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At the end of this course, you will be able to:


 earn GSM development history
 earn and master network structure of GSM
system and functions & principles of different
portions
 earn and be familiar with GSM wireless
channel and protocol
 earn and be familiar with main service call
process for GSM
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mhap.1: GSM Overview


mhap.2: GSM Network Structure
mhap.3: Interfaces and Protocols
mhap.4: GSM Radio mhannel
mhap.5: Basic Service and Signaling Process
mhap.6: Voice Processing and Key Radio
Technology
mhap.7: GPRS and EDGE
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This chapter mainly introduces some basic information for


GSM, including GSM development history, supported
service type, specification, and system features.

è GSM Basic moncepts

è Services Supported by GSM System

è GSM Specification
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This section introduces network structure of GSM system


and basic functions of various NEs.

è GSM Area Division moncepts


è GSM composition
è Mobile Switching System (MSS)
è Base Station Subsystem (BSS)
è Operation & Maintenance Subsystem (OMS)
è Mobile Station (MS)
è GSM System Number
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GSM Area Division moncepts

Relationship between Areas in GSM


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GSM composition

 

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GSM System momposition


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Mobile Switching System (MSS)

The MSS consists of such entities as the mobile switching


center (MSm), home location register (HR), visitor location
register (VR), equipment identity register (EIR), authentication
center (AUm) and short message center (SMm).
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Base Station Subsystem (BSS)

BSS serves as a bridge between the NSS and MS. It performs


wireless channel management and wireless transceiving. The
BSS includes the Base Station montroller (BSm) and Base
Transceiver Station (BTS).
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Operation & Maintenance Subsystem (OMS)

The OMS consists of two parts: Operation & Maintenance


menter ± System (OMm S) and OMm Radio (OMm R). The
OMm S serves the NSS, while the OMm R serves the BSS.
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Mobile Station (MS)

The MS consists of mobile terminals and Subscriber Identity


Module (SIM) card.
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GSM System Number

GSM system number contains:


è Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number (MSISDN)
è International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI)
è Mobile Subscriber Roaming Number (MSRN)
è Handover Number
è Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identification (TMSI)
è ocation Area Identification (AI)
m% &'   

This chapter introduces GERAN interfaces, User


plane/control plane protocol stack at PS and mS.

è Interfaces

è PS Domain Protocol Stack

è mS Domain Protocol Stack


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Interfaces

GSM interfaces
m% &'   

PS Domain Protocol Stack

User plane protocol stack at PS domain


m% &'   

PS Domain Protocol Stack

montrol plane protocol stack at PS domain


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mS Domain Protocol Stack

User plane protocol stack at mS domain


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mS Domain Protocol Stack

montrol plane protocol stack at mS domain


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This section introduces GSM radio frame, channel concept,


division & function for different channels, mapping
combination mechanism between channels.

è GSM Working Frequency Band

è Structure of GSM Radio Frame

è Physical mhannel and ogical mhannel

è System Messages
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GSM Working Frequency Band

murrently, the GSM communication system works at


900MHz, extended 900MHz and 1800MHz. 1900MHz
band is adopted in some countries.
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Structure of GSM Radio Frame

There are five layers for structure of GSM radio frame, that is, timeslot,
TDMA frame, multiframe, super frame, and hyper frame.

Hierarchical frame structure in GSM system


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Physical mhannel and ogical mhannel

GSM uses TDMA and FDMA technologies for physical channel,


as shown in the figure below.

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System Messages

System message falls into 12 types: type1, 2, 2bis, 2ter, 3,


4, 5, 5bis, 5ter, 6, 7, 8.
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This section introduces GSM terminal start, position register /


update, service call and handover service implementation and
signaling interaction process.

è Mobile subscriber state

è ocation Update

è Typical mall and Handover Process

è Basic Signaling Process


m)  ' ** 

Mobile subscriber state

The mobile subscriber has three states as follows:

è MS starts, network does "Attach" marks on it

è MS shutdowns, separated from network

è MS Busy
m)  ' ** 

ocation Update

ocation Update at Same MSm Office


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Typical mall and Handover Process

mall process
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Typical mall and Handover Process

Handover process
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Basic Signaling Process


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Basic Signaling Process

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Basic Signaling Process


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Inter cell Handover Process


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This section describes basic voice processing for GSM, and


several key radio enhanced technologies.

è Voice Processing
è Frequency multiplexing
è Adaptive equalizing
è Diversity Receiving
è Discontinuous Transmission (DTX)
è Power montrol
è Timing Advance
è Frequency Hopping Technology
m+ ,  *'-. ' /  *.

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Voice Processing in the GSM System


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Frequency multiplexing is the core concept of the cellular mobile radio


system. In a frequency multiplexing system, users at different
geographical locations (different cells) can use channels of the same
frequency at the same time (see the figure above).
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Equalizer can do equalizing at frequency domain and time domain.


GSM uses time domain equalizing, enabling the better performance in
whole system.
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Diversity reception technology is commonly used in GSM. Diversity


consists of different forms: Space diversity, frequency diversity, time
diversity and polarity diversity.
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The DTX mode accomplishes two objectives: ower the total


interference level in the air and save the transmitter power.

Speech Frame Transmission in DTX Mode


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Power control means to control the actual transmitting power (keep it


as low as possible) of MS or BS in radio propagation, so as to reduce
the power consumption of MS/BS and the interference of the entire
GSM network.

Power montrol Process


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In the GSM, the MS requires three intervals between timeslots when


receiving or transmitting signals. See the figure below.

Uplink and Downlink Offset of TmH


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Frequency hopping (FH) refers to hopping of the carrier frequency


within a wide frequency band according to a certain sequence.

Basic Structure of FH
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This section describes evolution of GSM technologies: basic concept,


network structure, radio channel, and basic application of GPRS and
EDGE.

è Definition and Feature

è Inheritance and Evolution

è GPRS Radio mhannel

è Radio ink and Media Access montrol Flow

è Terminal and Application


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The General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is the packet data


service introduced in GSM Phase2+.
The GPRS has the following features:
‡ Seamless connection with IP network
‡ High rate
‡ Always online and flow charging
‡ Mature technology
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& 'ù$
Enhanced Data Rate for GSM Evolution (EDGE) is a kind of
technology for transition of GSM to 3G.
The EDGE has the following features:
‡ EDGE neither changes GSM or GPRS network structure nor
introduces new network element, but only upgrades the BSS.
‡ EDGE does not change the GSM channel structure, multiframe
structure and coding structure.
‡ EDGE supports two data transmission modes: packet service
(non real time service) and circuit switching service (real time
service).
‡ EDGE adopts octal 8PSK modulation technology, supports
303% of GMSK payload, and provides higher bit rate and
spectral efficiency.
‡mompared with GPRS, EDGE adopts new coding mode.
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' $ 
Each standard for current 2G has a set of methods to upgrade
2G network into 3G:
(1) Evolution route to mDMA 2000 may be IS95 (or mDMA One)
ĺ mDMA20001x ĺ mDMA 2000 3x or WmDMA.
(2) Evolution route to WmDMA may be GSM ĺ GPRS ĺ EDGE
ĺ WmDM A.
(3) Evolution route to TD SmDMA is not obvious now. It is
possible to implement smooth transition based on GSM MAP
network, also compatible to ANSI41 and transited to 3G.
m8 p 'p

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This section introduces GPRS physical channel, GPRS logic


channel, mapping of logical channel combination in the physical
channel, and GPRS channel coding.
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This section introduces paging flow, TBF setup flow, GPRS


suspend/resume flow, and TBF release flow.
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The GPRS MSs fall into three categories: Type A, B, and m.