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URL

 There were three question that had


to be answered before a selected
page could be displayed:
1. What is the page called?
2. Where is the page located?
3. How can the page be accessed?
 Each page is assigned a URL
(Uniform Resource Locator) that
effectively serves as the page’s
worldwide name.
 URL is like a sign pointing to
something on the internet service tell
that what type of internet service to
use.
 URL have three part:
how_to_get_there://where_to_go/what_to
_get
 the protocol
 The DNS name of the host
 Local name uniquely indicating the specific page
For example…

http://www.cs.vu.nl/welcome.html
protocol is http

DNS name of the host


www.cs.vu.nl

file name is welcome.html


 URLscheme is open-ended in the
sense that it is straight forward to
have protocol other than HTTP
Name Used for Example
http Hypertext http://www.cs.vu.nl/ast/

ftp FTP ftp://ftp.cs.vu.nl/pub/minix/R


EADME
File Local file /user/suzanne/prog.c

News News group News:comp.os.minix

Gopher Gopher Gopher://gopher.tc.umn.edu/11/

mailto Sending email mailto


telnet Remote login telnet://www.w3.org:80
LOCATING INFORMATION IN WEB
 The web contain wast amout of
information,finding the right item is
not so easy.
 Programs that search the web are
sometimes called search
engines,spiders,crawlers,worms,orkn
owbots.
Overflow chains
pointer Pointers
to URLS to title String Hash
storage code
00 2
1
1
2 4
2
3
3
5 19 6

21 44

url_table heap Hash table


HTML
What it is…
 HTML is an application of ISO standard
8879,specialized to hypertext and adapted
to the web.
 Very structured markup language for
building web pages.
 A markup language is a collection of
elements, which are used to indicate
structure and format of a document
 Browser simply has to understand the
markup commands
HTML standards
 When Mosaic was the only browser, the
language it interpreted,HTML 1.0,was the
de facto standard.
 When new browser came along, there was
a need for a formal standard, so HTML2.0
standard was produced.
 HTML3.0 was initially created as a reserch
effort to add many features to
HTML2.0,including
tables,toolbars,mathematical formulas,
advanced stylesheets,and more
A complete html element is defined
by a start tag, an end tag, possible
attributes and a content model
 The commands inside the tags are
called directives
A proper web page consists of a head
and a body enclosed by
<HTML>and</HTML> tag.
Common HTML tags
Tag Description
<HTML>…</HTML> Declares the web page
to be written in HTML
<HEAD>…</HEAD> Delimits the page’s
<title>…</title> head
Defines the title
<body>…</body> Delimits the page’s
<Hn>…</Hn> body
Delimits a level n
<B>…</B> heading
Set…in boldface
<l>…</l> Set…in italics
<UL>…</UL> Brackets an unordered
<OL>…</OL> Brackets a numbered
<MENU>…</MENU> list
Brackets a menu
Tag Description
<LI> Start of a list item
<BR> Force a break here
<p> Start of paragraph
<HR> Horizontal rule
<PRE>…</PRE> Preformatted text; do
not reformat
<IMG SRC=“ ...”> Load an image here
<A HRFE=“…”>… Define a hyper link
</A>
Forms
 Forms contain boxes or buttons that
allow users to fill in information or
make choices and then send the
information back to the page’s
owner.
 Using the <INPUT> tag for this
purpose.
 Most common forms are blank fields
for accepting user text, boxes that
can be checked, active maps, and
Thank you