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Dr.

Nagla El Nabarawy
Consultant of Clinical Toxicology
Nationai Egyptian Center of Environmental & Toxicologial
Research (NECTER). Cairo University
Introduction

 Mobile phones have been available for the last


two decades and have become common in the
general population in recent years.
 Mobile phones are low-powered
radiofrequency transmitters operating at
frequencies between 450 and 2700 MHz with
peak powers in the range of 0.1 to 2 Watts.
Introduction

 Most mobile phones emit electromagnetic


radiation at 900 MHz or 1800 MHz.

 There are very few studies regarding the effect


of low frequency electromagnetic field
(LFEMF) on the behavior of the cell
populations in bone.
Aim of the Work

To investigate the effects of 900


MHz EMF on BMD of rats and to
determine effects of ALA on EMF-
exposed bone.
Materials and Methods
 24 males and 24 females of Wister albino rats (6 weeks
old, average 160 gm weight).
 Experimental period was 4 weeks.
 3 Groups
 Group A (n = 16) non-irradiated rats
 Group B (n = 16) exposed to 900 MHz EMF for 1
hour/day for 4 weeks
 Group C (n = 16) received daily with Alpha lipoic acid
(ALA) (50 mg/kg/day i.p) for 4 weeks before exposure
to the 900 MHz EMF.
Materials and Methods

 At the end of 4 weeks


BMD was measured in bones of vertebrae
and femora under anesthesia.
Animals were sacrificed and bones were
dissected for histopathological
examination
The experimental electromagnetic field
set-up for rat irradiation
EMF Exposure system
Anesthetized rat under examination with
DEXA machine for BMD measurement
Results

 NO significant difference in BMD


between males and females in the three
studied groups.
 Hence, we compared the three groups
irrespective of the sex of rats.
Lumbar Femoral
0.5
0.45
0.4
0.35
2)

0.3
0.25
0.2
m M
D
B
(g
/c

0.15
0.1
0.05
0
Group A Group B Group C

Lumbar and femoral BMD was significantly lower in the irradiated group (group
B) compared to the control group (p < 0.001). Group C (ALA treated rats) had
apparently - not significantly - higher BMD compared to irradiated group
Osteoclast Score 0 Osteoclast Score 1-4
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Group A Group B Group C

Abnormal osteoclast score (1-4) was significantly more


frequent in group B (75%) and C (37.5%) compared to group A
(6.3%) (p < 0.001)
12.0 10.72

10.0

6.82
8.0
5.09
6.0
m
l/L
oM
A
D
(n

4.0
)

2.0

0.0
Group A Group B Group C

Serum MDA was significantly higher in irradiated group


compared to the control group (p < 0.001). ALA treated
group had significantly lower MDA levels compared to
irradiated group (p = 0.001).
Radiated bone trabecula showing the multinucleated
osteoclasts with their eosinophilic cytoplasm (note
two osteoclasts in one high power field) (x1000)
Radiated bone: Osteoblasts have a basophilic
cytoplasm are found lined up on the surface of brightly
stained newly formed bone trabecula as response to
bone resorption by osteoclasts (x1000)
Section of Radiated femur showing newly formed
eosinophilic bone trabeculae (x100)
Section in ALA-treated bone: Bone trabecula showing
only one multinucleated osteoclast in the field with its
eosinophilic cytoplasm (minimal activation of
osteoclasts) (x1000)
Section in ALA-treated bone: still resting osteocytes
without any new bone formation (x200)
Discussion
 Rats exposed to 900 MHz EMF for 1 hour a
day along 4 week-period had significantly
lower BMD compared to the control
unexposed group (p < 0.001).
 This may be mediated through oxidative
stress caused by RF as evidenced by a
significantly higher serum malonaldehyde
(MDA) level in the irradiated rats (p <
0.001).
Discussion

 The relationship between oxidative stress and


BMD or osteoporosis has recently been
reported
 The administration of various or synthetic anti-
oxidants such as Vit. C & E, melatonin and
dietary flavonoids have been shown to be of
benefit in the prevention or attenuation of
osteoporosis
Discussion

 BMD was found to be higher in the group


treated with the anti-oxidant ALA than that in
the irradiated group
 Histopathological examination of sections of
femora and vertebrae stained by hematoxylin
and eosin showed enhanced osteoclast
activity in irradiated bones.
Discussion

 MDA was
significantly lower
compared to irradiated
group and abnormal
osteoclast score was
less frequent (37.5%)
in the treated group.
Conclusion

 Electromagnetic field radiation at 900 MHz


emitted from cellular phones cause oxidative
damage to bone and consequently decreases
BMD.
 Treatment with the antioxidant alpha-alipoic
acid is suggested as a useful approach to protect
bone from the adverse effect of radiation.