Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 24

Piping Stress Analysis

Stress Analysis
Overview
 What is Flexibility Analysis ?
 Fundamentals of Primary & Secondary stresses
 Analytical Method to calculate Displacement & Stresses
 Checking Flexibility using Nomographs
 Guidelines for lines connected to Critical Equipment
 Stress Analysis using CAESAR-II
 Various Load Cases
 Spring Supports
 Expansion Joints
 Stress Analysis- Responsibilities & Methodology
 Fundamentals of Buried Pipe Analysis
Stress Analysis
Flexibility
 What is Flexibility of the Piping System?
Ability to absorb thermal growth of the piping system
Temperature

Not Flexible
HO
T
COLD

Flexible

More Flexible
Stress Analysis
Overview
 What is Flexibility of the Piping System?
Ability to absorb thermal growth of the piping system
 How to provide Flexibility in the Piping system ?
By change in direction using BENDS, utilising
Expansion joints
 What code states about Flexibility in the Piping system ?
“ Piping system shall be designed to have sufficient
flexibility to prevent pipe movements from causing
failure from overstress, leakage at joints or detrimental
distortion of connected equipment resulting from
excessive thrusts and moments “
 HOW to conclude whether system is Flexible or not ?
Stress Analysis
Acceptability Criteria

Piping system- flexible and safe only IF following criteria are satisfied

Criteria Comparison Basis


 Thermal stresses <= Allowable Stress Range ANSI B 31.3
 Sustained (Primary) Stresses <= SH or SC Project Design Basis
 Max Thermal Displacement- Axial / Lateral Project Design Basis
 Pipe Sagging Project Design Basis
 Flange Leakage Project Design Basis
 Support Loading Project Design Basis
 Nozzle Loading
 Vessels and Heat Exchangers Project Design Basis
 Centrifugal Pumps API-610
 Centrifugal Compressors API-617
 Reciprocating Compressors API-618
 Air Cooled Exchangers API-661
 Steam Turbines NEMA-23
Stress Analysis
Types of STRESSES in the Piping System
Primary Stresses
 Direct Shear and Bending in nature
 Caused due to-
 Dead Weight  Pipe  Piping Component  Fluid  Snow/ Ice
 Internal Pressure
 Occasional Load  Wind  Seismic Load  PRV Thrust

Secondary Stresses
 Bending (cyclic) in nature
 Caused due to-
 Thermal Expansion  Piping System  Equipment
Local Stresses

 Localised Bending and Shear in nature


 Caused due to-

 Local load like load on welded lug on pipe


Stress Analysis
Code Allowable STRESSES
Primary Stresses
 Checking Criteria
Sh = Allowable stress at elev. Temp.
 Induced Stresses <= Sh or Sc Sc = Allowable Stress at amb.Temp.

? How to FIND Sh and Sc Refer Table A-1 for Metallic Piping


B31.3 Table K-1 for High Press Piping.

Secondary Stresses
 Checking Criteria
 Induced Stresses <= Sa Sa = Allowable Stress Range

? How to FIND Sa Refer B31.3


Sa = f x ( 1.25 Sc + 0.25 Sh )
Stress Analysis
Stress Range- Definition
 COLD  HOT  OPERATING  COLD

 As  Thermal exp.  Bending stresses  Thermal contraction


Installed  At Elbow >> diminishes due to  At Elbow >>
plastic deformations
Outer fibre-Compr.
Outer fibre-Tension  At Elbow >>
Inner fibre- Tension
Inner fibre- Compr. Stresses Relaxed

HOT Stress Loading type - CYCLIC


Failure type - FATIGUE
COLD Failure time - Number of Cycle
Conclusion ?
Stress Analysis
Allowable Stress Range
Yield Stress ( Sy ) =1.5 x Allowable Tensile Stress ( Sc or Sh)
Allowable Stress Range ( Sa) = (1.5 x Sh) + (1.5 x Sc) = 1.5 ( Sc +Sh )
Reduced allowable = 1.25 ( Sc + Sh) To account for simplification in calcn.
Provision of Primary stresses = Sh To account for localised stresses

Allowable Stress Range ( Sa) = (1.25 Sc + 0.25 Sh ) x f

f = Stress reduction factor


HOT = 1 For life cycle up to 7000
= 0.9 For life cycle 7001 ~ 14000
COLD
= 0.8 For life cycle 14001 ~ 22000
= 0.7 For life cycle 22001 ~ 45000
= 0.6 For life cycle 45001 ~ 100000
= 0.5 For life cycle 100001 & over
Stress Analysis
Stress Evaluation
 Temperature Linear Coef of thermal expn.
( Ref. B31.3, Table C-1 )

L = x L Young Modulus of Elasticity


HOT ( Ref. B31.3, Table C-6 )
COLD
Stress = Strain x E
Force = Stress x Area

Guided Cantilever Method


= 48 (L)2 S / E D
S = E D / 48 (L)2
Stress Analysis
Stress Evaluation-In & Out Plan Bending, SIF

Mt Sb = ( Ii x Mi )2+ ( Io x Mo )2 Z
Mo
Mi
Ii = SIF factor- In Plane B 31.3 Table D-1
Io = Sif factor- Out Plane

Z = Sectional Modulus of Elasticity


= 3.142 x ( Do3 - Di3 ) / 32

St = Mt / ( 2 x Z )

Se = Sb2 + 4 x St2

For safe design Se < = Sa


Stress Analysis
Simplified method to check piping system flexibility
Basis - Code B 31.3 para 319.4.1

D x
IF 2
<= K Then Piping is Flexible
(L - U)

D = Pipe OD ( mm )
= Resultant Displacement ( mm )
L = Developed Length ( mtrs )
U U = Anchor Distance ( mtrs )
HOT
K = 208.3
COLD Limitations
 Only two point of fixation
L

 No change in pipe size


 No intermediate restraint
Stress Analysis
Other Methods to check the flexibility

Using Nomographs
 To perform quick flexibility check
 To estimate preliminary anchor loading for civil structural design
 To do preliminary exp.. loop sizing on pipe rack at early stage of the job
 To review visual analysis lines to avoid expensive CAESAR analysis

Using Computer application - CAESAR-II


 Highly versatile application program
 Based on Finite Element Analysis Method
 Results are acceptable to world wide Engineering companies
Stress Analysis
General Working Procedures
Initial Review
 Review Piping Specification
 Review Piping Study Drawing around critical equipment
 Identify critical civil structural requirements
 Review all applicable project standards
 Quick check using Excel spreadsheet for Pipe Wall and Br. Reinf. Calculation
 Prepare Preliminary Stress Critical Line List
 Review Pipe-Rack study layout- Establish preliminary exp.. loop location
 Establish preliminary Pipe-rack loading for structural design

Detailed Review
 Identify CAESAR Stress Models- Include group of lines in single model
 Perform detailed stress analysis based on issued stress critical line list
 Analyse visual check lines using simplified manual techniques
 Communicate with civil, Vessel and Mechanical groups for loading

Final Approval
 Freeze the stress model based on final isometrics
 Documentation of Input and Output Reports
Stress Analysis
General Working Procedures

Identify Stress Review No Revise the


Critical Lines- Stress Acceptable ? Piping study &
Stress Critical Line Isometric ? Isometric
List
Yes

Freeze Approve Nozzle


Supporting the Stress loading &
arrangement Isometric Civil Loading
Stress Analysis
Responsibilities of Stress Engineers
 Stress Lead Engineer
 Nominated by Chief Piping Engineer
 Responsible for all Stress and Support related activities

 Ensure work carried out per Procedures and Design Basis


 Establish the Contract Design Data and Design Philosophy
R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s

 Issue Stress and Support Design Note


 Establish Stress Critical Line List
 Stress Group Progress Reporting, Man-hours allocation and
Forecast
 Raise the Change order to reflect additional work
 Supervise Stress and Support activities
 Review Piping Specification for Pipe wall thickness and Branch Calc
 Job close-out report for stress and support group
Stress Analysis
Responsibilities of Stress Engineers
 Stress Engineer
 Nominated by Chief Piping Engineer/Lead Stress Engineer
 Carry out Flexibility analysis
 Identify all the load cases to be considered in analysis
 Review Study Drawing to ensure sufficient flexibility in critical piping
R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s

 Identify and review all critical piping supports


 Summarise Equipment Nozzle Loading communicate to others
 Perform flange leakage calculation for high pressure piping
 Communicate critical support loading to Civil
 Prepare Spring Schedule/Bellow Specification for procurement
 Identify requirement of reinforcement pad due to stress consideration
 Decide on position of Fixed saddle of horizontal Heat Exch.. and Vessels
 Review Vendor data regarding nozzle loading etc..
 Documentation of Analysis Reports
Stress Analysis
SPRING Supports
Spring Hangers/ supports
 Why required ? ? ?
 Types of Spring supports
 Variable Type  Constant Force Type

 Principle of working
 Terminology
 Cold Load  Hot Load  Spring Rate  Travel

 Technical Specification
 Instruction for Field Installations
Stress Analysis
Expansion Bellows
 Why to use ? ? ?
 Why NOT to use ? ? ?
 Material of Construction
 Metallic Bellow  Non- Metallic ( Rubber / Fabric )
 Types of Metallic Bellows
 Axial  Universal  Tied  Swing
 Hinged  Gimbal  Pressure Balanced
 Back Thrust of Un-tied bellow
 Selection Criteria
 Technical Specification
 Instruction for Field Installations
Piping Supports
 Pipe Supports
 Overview

 Purpose of Support
 Type of Supports
 Pipe support Standard
 Pipe support Instructions and Design Guide
 Pipe Support - Span Table
 Pipe Support - Trunnion Calculation
 Pipe Supports
Purpose of Pipe supports
Purpose

 To Support dead weight of Piping system


 To minimise Pipe Sagging
 To take Expansion load in the Piping system
 To absorb wind load and Seismic load
 To absorb Vibration in the Piping system
 To Suppress the Noise level in the Pulsating Piping systems
 To absorb Hydraulic Thrust in the Piping system
 To absorb the Pressure Thrust of Bellow
 To Support the system during Shut down/ Maintenance Cond.
 Pipe Supports
Types of Pipe supports
Based on Functions
 Loose or Resting supports
 Longitudinal Guide Supports
 Transverse Guide Supports
 Anchor Supports  Welded Type
 Non- Welded Type
 Limit Stops

Based on Construction
 Welded Type
 Rigid Support  Bolted Type
 Adjustable Supports
 Constant Type
 Elastic Supports  Variable Type
 Snubber Type
 Pipe Supports
Types of Pipe supports- Details
Primary Supports
 U-Bolts and Clamps
 Shoe  Welded Type
 Rod Hangers  Clamped Type
Secondary Supports
 Attachment from Steel Structures
 Attachment from RCC Structures
 Attachment from Equipment
 Attachment from Grades
Other Supports
 Trunnion Supports
 PTFE Sliding Supports