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V Branch of study dealing with what is the

proper course of action for man.

V Study of right and wrong in human


endeavors
V eans of deciding a course of action

V We are able to correctly organize our


goals and actions to accomplish our
most important values

V Without it, our actions would be random


and aimless
@otency of life:
V Economic value assigned to life in
general, or to specific living organisms
V marginal cost of death prevention in a
certain class of circumstances
V determined by looking at a person's
willingness to pay for good health.
V Some people feel that putting an economic
price tag on life is inhumane

V However, it is mainly used in circumstances of


saving lives as opposed to taking or
"producing" lives.
V
s a poor manǯs life worth less than a rich
manǯs?

V
f money canǯt buy happiness then it is silly to
equate value of life to wealth.
V orality refers to the social norms and
values.

V
t guides the choices we make in several
situations where there is trade off
between values and profit.
V Human dignity, human rights and justice

V Beneficence

V Cultural diversity, pluralism and tolerance

V Solidarity, equity and cooperation

V Responsibility for the biosphere


V =he Bhopal gas leak is one of the worst
industrial disasters in history.
V On December 3 1984, ethyl
socyanate
(
C) leaked from chemical plant which is
majority-owned by Union Carbide in Bhopal-
@.
V Statistics :3,800 people died instantly.
V 1 year later:
Π1,800 Bhopal residents had died.
Π320,000 citizens had been affected by the disaster
V Culprit: Union Carbide
ndia Ltd. (UC
L)
ΠCarelessness in plant layout.
ΠFaulty design and construction.
ΠNo safety adequate precautions.
V
ndian Govt. (GO
)
Œ ÿpproval of Chemical @lant near residential zone
Œ
mproper monitoring and due diligence.
ΠLack of Regulatory and enforcement framework to avert
the crisis.
ΠRed-=apeism.
V UC
Lǯs approach towards safety, DzFinancial
Ramifications, then the Worker !dz
V Safety precautions were designed with the
machines in mind, not the workers.
V Financials ramifications of machinery
breakdown was given a priority.
V Human-Centered approach was undermined.
V Bhopal tragedy paved way for a need for a
technology-centered to human-centered shift.
V @rice of
ndian life was undervalued and
undermined.
V Even today thirty to fifty people per month
die from adverse effects of the disaster.
V
ndian government agreed upon a $470
million liability settlement with Union Carbide
for all-inclusive damages in 1989.
V Union Carbide-parent company(U.S.) denied
responsibility for the accident.
V 27 Yrs after the disaster Victims still await
justice .
V Bhopal gas tragedy V/s B@ Oil Spill
V Neck to neck with pharma and software
industry in terms of growth
V 12% of the potential has been tapped
V Worth 17 billion and expected to grow at 13%
every year
V
ndia's expenses on health care sector
comprises 5.25% of the GD@
V
ncrease in medical scams
V edical tourism: big boom due to low costs
of healthcare and advent of foreign investors
V odus operandi: ÿmit Kumar and doctors
involved threatned labourers and sedated
them and removed their organs
V Duped foreigners who were lax in their choice
of doctors or just plain desperate
V Ketan Desai (Chief of edical Council of

ndia) was arrested by CB
)
V
llegally gave approvals to medical institutes
even if they did not meet legal requirements
V Worked with J @ Singh who gave information
to these institutes about the schedules of
inspection team visits
V Spread to government medical colleges:
seats are sold for money
* r  refers to the employment of
children at regular and sustained labour
* ÿccording to the statistics given by
ndian
government there are 20 million child
laborers in the country, while other agencies
claim that it is 50 million.
* 12.6 million children in hazardous
occupations,
ndia has the highest number of
labourers in the world under 14 years of age.
V Work for at least eight hours at a stretch
V Children are malnourished
V @oor working conditions
V
lliterate and @overty stricken
V Criminal activity
V Lack of physical and mental ability of children
V @revents children from going to school
V @recarious life lead by the children
V ost critical years of life lost to exploitation
V  
   
V 
   
V   
   
V 
   
V 
 
V r   
V    
* ajority of the children employed in this
industry are girls
* Work for 12 hours a day and get Rs.6 to Rs.15
per day
* @arents of such children are extremely poor
and live in villages around the factories and
towns
* Common practice to give parents advances
against work by their children
* Worst working conditions
V Strain on their immature bone structure
V Working in hazardous conditions
V Eye sight and respiratory problems
V Loss of apetite and malnutrition
V ental development is restricted
V No opportunity for education
Some of the main education-related policy options to tackle child labour include
the following:
* providing free, public and compulsory education to encourage parents to send
children to school and reduce the dropout rate;
* removing barriers to girlsǯ education (and in some places, barriers to boysǯ
education), addressing the underrepresentation of girls in education, changing
traditional thinking that may prevent girls from attending schools, making the
ambience of schools more welcoming to girls and providing women teachers, who
can act as role models;
* reducing direct and indirect costs of schooling, as poor families often cannot afford
school fees and other related costs;
* ensuring that children have access to a school and a safe, quality learning
environment
* tackling the worldwide shortage of teachers and ensuring a properly trained and
professional teaching force;
* creating financial incentives to encourage families to send their children to school;
* providing transitional education for children and youth who have missed out on
formal schooling; and
* ensuring that economic policies and poverty reduction
V Headed by =he Union inister for Labour &
Employment
V Realistic implementation of labour laws
V
ssues:
Πpayment of minimum wages,
Πcontract labour,
Πtripartite consultation system,
Πimplementation of labour laws,
Πregistration of trade unions,
Πsocial security etc.
V No child below the age of fourteen shall be
employed to work in any factory or mine or
engaged in any other hazardous
employment.

V =he state shall, in particular, direct its policy


towards securing: that the health and
strength of workers, men and women.

V =he tender age children are not abused.


V =he citizens are not forced by economic
necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their
age or strength.
V Children are given opportunities and facilities to
develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of
freedom and dignity and that childhood and
youth are protected against exploitation and
against moral and material abandonment.
V State shall make provisions for securing just and
humane conditions of work and for maternity
relief.
V °rr°  
V Field organizations of inistry of Labour and
Employment
ΠDirectorate General of ines Safety (DGS)
Œ Directorate General of Factory ÿdvice Service and
Labour
nstitutes (DGFÿSL
)

V Safety of Factories, mines and ports


V Continuous reduction in the incidence of work related injuries,
fatalities, diseases, disasters and loss of national assets.
V
mproved coverage of work related injuries, fatalities and diseases
and provide for a more comprehensive data base for facilitating
better performance and monitoring.
V Continuous enhancement of community awareness regarding
safety, health and environment at workplace related areas.
V Continually increasing community expectation of workplace
health and safety standards.
V
mproving safety, health and environment at workplace by
creation of Dzgreen jobsdz contributing to sustainable enterprise
development.
V @roviding a statutory framework on Occupational Safety
and Health in respect of all sectors of industrial activities
including the construction sector, designing suitable
control systems of compliance, enforcement and
incentives for better compliance. @roviding administrative
and technical support services and providing a system of
incentives to employers and employees to achieve higher
health and safety standards.
V @roviding for a system of non-financial incentives for
improvement in safety and health.
V Establishing and developing the research and
development capability in emerging areas of risk and
providing for effective control measures.
V Focusing on prevention strategies and monitoring
performance through improved data collection system on
work related injuries and diseases.
V Developing and providing required technical manpower
and knowledge in the areas of safety, health and
environment at workplaces in different sectors.
V @romoting inclusion of safety, health and environment,
improvement at workplaces as an important component
in other relevant national policy documents.
V
ncluding safety and occupational health as an integral
part of every operation.
V Set up in 1975, is functioning in the inistry to pay special
attention to the problems of women labour.
V Responsibilities:
ΠCoordinating effort in respect of Women labour within the
policy framework on women drawn by inistry of Women and
Child Development Ȃ the Nodal department on the issue.

ΠWork in conjunction with inistry of Women and Child


Development and provide useful inputs on women workforce
for effective formulation of @rogrammes and @olicies on the
subject.

Œ
mplementation of the Equal Remuneration ÿct, i.e., its
extension to various employments/
ndustries and examination
of the difficulties, if any, pointed out by the units/
ndustries.
V Responsibilities:

Œ Setting up of ÿdvisory Committee for promotion of


employment of women under the Equal Remuneration ÿct,
1976 and providing secretariat assistance to the Committee.

ΠFollow up action on the Supreme Court Judgement in the


matter of prevention of sexual harassment of women at their
work place and periodical reviews of the initiatives taken in the
matter in consultation with related agencies viz. National
Commission for Women, inistry of Women and Child
Development, National Labour
nstitute, etc.

Π=he Cell is also administering a grants-in-aid Scheme for


providing financial assistance to organization (voluntary and
non-government) for taking up action programmes/projects for
the benefit of women labour.
V 1979 - Gurupadswamy Committee
V 1986 - Child Labour (@rohibition &
Regulation) ÿct
V 1987 - National @olicy on Child Labour
ΠCoverage increased from 12 districts in
1988
Π=o 250 districts in 10th 5 year plan
V Legislative ÿction @lan
V General Developmental
@rogrammes
V @roject Based @lan of ÿction
ΠNational Child Labour @roject (NCL@)
     !  
V 1971 Ȃ 1,07,53,985
V 1981 Ȃ 1,36,40,870
V 1991 Ȃ 1,12,85,349
V 2001 Ȃ 1,26,66,377
V 2 million - deaths due to occupational
accidents and work-related
diseases

V 270 million - injuries due to occupational


accidents

V 160 million - work-related diseases