Level of Outcome Control High


Situational Influences on
Negotiation
 Location

 Physical Setting

 Time Investment
and Deadlines

© Corel Corp. With permission.  Audience


Negotiation Bargaining
Strategies
 Distributive vs Integrative bargaining
 Staking out Bargaining zone
Opposition and Support ( Peter
block,1991)
Bargaining Zone Model
Your Positions
Initial Target Resistance

Area of
Potential
Agreement

Resistance Target Initial


Opponent’s Positions
 Borisoff and Victor (1998) argue that
the best strategy for conflict
management (negotiation) depends
on the desired outcome
Unilateral negotiation strategies
include:

 The trusting collaboration strategy.


 The open subordination strategy.

 The firm competition strategy.

 The active avoidance strategy.


Interactive negotiation
strategies
 Trusting collaboration
 Principled negotiation

 Firm competition

 Soft competition

 Open subordination

 Focused subordination

 Active avoidance

 Passive avoidance

 Responsive avoidance
Fisher, Ury, and Patton (1991) outline four
principles that compose principled
negotiation.

 Separate the people from the problem.


 Focus on interests, not positions.
 Invent options for mutual gain.
 Seek objective criteria.
Issues in Negotiation
 Role of mood and personality traits
 Gender differences
 Cultural differences in negotiation
 3rd party negotiation
When sides are not even (Phyllis
1994)
 Dominance power
 Weakness power
 Increased Self awareness
 Honesty
 Clean
 Listen closely
 Kind / considerate
 Willing to accept others
Steps :
MEDIATION
Assessing Conflict : What, whom, why, impact, time frame

Analyzing information : Factors, Perception, Problem information,


Facts, Goals, Issues

Plan process

Implement planned strategy

Evaluating Outcome
 Implementation of plan:
 Arrange meeting of persons
 Expression of individual view points
 Look at alternative solutions
 Narrow choices
 Plan the implementation of decision
 Evaluating outcomes

Qualities facilitating mediation :


Trust
Willingness of parties
Clear communication
Collaboration
 Gardner(2005) : 10 lessons

1. Know thyself
2. Learn to value and manage diversity
3. Develop constructive conflict resolution skills
4. Use power to create win – win situations
5. Master interpersonal and process skills
6. Recognize collaboration is a journey
7. Leverage multidisciplinary forums to increase collaboration
8. Appreciate that collaboration can occur spontaneously
9. Balance autonomy and unity in collaborative relationships
10. Remember that collaboration is not required for all decisions
Consensus
 Negotiating parties reach an agreement that all
parties can support even if it does not represent
everyone’s first priorities.
 Indicates willingness by all parties to accept the
agreed upon conditions.
 Time consuming
 Use of experienced facilitator, having
consensus building skills
 Good leadership
 All parties have good communication skills,
open minded and flexible.
 Consensus is defined in English as, firstly
- general agreement and, secondly - group
solidarity of belief or sentiment. It has its
origin in a Latin word meaning literally to
feel together.[1]
 The formal process of achieving consensus
ideally requires serious treatment of the
considered opinion of each group member:
those advocating the adoption, say, of a
particular course of action
 A close equivalent phrase might be the
"collective agreement" of a group, keeping
in mind that a high degree of variation is still
possible among individuals, and certainly if
there must be individual commitment to
follow up the decision with action, this
variation remains important. There is
considerable debate and research into both
collective intelligence and
consensus decision-making.
 Consensus usually involves collaboration,
rather than compromise
Models of consensus
prisoner's dilemma
This approach might be called "algebraic" as
opposed to analytic, within mathematics, because
it represents an agent by a symbol and then
examines the algebraic properties of that symbol.
For example, the question, "Can two agents be
combined to make a new agent?" sounds like an
algebraic question. (More formally, "is the
operation of consensus closed in the domain of
agents? Is there a larger domain of "abstract
agents" in which this operation is closed?")
Nominal Group Technique
 Listing ideas on paper
 Round robust decision
 Serial discussion for clarification
 Preliminary vote
 Analyzing vote
 Discussion of preliminary vote
 Revote
- Ranking
- Index card
- Role message form
- Role contract
- Decision chart
Alternative Dispute Resolution
(ADR)
 Types of ADR :
 Mediation : Neutral 3rd party
 Fact finding : Listening to both parties
 Arbitration : Binding resolution, final
decision
 Ombudspersons : Person holding an
official title in an organization.
Nursing conflicts
Richard tower, Suzanne Hitchgard. Hierarchical conflicts in nursing practice – A meta
(Studies)
analyses. Oct 2008. Journal of nursing administration. vol(2) . 55-59

High tower’s ( 1996) hierarchical conflicts : 160 Managers were analyzed under this
study. The styles of conflict management employed were
1.Avoidance ( common style) 2. Compromise 3. Collaboration 4. Competition 5.
Accommodation
Woodtli ( 1997) :167 deans of B.Sc. Nursing programme were analyzed.
1.Compromising 2. Collaborating 3. Avoiding 4. Accommodating 5. Competing
Cavanaugh (2001) : 145 Staff nurses and 82 nurse managers
Avoidance ( Majority)
Barton (2001) : Private sector
1.Compromising 2. Collaboration 3. Avoiding 4. Accommodation 5. Competing

Summary : Avoiding / compromising ( More ) Collaboration (middle)


Competing (Less)
Cultural negotiation: A constructivist-based model for
nursing practiceJoan Engebretson, DrPH, RN, Lynna
Y. Littleton, PhD, RNC
 Abstract 
 Combining abstract concepts from grand theories with the
pragmatics of nursing practice presents a dilemma for nursing
that is being addressed with the emphasis on middle-range
theory. The philosophical perspective of constructivism is the
foundation for a middle-range theory that links the nursing
process to holism through the respective worlds and knowledge
of the nurse and client. The nursing process is situated in the
context of the cultural worlds of the nurse, client, and health
care system and in the greater social context. This model
allows the nursing process to be recast in new language that
captures the interdependence of the client-nurse interaction.
This model accommodates the social values and beliefs of both
the health care system and the social context.
CONFLICT RESOLUTION -TOOLS FOR NURSING (Antonie
Hiemer)

 Research has concluded that styles of conflict resolution are


strong predictors of the level of morale, burnout and job
satisfaction of the nursing profession. The use of negative
coping mechanisms, such as confrontation and avoidance
styles, result in increased negative outcomes, increased
burnout and occupational stress (Montoro-Rodriquez &
Small, 2006). The use of avoidance as a conflict resolution
method results in ineffective and unproductive outcomes,
since it only postpones the conflict. By avoiding the conflict,
individuals are neglecting their own needs, goals, and
concerns, while trying to satisfy those of others. This
approach has an element of being self-sacrificing and
simply obeying orders or serving other people (Kelly, 2006).
                                      
 Putting conflict management into practice: a nursing case study
 CRISTINA GARCÍA VIVAR BSc, MSc, RGN
 Aim This paper is intended to put knowledge in conflict management into
practice through reflecting on a nursing case study.
 Background Nursing organizations are particularly vulnerable to conflict as
the context of nurses' work may be difficult and stressful. Power conflict is
argued to be an important source of tension within nursing units. Learning
to manage conflict at an early stage is therefore crucial to the effective
functioning of nursing organizations.
 Evaluation A nursing case study that illustrates power conflict in an
oncology nursing unit is displayed and reflection on conflict management
from the case is provided.
 Key issues There is no appropriate or inappropriate strategy to deal with
conflict. However, detecting initial symptoms of conflict and adopting the
most effective behaviour to conflict resolution is essential in nursing units.
 Conclusion Further nursing education in conflict management for staff
nurses and nurse managers is greatly needed
Nursing and Conflict (Ann
marinerTommey)
1.Between members of health care team
1.Between members of health care team
-> Physiotherapist
-> Nursing and Nursing assistants
-> Pharmacy
2. With patient’s family
3. Between nurses
-> Philosophy, values and beliefs : Ethical issues ( abortion,
blood transfusion, stem cell therapy, gene therapy)
Personal goal =
Organisational goal
-> Charting
-> Work shift arrangement
-> Time off at holidays
-> Educational levels
-> Professional gaps
 Maquis and Huston ( 2006 ) :
3 techniques :
1. Recognize the tactic

2. Raise issue explicitly

3. Question tactics legitimacy and desirability by


using principled negotiation
 Ury (1991) : 5 Step Break through negotiation

1. Do not react

2. Disarm them

3. Change the game

4. Build a golden bridge

5. Make it hard to say NO


Leader Behaviour Manager Behaviour
 Empower followers  Power to obtain resources
Power to attain goals Management of power and

Constructive use of power conflict


Mentor Negotiation

Improved connection Information

Group decision making Rewards / Punishment

Visible/ Relates to others Legal authority

Expertise Plan for conflict

Power to manage conflict


management
Reduced justification
Conflict resolution
Directs subordinates
Growth preceding conflict
Competition / Bargaining
Conflict interventions

Collaboration
Overlap : power / power
sources, Manage conflict /
Resolves conflict
Role of nurse manager in
Negotiation
 Mediator
 Arbitrator
 Conciliator
 Consultant
Positional pressure tactics
( Negotiation)

 Refusal to negotiate
 Extreme demands
 Escalating demands
 Calculated delay
 Smoke screen ( Inappropriate question)
 Over the barrel ( use weakness of others)
 Seduction ( false promise )
 Flattering
 Aggressive take over
 Paternalism ( Action is good)
 Stumbling blocks :
 Need to control others
 Need to be right
 Keep fighting ever
Past , Present , Future
Past Present Future
•Conflict is bad •Conflict is inevitable • Creation of conflicts

•Avoidance / •Accommodating / •Multidisciplinary


Competing approach Collaborative collaboration, Shared
governance

•Win - Loss method •Win-Win •Eliminateall chances of


loss even before
occurrence
•Authoritative •Consensus,
•Votingand opinion of
decision, not Negotiation, ADR
consensus each member of the
nursing team before any
decision
Indian and Western
Scenario
Indian Western
1. Negotiation, Arbitration Negotiation,
Arbitration, ADR
2. Avoidance, Compromise,
Accommodation collaboration
approach Functional conflicts
3. Dysfunctional conflicts Problem solving,
4. Authority- Obedience Decision making
approach Collective bargaining
5. Withdrawal approach
Criticism and Suggestion
Criticism Suggestion
•Avoidance and •Collaboration, Problem
withdrawal methods solving and decision
largely practiced making
• Bargaining, ADR,

•Authoritative- Obedience Nominal group technique


approach in nursing need to be exercised
•Win- Win situations

•Win- Loss situations


Bibliography

1. Ann Mariner Tomey. 2004. Guide to Nursing


Management and Leadership. 8th edition. USA.
Mosby/Elsevier
2. Basavanthappa.2006. Nursing Administration. New
Delhi. Jaypee Publications.
3. Bessie L. Marquis.2008. Leadership role and
management functions in nursing. USA. J.B. Lippincott
publication
4. Diane. L. Huber. Leadership anManagement.3rd edition.
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5. Martin davies,(2009). leadership and Management
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6. Michael lee,(2007).organizational behavior and
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Net and Journal References

1. Richard tower, Suzanne Hitchgard. Hierarchical conflicts in nursing practice – A


meta analyses. Oct 2008. Journal of nursing administration. vol(2) . 55-59

2. Joan Engebretston, Lynna Y. Littleton. Cultural negotiation: A constructivist-based


model for nursing practice.Sep 2001.Nursing Outlook .49:223-3

3. Antonie Hiemer. conflict resolution -tools for nursing . March 2007.RN


Journal.12:33-36.

4. Cristina garcía vivar.Putting conflict management into practice: a nursing case study.
Oct 2009.Issues in Nursing practice. Vol(1).64-66.

5. Robert Swanker . Consensus in today’s nursing. July.2008. American Journal of


Nursing.
Net References
 1.http://www.slideshare.net/carol_sim/conflict management-2954154
 2.http://www.docstoc.com/docs/22045543/Group-4-Conflict resolutionppt
 3.
http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/sawan_17-155346-sep-bank-h
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 5. http://rphrm.curtin.edu.au/2005/issue2/emic.html
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