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Chapter 10
1. General structure of Queuing System
Arrival Process
Service System
Queue Structure
2. Operating Characteristics of Queuing
System
3. Queuing Models
Deterministic Models
Probabilistic Models
4. Poisson-Exponential Single Server
Model ʹ Infinite Population
5. Poisson-Exponential Single Server
Model ʹ Finite Population
6. Poisson-Exponential Multiple Server
Model ʹ Infinite Population
r  

According to source
According to numbers
According to time



 

Single server facility
Multiple, parallel facilities with single
queue
Multiple, parallel facilities with multiple
queues
Service facilities in a parallel

 

 

First come first served


Last come first served
Service in random order
Priority service
 


_ average number of
customers in queue waiting to get service

  
 
_ average number of
customers in the system

  
 

_ average
waiting time of a customer to get service

  
  
_ average time a
customer spends in the system



 

_ relative frequency
with which system is idle
  _
Arrivals are Poisson with a mean arrival
rate of, say ʄ

Service time is exponential, rate being ʅ

Source population is infinite

Customer service on first come first


served basis

Single service station

For the system to be workable, ʄ ч ʅ


vith arrival rate = ʄ and service rate = µ,
Pr (system is busy), ʌ = ʄ / µ
Pr (system is idle) = P(0) = 1 ʹ ʌ
Pr (Ê customers in system) = ʌn(1 ʹ ʌ )
Pr(>Ê customers in system) = ʌn+1

Expected length of system, Ls = ʌ/(1 ʹ ʌ )


Expected length of queues, Lq = ʌ2/(1 ʹ ʌ )
Expected length of non-empty queues,
Lq͛ = 1/ (1 ʹ ʌ )

Expected waiting time in system = 1/(µ - ʄ)


Expected waiting time in queue = ʌ /(µ - ʄ)
  _
Arrival and service rates, and changes in them,
affect the cost of providing service by affecting
the operating characteristics of a queuing
system

To illustrate, 
r r! demonstrates a
situation in which it is desired to raise the level
of service to such an extent that the average
queue length drops to a certain given level.
This will have cost implications as well ʹ an
increase in the budget due to an increase in
the cost of providing service

An another common example, a choice


between slow and fast repairmen may be
required to be made. A slow repairman is
cheap but causes higher machine time loss,
resulting in greater loss of profit. Reverse with
a faster repairman

r r!
vith the given information,
ʄ = 4 customers/hour and
µ = 6 customers/hour
ʌ = 4/6 or 2/3 and Lq = 4/3 customers

Setting Lq = 1/2 customers,


½ = 42 / µ͛ (µ͛ ʹ 4)
Solving for µ͛ , we get µ͛ = 8 and -4. Since
µ͛ = -4 is not feasible, we have µ͛ = 8. Thus,
average time per patient = 60/8 = 7.5 min

The budget, therefore, is Rs 425 per


patient, calculated as follows_
udgeted Amount = 300 + 50  2.5 = Rs 425
Let arrival rate, ʄ = 2 machines/hour
Machine downtime cost = Rs 100 per machine hour

¢  


¢   
    
   

         

 

_ vho of the two should be preferred?

TC (per hour) = Repairman͛s Charges +


Machine Downtime Cost

Machine Downtime Cost = vs  ʄ  100


For A, TC = 60 + [1/(3 ʹ 2)]  2  100 = Rs 260
For , TC = 80 + [1/(4 ʹ 2)]  2  100 = Rs 180

!
 " Repairman should be preferred.
  _
Arrivals are Poisson with a mean arrival
rate of, say ʄ

Service time is exponential, rate being ʅ

Source population is finite

Customer service on first come first


served basis

Single service station

For the system to be workable, we must


have ʄ ч ʅ
Probability that the system is idle,
or
 ÷ ÷  
    
 
 ÷ o 
c  


Probability that there shall be Ê


customers in the system,
 Ê
 ÊK
 K  0 < n $
    o ÊK
'n > 
È ÊÊ
Expected length of queue,
c
 o r o   

Expected number of customers in the


system
   r o  

Expected waiting time of a customer in


the queue

v
 r o ] K
Expected time a customer spends in the
system
v  v  r 
  _

Arrival of customers follows Poisson law,


mean rate ʄ
Service time has exponential
distribution, mean service rate ʅ
There are Ë service stations
A single waiting line is formed
Source population is infinite
Service on a first-come-first-served basis
Arrival rate is smaller than combined
service rate of all service facilities
Let ʄ = average rate of arrivals
µ = mean service rate of each server
K = number of servers
Kµ = mean combined service rate of all
the servers
ʌ = ʄ/ Kµ = utilization factor of the
entire system

Probability that the system is idle,


or
   K
( or
  K  
]   
     r o
K 
È ÊÊ

Probability that there shall be n


customers in the system,
  K
v  $ 
]  ]  K

  K 
]  ] K o 
v  
 

Expected number of customers in the


waiting lines
 K O
 
] K
  O K
È ÊÊ

Expected number of customers in the


system,

 


Expected waiting time in queue



   

Expected time a customer spends in the
system
r
 › ö

Mark the wrong statement_

1. In a queuing situation, the


͞customers͟ are always human
beings.

2. In banking transactions, bank tellers


represent the service station.

3. A queuing system can have multiple


servers.

4. Optimal service level is which entails


minimum average cost.
vhich of the following is not an
assumption underlying Poisson-
exponential single server-infinite
population model_

1. The source population is not a


small sized finite population.

2. The arrivals are Poisson-


distributed.

3. The service rate has exponential


distribution.

4. The system has a single service


station.
At the Gud-Health clinic,
customers see the doctor with
prior appointments, through his
secretary. The service time of the
patients is known to be
exponential. vhat is the
appropriate model to analyse this
system?

1. Poisson-exponential single server


model _ Infinite population
2. Poisson-exponential single server
model _ Finite population
3. Deterministic queuing model
4. None of the above
The average arrival rate in a single
server queuing system is 20
customers/hour and average
service rate is 40 customers/hour.
vhich of the following is not true
for this system?

1. Là = 1 customer

2. và = 3 minutes

3. P (>2) = 1/8

4. L = ¼ customer
For a single server system, the
arrival rate = 5 customers/hour
and service rate = 8
customers/hour. vhat is the
probability that at least 3
customers will be found in the
system at a given point in time?

1. (5/8)3

2. 1 ʹ (5/8)3

3. (1 ʹ 5/8)3 (3/8)

4. (5/8)2
Mark the wrong statement_

1. For a queuing system to be


feasible, the arrival rate should be
lower than the service rate.
2. Queue can form only when
arrivals exceed service capacity. It
is only logical therefore that for a
queuing system to be workable,
arrival rate must exceed service
rate.
3. Expected length of non-empty
queues would always exceed
expected length of the system, in
a single server queuing system.
4. For a single server queuing
system, Ls = Lq + O.
vhich of the following is not true for
a single server queuing model with ]
= 5 customers/hour and = 8
customers/hour?
1. The utilisation parameter of this
system is 5/8.

2. The probability of having a queue


is 25/64.

3. Expected length of non-empty


queues is 5/3.

4. Expected waiting time of a


customer in the system, vs = 20
minutes.
Mark the wrong statement_

1. If a petrol station is working 18


hours a day and is having utilisation
parameter equal to 5/6, it is
expected to be idle 3 hours a day.
2. If the mean service rate is , then
the expected time for completing
the service is 1/ .
3. For the single server model, the
number of customers receiving
service at any time can have two
possible values of zero and one.
4. It may be ideal if ] = , for a single
server model, as it would keep the
system busy at all times and thus
minimise the cost of operation.
A manufacturing firm with large number
of identical machines has three service
stations for repairs, each with a mean
service rate 25 per day. reakdown rate
of machines is 60 per day. Here P(0)
works out to be 0.06. vhich of the
statements is not true about it?
1. The expected number of hours a
service station is kept busy each day of
8 working hours is 6.4.
2. About 6 percent of the time, three or
less breakdowns can be repaired
immediately, without waiting in queue.
3. If Ê is the number of customers in the
system, there is no waiting line if Ê p 3,
and when Ê > 3, a waiting line is
created with a length of n-3.
4. None of the above.
vhich of the following is not true
for a single-server model with
infinite population?
1. 1/] is the average time between
two successive arrivals.

2. 1/ is the mean of the exponential


random variable à
  .

3. Only one customer can be handled


by the service station at one time.

4. The length of the system comprises


of the customers waiting in queue,
customers receiving service and the
service provider.