You are on page 1of 22



1) Research Design: Definition

2) Research Design: Classification
3) Exploratory Research
4) Descriptive Research
i. Cross-Sectional Design
ii. Longitudinal Design
iii. Advantages and Disadvantages of Longitudinal
and Cross-Sectional Designs
5) Causal Research
6) Relationships Among Exploratory, Descriptive, and
Causal Research

7) Potential Sources of Error

i. Random Sampling Error
ii. Non-sampling Error
a. Non-response Error
b. Response Error

Research Design: Definition

ã A    
is a framework or
blueprint for conducting the marketing
research project. It details the
procedures necessary for obtaining the
information needed to structure or solve
marketing research problems.

Components of a Research Design

ã Define the information needed
ã Design the exploratory, descriptive, and/or
causal phases of the research
ã Specify the measurement and scaling
ã Construct and pretest a questionnaire
(interviewing form) or an appropriate form
for data collection
ã Specify the sampling process and sample size
ã Develop a plan of data analysis

A Classification of Research Designs

Research Design

Exploratory Conclusive
Research Design Research Design

Descriptive Causal
Research Research

Cross-Sectional Longitudinal
Design Design

Single Cross- Multiple Cross-

Sectional Design Sectional Design

Exploratory & Conclusive Research Differences












A Comparison of Basic Research Designs



& % 



&     (





*   *

(   +




Uses of Exploratory Research

ã Formulate a problem or define a problem more precisely

ã Identify alternative courses of action

ã Develop hypotheses

ã Isolate key variables and relationships for further examination

ã Gain insights for developing an approach to the problem

ã Establish priorities for further research


Methods of Exploratory Research

ã Survey of experts

ã Pilot surveys

ã Secondary data analyzed in a qualitative


ã Qualitative research

Use of Descriptive Research

ã To describe the characteristics of relevant
groups, such as consumers, salespeople,
organizations, or market areas.
ã To estimate the percentage of units in a
specified population exhibiting a certain
ã To determine the perceptions of product
ã To determine the degree to which marketing
variables are associated.
ã To make specific predictions

Cross-sectional Designs
ã Involve the collection of information from any given
sample of population elements only once.
ã In 
there is only
one sample of respondents and information is
obtained from this sample only once.
ã In þ    
, there are
two or more samples of respondents, and information
from each sample is obtained only once.
  consists of a series of surveys
conducted at appropriate time intervals. A cohort is
a group of respondents who experience the same
event within the same time interval. The samples
contacted at the subsequent time intervals are
independent of the one previously selected.
Consumption of Various Soft Drinks
by Various Age Cohorts

Percentage consuming on a typical day

Age 1970 1980 1990 2000

10-19 52.9 62.6 73.2 81.0

20-29 45.2 60.7 76.0 75.8 C8
30-39 33.9 46.6 67.7 71.4 C7
40-49 23.2 40.8 58.6 67.8 C6
50+ 18.1 28.8 50.0 51.9 C5
C1 C2 C3 C4

C1: cohort born prior to 1920 C5: cohort born 1951-60

C2: cohort born 1921-30 C6: cohort born 1961-69
C3: cohort born 1931-40 C7: cohort born 1970-79
C4: cohort born 1941-50 C8: cohort born 1980-89

Longitudinal Designs

ã The same sample is studied over time and

the same variable is measured.

ã A longitudinal design differs from a cross-

sectional or cohort design in that the sample
or samples remain the same over time
Relative Advantages and Disadvantages of
Longitudinal and Cross-Sectional Designs

Evaluation Cross-Sectional Longitudinal

Criteria Design Design

Detecting Change - +
Large amount of data collection - +
Accuracy (e.g. recall task) - +
Response bias + -
Representative Sample (owing to + -
cooperation, mortality & payment)

Note: A Ơ+ơ indicates a relative advantage over the other

design, whereas a Ơ-ơ indicates a relative disadvantage.

Cross-Sectional Data May Not Show Change

Brand Purchased Time Period

Period 1 Period 2
Survey Survey
Brand A 200 200
Brand B 300 300
Brand C 500 500
Total 1000 1000
Longitudinal Data May Show
Substantial Change

Brand Brand Purchased in Period 2

in Period 1 Brand A Brand B Brand C Total
Brand A 100 50 50 200
Brand B 25 100 175 300
Brand C 75 150 275 500
Total 200 300 500 1000

Uses of Causal Research

ã To understand which variables are the cause

(independent variables) and which variables are the
effect (dependent variables) of a phenomenon;

ã To determine the nature of the relationship between

the causal variables and the effect to be predicted;

ã METHOD: Experiments
Potential Sources of Error in
Research Designs
Total Error

Random Non-sampling
Sampling Error Error

Response Non-response
Error Error

Researcher Interviewer Respondent

Error Error Error

Surrogate Information Error Respondent Selection Error Inability Error

Measurement Error Questioning Error Unwillingness Error
Population Definition Error Recording Error
Sampling Frame Error Cheating Error
Data Analysis Error

Errors in Research
ã The      is the variation between the true
mean value in the population and the observed mean
value obtained in the research project.
ã |
   is the variation between
the true mean value for the population and the true
mean value for the original sample.
ã K
   can be attributed to sources
other than sampling, and they may be random or
nonrandom: including errors in problem definition,
approach, scales, questionnaire design, interviewing
methods, and data preparation and analysis. Non-
sampling errors consist of non-response errors and
response errors.

Errors in Research
ã K
    arises when some of the
respondents included in the sample do not respond.
ã | 
    arises when respondents give
inaccurate answers or their answers are misrecorded
or misanalyzed.

Research Proposal
ã Executive Summary
ã Background
ã Problem Definition/Objectives of the Research
ã Approach to the Problem
ã Research Design
ã Fieldwork/Data Collection
ã Data Analysis
ã Reporting
ã Cost and Time
ã Appendices