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c

Chapter 10

1. General structure of Queuing System

Arrival Process

Service System

Queue Structure

2. Operating Characteristics of Queuing

System

3. Queuing Models

Deterministic Models

Probabilistic Models

4. Poisson-Exponential Single Server

Model ʹ Infinite Population

5. Poisson-Exponential Single Server

Model ʹ Finite Population

6. Poisson-Exponential Multiple Server

Model ʹ Infinite Population

r

According to source

According to numbers

According to time

Single server facility

Multiple, parallel facilities with single

queue

Multiple, parallel facilities with multiple

queues

Service facilities in a parallel

Last come first served

Service in random order

Priority service

_ average number of

customers in queue waiting to get service

_ average number of

customers in the system

_ average

waiting time of a customer to get service

_ average time a

customer spends in the system

_ relative frequency

with which system is idle

_

Arrivals are Poisson with a mean arrival

rate of, say ʄ

served basis

vith arrival rate = ʄ and service rate = µ,

Pr (system is busy), ʌ = ʄ / µ

Pr (system is idle) = P(0) = 1 ʹ ʌ

Pr (Ê customers in system) = ʌn(1 ʹ ʌ )

Pr(>Ê customers in system) = ʌn+1

Expected length of queues, Lq = ʌ2/(1 ʹ ʌ )

Expected length of non-empty queues,

Lq͛ = 1/ (1 ʹ ʌ )

Expected waiting time in queue = ʌ /(µ - ʄ)

_

Arrival and service rates, and changes in them,

affect the cost of providing service by affecting

the operating characteristics of a queuing

system

To illustrate,

r r! demonstrates a

situation in which it is desired to raise the level

of service to such an extent that the average

queue length drops to a certain given level.

This will have cost implications as well ʹ an

increase in the budget due to an increase in

the cost of providing service

between slow and fast repairmen may be

required to be made. A slow repairman is

cheap but causes higher machine time loss,

resulting in greater loss of profit. Reverse with

a faster repairman

r r!

vith the given information,

ʄ = 4 customers/hour and

µ = 6 customers/hour

ʌ = 4/6 or 2/3 and Lq = 4/3 customers

½ = 42 / µ͛ (µ͛ ʹ 4)

Solving for µ͛ , we get µ͛ = 8 and -4. Since

µ͛ = -4 is not feasible, we have µ͛ = 8. Thus,

average time per patient = 60/8 = 7.5 min

patient, calculated as follows_

udgeted Amount = 300 + 50 2.5 = Rs 425

Let arrival rate, ʄ = 2 machines/hour

Machine downtime cost = Rs 100 per machine hour

¢

¢

_ vho of the two should be preferred?

Machine Downtime Cost

For A, TC = 60 + [1/(3 ʹ 2)] 2 100 = Rs 260

For , TC = 80 + [1/(4 ʹ 2)] 2 100 = Rs 180

!

" Repairman should be preferred.

_

Arrivals are Poisson with a mean arrival

rate of, say ʄ

served basis

have ʄ ч ʅ

Probability that the system is idle,

or

÷ ÷

÷ o

c

customers in the system,

Ê

ÊK

K 0 < n $

o ÊK

'n >

È ÊÊ

Expected length of queue,

c

o r o

system

r o

the queue

v

r o ] K

Expected time a customer spends in the

system

v v r

_

mean rate ʄ

Service time has exponential

distribution, mean service rate ʅ

There are Ë service stations

A single waiting line is formed

Source population is infinite

Service on a first-come-first-served basis

Arrival rate is smaller than combined

service rate of all service facilities

Let ʄ = average rate of arrivals

µ = mean service rate of each server

K = number of servers

Kµ = mean combined service rate of all

the servers

ʌ = ʄ/ Kµ = utilization factor of the

entire system

or

K

( or

K

]

r o

K

È ÊÊ

customers in the system,

K

v $

] ] K

K

] ] K o

v

waiting lines

K O

] K

O K

È ÊÊ

system,

Expected time a customer spends in the

system

r

ö

Mark the wrong statement_

͞customers͟ are always human

beings.

represent the service station.

servers.

minimum average cost.

vhich of the following is not an

assumption underlying Poisson-

exponential single server-infinite

population model_

small sized finite population.

distributed.

distribution.

station.

At the Gud-Health clinic,

customers see the doctor with

prior appointments, through his

secretary. The service time of the

patients is known to be

exponential. vhat is the

appropriate model to analyse this

system?

model _ Infinite population

2. Poisson-exponential single server

model _ Finite population

3. Deterministic queuing model

4. None of the above

The average arrival rate in a single

server queuing system is 20

customers/hour and average

service rate is 40 customers/hour.

vhich of the following is not true

for this system?

1. Là = 1 customer

2. và = 3 minutes

3. P (>2) = 1/8

4. L = ¼ customer

For a single server system, the

arrival rate = 5 customers/hour

and service rate = 8

customers/hour. vhat is the

probability that at least 3

customers will be found in the

system at a given point in time?

1. (5/8)3

2. 1 ʹ (5/8)3

3. (1 ʹ 5/8)3 (3/8)

4. (5/8)2

Mark the wrong statement_

feasible, the arrival rate should be

lower than the service rate.

2. Queue can form only when

arrivals exceed service capacity. It

is only logical therefore that for a

queuing system to be workable,

arrival rate must exceed service

rate.

3. Expected length of non-empty

queues would always exceed

expected length of the system, in

a single server queuing system.

4. For a single server queuing

system, Ls = Lq + O.

vhich of the following is not true for

a single server queuing model with ]

= 5 customers/hour and = 8

customers/hour?

1. The utilisation parameter of this

system is 5/8.

is 25/64.

queues is 5/3.

customer in the system, vs = 20

minutes.

Mark the wrong statement_

hours a day and is having utilisation

parameter equal to 5/6, it is

expected to be idle 3 hours a day.

2. If the mean service rate is , then

the expected time for completing

the service is 1/ .

3. For the single server model, the

number of customers receiving

service at any time can have two

possible values of zero and one.

4. It may be ideal if ] = , for a single

server model, as it would keep the

system busy at all times and thus

minimise the cost of operation.

A manufacturing firm with large number

of identical machines has three service

stations for repairs, each with a mean

service rate 25 per day. reakdown rate

of machines is 60 per day. Here P(0)

works out to be 0.06. vhich of the

statements is not true about it?

1. The expected number of hours a

service station is kept busy each day of

8 working hours is 6.4.

2. About 6 percent of the time, three or

less breakdowns can be repaired

immediately, without waiting in queue.

3. If Ê is the number of customers in the

system, there is no waiting line if Ê p 3,

and when Ê > 3, a waiting line is

created with a length of n-3.

4. None of the above.

vhich of the following is not true

for a single-server model with

infinite population?

1. 1/] is the average time between

two successive arrivals.

random variable à

.

by the service station at one time.

of the customers waiting in queue,

customers receiving service and the

service provider.

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