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 Scientific Introduction
 Lecture Nine
 Buddhism and Time
 Lecture Ten
 Hermeneutics?  Lecture Eleven
 Abhidhamma History  Lecture Twelve
 Texts in the Abhidhamma  Lecture Thirteen
 Mind Development  Lecture Fourteen
 Patisambhidamagga  Lecture Fifteen
 Abhidhammattha--sangaha
Abhidhammattha  Lecture Sixteen
 The Dhamma Theory
 Section to be fully-
fully-known
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Scientists understand:

The smallest cells weigh about 106     


              
             
             
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elementary

 
elementary or composite
particles smaller than atoms. Particle physics and nuclear
physics are concerned with the study of these particles, their
interactions, and non-
non-atomic matter composed from them.
 Subatomic particles include the atomic constituents
electrons, protons, and neutrons. Protons and neutrons are
composite particles, consisting of quarks. A proton contains
two up quarks and one down quark, while a neutron consists
of one up quark and two down quarks; the quarks are held
together in the nucleus by gluons. There are six different
types of quark in all ('up', 'down', 'bottom', 'top', 'strange', and
'charm'), as well as other particles including photons and
neutrinos which are produced copiously in the sun. Most of
the particles that have been discovered are not encountered
under normal earth conditions but are found in cosmic rays
and are produced by scattering processes in particle
accelerators. There are dozens of subatomic particles.

 

 
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 Electrons, which are negatively charged, have a mass of
1/1836 of a hydrogen atom, the remainder of the atom's mass
coming from the positively charged proton. The atomic
number of an element counts the number of protons. Neutrons
are neutral particles with a mass almost equal to that of the
proton. Different isotopes of the same nucleus contain the
same number of protons but differing numbers of neutrons.
The mass number of a nucleus counts the total number of
nucleons.
 Chemistry concerns itself with the arrangement of electrons
in atoms and molecules, and nuclear physics with the
arrangement of protons and neutrons in a nucleus. The study
of subatomic particles, atoms and molecules, their structure
and interactions, involves quantum mechanics and quantum
field theory (when dealing with processes that change the
number of particles). The study of subatomic particles per se
is called particle physics. Since many particles need to be
created in high energy particle accelerators or cosmic rays,
sometimes particle physics is also called high energy physics.
Atom smasher makes weird matter
[http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/stories/2005/1348510.htm]

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 Matter can be austerely denoted in terms of energy ² only two
mechanisms in which energy can be transferred have been
discovered: particles and waves. Light can be expressed as both
particles and waves. This paradox is known as the Duality
Paradox.
 Particles are discrete - their energy is centralized into what
appears to be a finite space, which possesses absolute boundaries
and its contents are considered to be homogenous - the same at
any point within the particle. Particles subsist at a particular
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centuries, and a few simple laws dictate how particles proceed in
collisions and interactions. The most angelic of these are the
conservation of energy and momentum which help to explain
calculations between particle interactions on scales of magnitude
which diverge between planets and quarks.
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More about the Positron:
 For every type of ordinary-
ordinary-matter particle, a
corresponding ¶anti-
¶anti-particle exists·
 A positively-
positively-charged proton has a negatively charged
counterpart, the antiproton. The electron that is
negatively charged, is offset by the positively-
positively-charged
positron.
 In free space, two atoms of positronium cannot
combine together, because they have such excess
energy that they simply fly apart again.
Neutrinos [http://abc.net.au/science/news/stories/2007/2031875.htm]:

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)     ;
 There are four primary elements in Buddhism:
Earth, Fire, Water, Air«
 «and secondary elements like: color, sound,
smell, taste, gender, nutriment«
 Even further, there are minute, elementary
particles: kalapas ² forming all animate and
inanimate material composed phenomena
 A life-
life-span of a kalapa can last about 17 mind
mind--
moments
 Kalapas originate from: kamma, citta,
citta,
temperature [fire], and nutriment
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 «the kalapa is the smallest unit of material size
 «and the khana is the smallest group of time
 «then recall: moments are the smallest unit of time
occurring in a state of consciousness ² or the
temporary simultaneous mental factors. While the
measure of moments are defined as time that takes
place for the occurrence of a state of consciousness -
the time that takes place for the occurrence of a
state of consciousness is defined as the time during
which the simultaneous occurrence of the mental
factors occurs. Who uses smaller units of
matter/time?
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 Atthasalini - á   as:
 accasion
 Harmony in antecedents
 ¶there is but one moment, one    for the practice
of the holy life·
 A ¶season· [fever-
[fever-season]
 ´a large    in the great forestµ ² 
 Also can mean:       

 Time, Conditions, accurrences ² causal


relations«  issues 24 causal-
causal-relations
Nine forms of á „  :
 Time is only a concept derived from this or that phenomena:
1. States expressed in such phrases as temporal [aspect of] of
mind/matter
2. The phenomena of occurrence ² past/future
3. Succession in organisms [germination/conception]
4. Time of genesis/decay
5. Time of feeling/cognizing
6. Functions ² as the time of bathing, drinking
7. Modes of posture: time of going/stopping
8. Revolutions: sun, moon; day, night«
9. Groupings of day and night into months, minutes
 All of these are concepts/abstractions ² not existing by its own
nature. [a meadow is only a battlefield during war!]
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m stated in his essay on
cosmology titled £  (1848) that "space
and duration are one." This is the first known
instance of suggesting space and time to be
different perceptions of one thing. Poe
arrived at this conclusion after approximately
90 pages of reasoning but employed no
mathematics.
 The Greeks were wrong, many of our modern
perceptions are still based on their errors

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Time in Physics:
 In physics, the treatment of time is a central
issue.
 ane can measure time and treat it as a
geometrical dimension, such as length, and
perform mathematical operations on it.
 It is a scalar quantity and, like length, mass, and
charge, is usually listed in most physics books as
a fundamental quantity.
 Time can be combined mathematically with other
fundamental quantities to derive other concepts
such as motion, energy and fields.
 Time is largely defined by its measurement in
physics.
#  
 In physics,   is any mathematical model that
combines space and time into a single construct called the
  .. Spacetime is usually interpreted
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with space being three-
three-dimensional and time playing the role
of the fourth dimension.
 By combining space and time into a single manifold,
physicists have significantly simplified a large amount of
physical theory, as well as described in a more uniform way
the workings of the universe at both the super-
super-galactic and
sub--atomic levels. In relativistic contexts, however, time
sub
cannot be separated from the three dimensions of space as it
depends on an object's velocity relative to the speed of light.
 The term    has taken on a generalized meaning with
the advent of higher-
higher-dimensional theories. Speculative
theories predict 10 or 26 dimensions, but the existence of
more than four dimensions would only appear to make a
difference at the sub-
sub-atomic level.
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 is one in
which Newton's first and second laws of
motion are valid.
 Hence, within the inertial frame, an object or
body accelerates only when a physical force is
applied, and (following Newton's first law of
motion), in the absence of a net force, a body
at rest will remain at rest and a body in
motion will continue to move uniformly³
uniformly³i.e.
in a straight line and at constant speed.


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 In practical terms, this equivalence means that
scientists living inside an enclosed box moving
uniformly cannot detect their motion by 
experiment done exclusively inside the box.
 By contrast, bodies are subject to so-
so-called fictitious
forces in non-
non-inertial reference frames; that is,
forces that result from the acceleration of the
reference frame itself and not from any physical
force acting on the body.
 Therefore, scientists living inside a box that is
being rotated or otherwise accelerated   measure
their acceleration by observing the fictitious forces
on bodies inside the box.
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 Psychological arrow of time - our
perception of an inexorable flow.
 Thermodynamic arrow of time -
distinguished by the growth of entropy.
 Cosmological arrow of time -
distinguished by the expansion of the
universe.
,  
 The equations of general relativity predict a non-
non-
static universe. However, Einstein accepted only a
static universe, and modified equations to reflect this
by adding the cosmological constant, which he later
described as the biggest mistake of his life.
 In 1929, Edwin Hubble (1889-
(1889-1953) announced his
discovery of the expanding universe. The current
generally accepted cosmological model, the Lambda-
Lambda-
CDM model, has a positive cosmological constant and
thus not only an expanding universe but an
accelerating expanding universe.
 If the universe were expanding, then it must have
been much smaller and therefore hotter and denser
in the past.
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referred to as the 
   of big
bang cosmology, since it attempts to explain
cosmic microwave background observations,
as well as large scale structure observations
and supernovae observations of the
accelerating expansion of the universe. It is
the simplest known model that is in general
agreement with observed phenomena.

   
: "
" 
 The model assumes a nearly scale-
scale-invariant spectrum of
primordial perturbations and a universe without spatial
curvature. It also assumes that it has no observable
topology, so that the universe is much larger than the
observable particle horizon. These are predictions of
cosmic inflation.
 These are the simplest assumptions for a consistent,
physical model of cosmology. However, LCDM is a
 ,, and says nothing about the fundamental physical
 
origin of dark matter, dark energy and the nearly scale-
scale-
invariant spectrum of primordial curvature
perturbations: in that sense, it is merely a useful
parameterization of ignorance.



 
 In thermodynamics, processes that are not reversible are
termed 


  . . From this thermodynamics
perspective, all natural processes are irreversible. The
phenomenon of irreversibility results from the fact that if a
thermodynamic system of interacting molecules is brought
from one thermodynamic state to another, the configuration
or arrangement of the atoms and molecules in the system
will change as a result. A certain amount of
"transformation energy" will be used as the molecules of the
"working body" do work on each other when they change
from one state to another. During this transformation,
there will be a certain amount of heat energy loss or
dissipation due to intermolecular friction and collisions;
energy that will not be recoverable if the process is
reversed.
á  !
 Scientists investigate phenomena and name
observations ² to ultimately explain the
previously unknown or to correct wrong
interpretations of previous analysis.
 The mind operates similarly to scientific
findings ² or perhaps this is due to the
limitations of the human mind.
 The universe is limited to material
possibilities while the mind performs creative
¶physically· impossible deeds.
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‡ I should summarize the lesson from Week One.
² There are many processes that occur in the world, and as we have seen
these processes follow a distinct pattern or order. There is a logic
behind order and processes. I wanted to demonstrate this to you all.
² Additionally, if one considers the illustration of the cosmos, humanity
comprehends about 5% of what might be known ² if what can be known
remains static.
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‡    may be described as the development and study of theories
of the interpretation and understanding of texts. In contemporary usage in
religious studies, hermeneutics refers to the study of the interpretation of
religious texts. It is more broadly used in contemporary philosophy to
denote the study of theories and methods of the interpretation of all texts
and systems of meaning. The concept of "text" is here extended beyond
written documents to any number of objects subject to interpretation, such
as experiences. A hermeneutic is defined as a specific system or method for
interpretation, or a specific theory of interpretation.
‡ Practical hermeneutics could happen only when someone , having a
thoroughly functional knowledge of the theory and methodology of
hermeneutics, applies one·s knowledge towards the actual interpretation of
specific texts«.
m   
‡ Essentially, hermeneutics involves cultivating the ability to understand
things from somebody else's point of view, and to appreciate the cultural
and social forces that may have influenced their outlook. Hermeneutics is
the process of applying this understanding to interpreting the meaning of
written texts and symbolic artifacts (such as art or sculpture or
architecture), which may be either historic or contemporary.
‡ In the last two centuries, the scope of hermeneutics has expanded to
include the investigation and interpretation of    

              
          
       
   
Hermeneutics interprets or inquires into the meaning and import of these
phenomena, through understanding the point of view and 'inner life¶ of an
insider, or the first-person perspective of an engaged participant in these
phenomena.
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‡ Petakopadesa ² Pitaka Disclosure ‡ Nettippakaranam ² The Guide
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‡ Lopez seems to be operating under the Mahayana umbrella ± and therefore,
many of his citations are unavailable to the strict student of the Theravada
tradition. He is right to state that the teaching is to be the teacher ± and asks
just µhow¶ should the teachings be the teacher.
‡ I would argue against a dearth of Theravada Hermeneutics ± the methods
might not yet be drawn out currently.
‡ The Buddha did teach different things to different people based on their
interests, dispositions, capacities and level of intelligence ± and at times
would commentate on his own discourses ± but this does not necessarily
mean there are errors and contradictions. Lopez seems to be falling into the
trap of determining which teachings are those of a Buddha, rather than
seeking the method for students to acquire wisdom from the teacher¶s
teaching. The Netti [The Guide] is the teacher¶s starting point.
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by George Bond
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¶whatever· characteristics, through Jhana
Jhana--meditation,
strive to eliminate their defilements, but often retain their
character--personality temperaments, becoming certain
character
types of noble-
noble-disciples ² illustrating the further need to
investigate the Puggalapaññatti

‡ The scholar should investigate whether the Tipitaka


provides the material presented in the Disclosure/Guide ²
or offers a different set of guidelines ² implying that
perhaps the Peta
Peta//Netti offer only an interpretation [due to
their ¶non-
¶non-inclusion· into the Tipitaka, in some nations].
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According to tradition, the essence of the
Abhidhamma was formulated by the Buddha during
the __________ week after his Enlightenment.
__________ years later he is said to have spent
__________ consecutive months preaching it in its
entirety in one of the heavenly-
heavenly-deva realms to an
audience of _______________ of devas (including his late
mother, the former Queen Maya), each day briefly
commuting back to the human realm to convey to the
Venerable Sariputta the essence of what he had just
taught. The Venerable Sariputta mastered the
Abhidhamma and codified it into roughly its present
form ² from his ______________ disciples. It was then
passed down orally through the Sangha until the
__________ Buddhist Council (250
(250 BCE), when it finally
joined the ranks of the Vinaya and Sutta, becoming the
___________ and final Pitaka of the Pali canon.
How was the Abhidhamma formed?
 Apart from the Buddha and Sariputta·s story ²
the Abhidhamma was formed in three stages:
 The first stage was developed over technical
discussions of dhamma ² ¶debates· between disciples
and sectarians«
 The second stage was the necessary elaboration of
doctrine: the Patisambhidamagga is a development
from this second stage«
 The third stage involves the formation of the
Abhidhamma--pitaka as is known to us today«
Abhidhamma
   
     
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of the Buddhas.
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sensuous-realm
arises« moral consciousness is divided into
planes [SEE: COSMOLOGICAL CHART]«
 ² and these are related from the experienceable
Jhanas ² being five in number in the
Abhidhamma system ² versus four from the
Sutta system.
 Four Planes: Sensuous, Material, Immaterial, and
Unincluded..
Unincluded
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desirous of going by means of an invisible body, the
potency bends the body by the power of the mind, inserts,
places it in the sublime consciousness; then there is an
object of the mind obtained by exercise ² this there is a
limited object, because the material body is the object.
hen one makes mind dependent on the body, being
desirous of going by means of a visible body, the potency
bends mind by the power of body, inserts, places the basic
jhana--consciousness in the material body; then the object
jhana
of mind is obtained by exercise ² thus from being the object
of the sublime consciousness it has a sublime object.
× 
  

 «has the limited, sublime, immeasurable for object.
How? It has a limited object at the time of one·s
knowing the sense-
sense-realm thoughts of others, a
sublime object at the time of knowing thoughts of the
Rupa and Arupa realms, and an immeasurable
object at the time of knowing the Path and
Fruitation..
Fruitation
 An average person cannot know the thoughts of a
stream--winner, a stream
stream stream--winner cannot know the
thoughts of a once returner, etc« the Arahant
knows the thoughts of all beings. The distinctions
should be understood.
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The Anupada Sutta:
 After the two weeks it took the secluded Sariputta to tobecome an
Arahant,, the Buddha proclaimed in the Anupada Sutta: á  
Arahant
    
     
     
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systematic representation of the effort exerted above and in the
explanation of the details pertaining to Sariputta·s accomplishments.
The discourse moves immediately into a very detailed explanation of
the Four Jhāna·s ² the details are perhaps better written than many
modern academic texts attempting to introduce the reader to Jhāna
levels. Nyanaponika Thera
Thera,, in his Abhidhamma Studies ²
Researches in Buddhist Psychology explores      
           
             
          
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       Sariputta·s confirmation of
the Buddha·s teaching not only benefits the Chief Disciple, but
additionally demonstrates the truths of the Buddha·s Enlightenment
and both men·s Arahant attainments.
 Concerning the Abhidhamma - in the First Jhāna, Jhāna, Sariputta
determined:             
    
            
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Hexperience as recollected

  G   Hexperience
by Ānanda
Ānanda.. Whether or not Venerable Buddhaghosa read this
discourse or not should not warrant much ink. The perception
of the reader, as the discourse nears conclusion is: perhaps
someone in the Sangha was doubting Sariputta·s abilities or
attainments [having only been ordained for two weeks]; the
Anupada Sutta puts the question to rest.
 Although the Sangīti Sutta is not
arranged as an Abhidhamma treatise,
any effort to categorize the dhammas can
lead one to justify the Sangīti Sutta as
perhaps, the most important or
significant discourse found in the
Tipitaka in terms of content alone. The
effort to comprehend the dhamma-
dhamma-sets
solely rests with the student ² no
explanations are found in the text of the
discourse. Certainly, the Sangīti Sutta
can be used as an Abhidhamma text:
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The Seven Sarvastivadin Texts:
 Sangitiparyaya ('Discourses on Gathering
Together')
 Dharmaskandha ('Aggregation of Dharmas
Dharmas')')
 Prajnaptisastra ('Treatise on Designations')
 Dhatukaya ('Body of Elements')
 Vijnanakaya ('Body of Consciousness')
 Prakaranapada ('Exposition')
 Jnanaprasthana ('Foundation of Knowledge')

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#
 (¶Discourses on Gathering Together·)
 #
 -"recitation together") is one of the seven Sarvastivada
Abhidharma Buddhist scriptures. It was composed by Mahakausthila
(according to the Sanskrit and Tibetan sources) or Sariputra (according to
the Chinese sources).
 Structurally, the Samgiti-
Samgiti-paryaya is similar to the Dharma
Dharma--skandha,
skandha,
though earlier, as the latter is mentioned in the former. It is basically a
matika on the early teachings, arranged in groups of dhammas by number,
similar to the Ekottarikagama.
Ekottarikagama.
 This text is basically a commentary on the Sangiti-
Sangiti-sutta (D #
#33
33)) ² an
assemblage of the Buddha's Dhamma rather than an actual
discourse/discussion. The background to the first recital of the Sangiti-
Sangiti-
sutta, as the Jains fell into disarray after the death of Mahavira,
Mahavira, and the
Buddhist Sangha gathered together to recite the core teachings of the
Dhamma to prevent such a split in their own religion, perhaps indicates the
fear of present or impending schism arising in the Sangha on the part of
those who compiled this work. The Sangiti-
Sangiti-sutta is also the basis of a
commentarial work, in the later Yogacara-
Yogacara-bhumi
bhumi--sastra,
sastra, some several
hundred years later.
Dharmaskandha ('Aggregation of Dharmas
Dharmas¶)
¶)
 
  is one of the seven Sarvastivada Abhidharma
Buddhist scriptures. Dharmaskandha means "collection of dharmas".
dharmas".
It was composed by Sariputra (according to the Sanskrit and Tibetan
sources) or Maudgalyayana (according to Chinese sources).
 It begins with a matika as a summary of the topics, showing its
antiquity, as these were supposedly only assigned by the Buddha
himself. It presents 21 subjects, the first 15 of which concern the
practice of the spiritual path, and the realization of its fruits. The 16th
deals with "various issues". Subjects 17 to 20 deal with the
enumeration of the ayatanas,
ayatanas, dhatus and skandhas as encompassing
"all dhammas". The 21st is regards dependent origination.
 The Dhatuskandha is from a period before then split between the
Sanskrit and Pāli Abhidhamma traditions,
traditions, based on its correlation with
the Pāli -  E    6
 6    
Prajnaptisastra (¶Treatise on Designations·)
 
/  
 is one of the seven Sarvastivada
Abhidharma Buddhist scriptures. The word
means "designation" (of dhammas). It

    means
was composed by Maudgalyayana (according to the
Sanskrit and Tibetan) or Mahakatyayana .
 This text is very important based on commentary
commentary--
references in Sarvastivadin sources. The format is of
matika,, followed by question and answer explanations,
matika
with references to the suttas for orthodoxy.
 Deals with conventional designations of things,
contrasted with what they are in reality.
Dhatukaya ('Body of Elements¶)
  is one of the seven Sarvastivada Abhidharma
 is
Buddhist scriptures.
 à   means "group of elements". It was written by Purna
(according to Sanskrit and Tibetan sources), or Vasumitra
(according to Chinese sources).
 This comparatively short text bears similarities with the
Theravada text, the Dhatu
Dhatu--katha,
katha, in style and format, though it
uses a different matika.
matika. It also bears a close connection with the
Prakaranapada, through several items common to both. In its
sevenfold division of dhammas in particular, it does provide, a
closer look at the various divisions of dhammas, in particular citta
and cetasika, with its conjoined and non-
non-conjoined aspects. As it
is not mentioned in the Mahavibhasa, this also suggests it is
either a later text, or originally a fragment removed from an
earlier text.
Vijnanakaya ('Body of Consciousness¶)
 -/is one of the seven Sarvastivada Abhidhamma Buddhist scriptures.
-/is
"Vijnanakaya" means "group of consciousness". It was composed 100 years after
the Buddha's death, and was influenced by the Jnanaprasthana, and is also
similar to the Prakaranapada, which holds a different position inside the
Sarvastivada doctrine.
 This text was highly esteemed because it upheld Sarvastivadin doctrine against
Vibhajyavada objections. It is here that the theory of Sarvastivada - the existence
of all dhammas through past, present and future, is first presented. Interestingly,
the issue is only brought up when Moggaliputta-
Moggaliputta-tissa makes the standard claim of
the Vibhajyavada,
Vibhajyavada, "past and future (dhammas) do not exist, (only) present and
unconditioned (dhammas) do exist". The Vijnana-
Vijnana-kaya has four main theses to
refute this:
 The impossibility of two simultaneous cittas
 The impossibility of karma and vipaka being simultaneous
 That vijnana only arises with an object
 Attainments are not necessarily present.
 The text refutes views of several schools: the Vibhajyavada,
Vibhajyavada, and the Vatsiputriya
Pudgalavadas..
Pudgalavadas
Prakaranapada (¶Exposition·)
 

is the major text of the central Abhidhamma period. It influenced


is
other non-
non-Sarvastivada schools, though not in the polarizing manner that the later
Jnanaprasthana and Vibhasa texts did. Its format for dhammadhamma--analysis is used in a few
other texts.
 This seems to indicate that before the later formalization of Sarvastivada doctrines, the
Vijnana--kaya and Prakaranapada were perhaps representative of several differing lines
Vijnana
of thought, though were only later over-
over-shadowed by the Vibhasa and its orthodoxy.
 Classifies all existence into five categories; describes ten mental factors present in all
states of wholesome consciousness; discusses ninety-
ninety-eight evil propensities, ten kinds of
knowledge, one thousand questions concerning doctrinal categories...
 Prakaranapada contains two systems of dhamma classification, one five- five-fold, the other
seven--fold. It was the former fivefold system that later became the standard format,
seven
and was important for the establishment of the respective characteristics, nature and
functions of the various dhammas, especially the cetasika and citta-
citta-viprayukta
viprayukta--
dharmas.. The sevenfold system bears some similarities to Pāli Abhidhamma, and
dharmas
seems to be made of categories of dhammas that are all sutta basedbased..
 It also expands on the traditional fourfold theory of conditionality, by introducing some
20 types of condition, in paired dhammas. Although these are not the later six- six-fold
classification, this may have opened the door for later innovation.
Jnanaprasthana ('Foundation of Knowledge¶)
 O
  means "establishment of knowledge´. The tradition of the Mahavibhasa states
that it was taught by the Buddha himself, and that a 100 years after the Buddha's demise, there
would be doctrinal disputes among the great masters to give rise to distinctly named schools. A
Chinese source states that it was written some three centuries after the Buddha.
 The orthodox Vibhā a takes this as the ¶root· Abhidhamma, though references are sometimes made
to the Prakara apāda in the same terms. It became known as the ¶body· of the Abhidhamma, with
the six remaining texts of the early period known as the ¶legs· or ¶supports·.
 The outline of the text more closely approximates the earliest of models, the Sariputta-
Sariputta-
Abhidhamma,, than those specifically Sarvastivada treatises. Encyclopedic in content, and
Abhidhamma
unsystematic in form ² it has eight sections dealing with: miscellaneous topics, the fetters,
knowledge, intentional acts, the four material elements, the controlling faculties, meditation, and
views. This is evident in its use of the samyojanas,
samyojanas, prajna,
prajna, karma, indriya,
indriya, mahabhuta,
mahabhuta, dhyana
and drsti as main divisions.
 Analysis of the suttas themselves ² in order to find the actual underlying principle, rather than
acceptance of the content at face value - could lead to apparent contradictions. There is the
analysis of the nature, or characteristics, of individual dhammas - rather than the use of sūtta
categories pertaining to spiritual praxis, the tendency here is to group by type. Thus, dhammas are
assigned as either rūpa,
rūpa, citta,
citta, cetasika or citta-
citta-viprayukta ² the conditioned dhammas, and also the
unconditioned dhammas. Specifics as to each type are given, as well as detailed discussions of
related dhammas. These are then again categorized according to their being with or without
outflows; visible or non-
non-visible; past, present or future; as to realm; and so forth.
, #  ,
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Elements
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 F " Points of Controversy
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(ultimate realities ² perfections of what is found in the
mental/material world/universe). Many of the concepts
overlap, but according to one such enumeration, these
amount to:
 52     (mental factors), which, arising together
in various combination, give rise to any one of...
 ...
...89
89 different possible    (states of consciousness)
 4 primary physical elements, and 23 physical
phenomena derived from them
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 Limited Phenomena:
 Space Element: void regions separating objects/displaying boundaries of kalapas
 Communicating Phenomena:
,
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 Vocal Intimation: vocal expressions
 Mutable Phenomena:  



 Lightness: non-
non-sluggish, dispels heaviness in matter, transformability
 Malleability: non-
non-rigidity, non-
non-opposition to any kinds of action, malleable
 Wieldiness:: favorable to body action, non-
Wieldiness non-weakness
 Characteristics of Matter:
 Production:   
 


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Impermanence
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 Section of Triplets
 Section of Moral Rot Group
 Section of Short Intermediate Sets of Pairs
 Section of the Asava Group
 Section of the Fetters
 Section of the Ties
 Section of Perversions
 Section of the Great Intermediate Sets of Pairs
 Section of the Grasping
 Section of Vices
 Section Supplementary Set of Pairs
 Suttanta:: «
Suttanta
 
 
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 Wholesome [virtuous, skillful, productive]
 Unwholesome
 Indeterminate

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the Pali Text Society·s English translation
 
 
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 Earth, water, heat, air
 Sight, hearing, smelling, taste, touch
 Femininity, masculinity, life [jivita
[jivita]]
 Gestures, speech, space
 Visible objects, sound, scents, taste object,
tangibles, weight, suppleness, malleability,
accumulation, extension, aging, impermanence
 Material food
 
 
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 Happiness
 Elation
 Unhappiness
 Depression
 Equanimity
 
 
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group
 
 
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Sankhara/Forces: life, right speech, right action,
wrong theory, wrong intentions, self-
self-respect, fear of
blame, lack of self-
self-respect, lack of fear-
fear-of-
of-blame,
desire, aversion, delusion, non-
non-desire, non-
non-aversion,
non--delusion, vanity, uncertainty, assurance,
non
lightness, suppleness, malleability, effiency,
straightness, being conscious, calming, insight,
intention to find out something, four influences
[opinion reduces delusion and ignorance; pleasure
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- :
The Book of Analysis/Treatises
 This book continues the analysis of the
Dhammasangani,, here in the form of a catechism
Dhammasangani
² or through largely three main sections:
Analysis According to the Discourses; Analysis
according to the Abhidhamma; and Interrogation.
:
- :
The Book of Analysis/Treatises
 Analysis of the Aggregates:
Aggregates: According to the
teachings from the Buddha ² beings, in whatever
plane of existence that they reside in are not
possessed of any permanent identity,
individuality, self, soul or spirit ² but are only
temporary arrangements of aggregates
undergoing changes through a process of
continuity. No quality or feature is outside of the
five--fold classification of aggregates.
five
:
- :
The Book of Analysis/Treatises
 Analysis of the Bases:
Bases: - A base is that which is
derived from the four great essentials, but possesses
the special attribute of acting as a support, a
foundation, a basis, a requisite condition for the
unique quality or element [dhatu
[dhatu]] characteristic of
that particular grouping ² and are of two kinds:
those that are imposed upon by a stimulus [six-
[six-
senses]; and the sense-
sense-bases [not the sense-
sense-organ] ²
just the pure activity of where stimulation ends and
the consciousness of the stimulation begins.
:
- :
The Book of Analysis/Treatises
 Analysis of the Elements:
Elements: in connection to
the senses ² an element is the support for
something, what arises as a result, and the
essential nature«
 The six-
six-elements are the elements of:    
      
 Another set of six-
six-elements, of:   *  
   *        
 Yet another set of six:   
  66     
 66   
 
 ,      
      
:
- :
The Book of Analysis/Treatises
 Analysis of the Truths: Basically, a detailed
analysis of the Four Noble Truths ² but stresses
that suffering is a major factor in conditioned
states. Suffering is defined as:
 Birth, aging, sorrow, lamentation, physical and
mental pain and despair, association with the disliked
and separation from the like, and death.
 Each is given a clear and individual explanation.
 Also, a clear analysis of the Eightfold Noble Path.
:
- :
The Book of Analysis/Treatises
 Analysis of the Controlling Faculties: the
possess the nature of ruling or control.
#   $$possess
 Indriyas rule because they are the direct path for the
direct arising of kamma:
 Masculinity, femininity, life--principle, confidence,
life
mindfulness, energy, concentration« for example, are all
controlled by faculties ² and each can increase/decrease the
affectivity of future states
 By body, speech and mind ² kamma is created
:
- :
The Book of Analysis/Treatises
 Analysis of Dependent arigination:
arigination: the complete
twelve--fold system is given with a definition for
twelve
each term as to the way in which it manifests
itself and as to how it is to be applied to the
course of existence of beings as a whole. The
twelve--fold system is divided into   
twelve
 '
:
- :
The Book of Analysis/Treatises
 Analysis of the Foundation of Mindfulness:
Mindfulness:
 „         
         
  
66         

 „          
    + *  +  
 „      !      
     
     
     '
 „           
            
          
             
  '
 
:
- :
The Book of Analysis/Treatises
 Analysis of Right Striving:
Striving: the first actual
practical steps towards undertaking the path of
ultimate realization/liberation ² stressing action:
 To make an intention, to make the effort, to arouse
energy, and to exert the mind ² why?
 º 
º 66   6
6  
 º          
 º      
 º         
:
- :
The Book of Analysis/Treatises
 Analysis of the Bases of Accomplishment:
Accomplishment: no
state or condition comes to be spontaneously ²
there is always some other state or condition
which must precede it ² this stage of gain
eliminates bad and fosters good states
respectively« backed by the previous striving-
striving-
intention.
:
- :
The Book of Analysis/Treatises
 Analysis of the Enlightenment Factors:
Factors: the
student makes a stronger and more secure bases
of Wish, Energy, Consciousness and Reason ² by
further and more energetic practice.
 The condition of dominance develops "       &
 á        - 
  -  
            
      
:
- :
The Book of Analysis/Treatises
 Analysis of the Path Constituents:
Constituents: [not called the
Eightfold Noble Path because the term implies
  ² the impression leaving one that
there are eight branches or ways to follow.
:
- :
The Book of Analysis/Treatises
 Analysis of Jhana:
Jhana: certain qualities prevent the
attainment of quality meditations: defilements "  &
fetters " 
 & the ties "  &, floods " &,
&the
bonds " &, &, corruptions "  &, attachments
"  &, latent tendencies "   &, and hindrances
"   sense--desires, ill-
sense ill-will, sloth and torpor,
distraction and remorse, and doubt&doubt&
 [  $      with a master ² one that
with
can determine the student·s temperament.
 &          
   
:
- :
The Book of Analysis/Treatises
 Analysis of the Illimitables:
Illimitables: the four brahma-
brahma-
viharas::
viharas
 „ '  
 66  *   
 " 
  
 „ '   

  '    

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:
- :
The Book of Analysis/Treatises
 Analysis of the Precepts:
:
- :
The Book of Analysis/Treatises
 Analysis of Analytical Insight:
Insight: "    6
  & ² four types of analytical insight:
 m     @ 
@    
 m      
    
 
 m      
        
       
  
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:
- :
The Book of Analysis/Treatises
 Analysis of Knowledge:
Knowledge: clearly demonstrates the
wide basis of special knowledge upon which the
unique qualities of a Buddha understands ² as it
really is:  +  +   
* +     +
           +
           +
      [
 [  + 
   +      
 
:
- :
The Book of Analysis/Treatises
 Analysis of Small Things:
Things: an analysis of
unwholesome states of pride, greed, hatred and
delusion, craving, wrong views ² slight faults«
[follows a numerically rising-
rising-sequential sets of
dhammas,, like the Sangīti Sutta
dhammas Sutta].
].
:
- :
The Book of Analysis/Treatises
 Analysis of the Heart of the Teaching:
Teaching: concerns itself
with a statement, exposition, details of occurrence,
properties and analysis ² concerning the most
technical aspects of the Buddha·s teachings: the
aggregates,, bases
aggregates bases,, elements, truths, controlling
faculties, roots, nutrients, contact, feeling, perception,
volition and consciousness.
 Deals with cosmological levels as well - starting from
the moment of conception

 5m& !$A á m á! R$& $A ?m á$B ? #BB "&$?&C


A   !   
á   
 Most material is said to be duplicated in the
Visuddhimagga
 Gives a great ¶more ancient/earlier· account of
Dependent arigination than what can be found in
the Visuddhimagga.
Visuddhimagga.
 
Discussion with Reference to the Elements

    
  



   
  
 QQ
 QQ
Description of Individuals
 Allegedly ¶out of place· in the Abhidhamma Pitaka ²

contains descriptions of personality-


personality-types.

 The only Abhidhamma text that is not written in terms

of ultimate realities.

 Defines ¶persons· in states or stages in the sequence of

conditions/consciousnesses, etc«
F 
F 
Points of Controversy
 Contains the questions and answers that were compiled
by Moggaliputta Tissa in the 3rd century BCE, in order
to clarify points of controversy that existed between the
various ´Theravadaµ schools of Buddhism at the time.
 The text utilizes indirect logic during questioning:
 Is A, B?
 If A is B, then C is D
 If D is denied of C, then B should be denied of A
 If C is not D, then A is not B
 But sometimes there is ill-
ill-logic which is refuted also
F 
F " Points of Controversy
 Logical techniques found:
 Definitions
 Distribution of terms
 Classification
 Relations between propositions as bi- bi-conditionals or
¶ponentials
ponentials·,·, quantifications, and the use of logical
words to give a standard formal presentation of all the
arguments, etc«
 [Please recall: the Buddha insists on the
empirical verification of his teachings ² See the
Anguttara--nikaya·s Kesaputta Sutta
Anguttara Sutta]]
M - The Book of Pairs
 This book is a logical analysis of many
concepts presented in the earlier books. It
is also called the ¶Clarification of
Expressions·. The Yamaka is for advanced
students who already comprehend the
Abhidhamma system ² and endeavor to
become completely competnent in order to
defeat or not fail in debates against
opponents.
M - The Book of Pairs
 Buddhagosa·s Introduction to the
Atthasalini states that this text is divided
into ten parts:
 Roots, aggregates, sense-
sense-organs, elements,
truths, coefficients [body, speech and mind],
latent biases, consciousness, doctrine and
controlling faculties.
:: The Book of Relations

 The largest single volume in the Tipitaka  "  
/000  À    &"£ -  
   &"£ -     À 
á À-   000 6
6     
 & describing
       & the 24 paccayas
or laws of conditionality - through which
dhammas interact. These laws when applied
variously, describe every possibility of the
   described in the Dhammasangani ²
demonstrating the complete knowable
experience.
:: The Book of Relations

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And analysis based from wholesome, unwholesome, neither, conditions, common,


classifications, enumerations, couplets, triplets, faultless, corrupt, combinations,
etc«
:: Conditional Relations

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„  ?    ' < :  688>
 Reciting matikas seems to be the method of
learning and disseminating the Abhidhamma in
early times.
 Different schools of Buddhism developed their
own unique forms of Abhidhamma-
Abhidhamma-pitakas
pitakas..
mF)

  
„  ?    ' < : 
 688>
688>
 Warder claims that the 37 Enlightenment factors serve as the foundation
for the Abhidhamma [p. 82] ² namely [See the „       á 
; and „    á for dependent origination
   ;
details; and the á  6   for other aspects on dependent
origination]:
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 Why: ´Monks, for this reason those matters that I have discovered and
proclaimed should be thoroughly learnt by you, practiced, developed and
cultivated, so that this holy life may endure for a long time« And now,
monks, I declare to you ² all conditioned things are of a nature to decay ²
strive on untiringly«µ
 But the Buddha gives later or additional teachings [the above is not the
final sermon!] found throughout the sutta.
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 Eightfold

 Eightfold Noble Path    & 


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1) Right View
2) Right Thought —Wisdom: (á


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J) Right Speech
4) Right Action |Morality: ( 

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) ² Body/Action
5) Right Livelihood  $ 
  
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) Right Effort
7) Right Mindfulness |Contemplation: 

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ÿ) Right Concentration &     
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m  ! F 
Points of Controversy:
 Shwe Zan Aung and Mrs. Rhys Davids suggest that this
is the third text in the Abhidhamma-
Abhidhamma-pitaka ² a
conclusion they make after checking the sources
referenced inside the text, and after looking at several
words used in certain contexts.
 I decided to lecture on this book first because it sets the
Theravada doctrine down against the beliefs of the other
schools« and the Theravada tradition can continue from
here to utilize all the texts ¶we· have in our tradition.
 It is not relevant to this ¶scholar· which book came first
or last ² but the content, alone, signifies the importance
of the texts.
m  ! F 
Points of Controversy: [time]
 For instance: last semester I read a special lecture that I
prepared concerning Time ² and had I looked into this
text for deeper answers, I could have included answers
to the following questions:
 A past object is without an object [past and future
mental objects are not actually existing, therefore mind
recalling a past object is mind without object
 Is there not adverting of mind, ideation, co-
co-ordinated
application, attention, volition, anticipation, aim,
concerning the past [or future]?
 «and after a series of admissions: but you admit that a
¶past object· does not exist [at the present mind
moment]? Surely then, a mind occupied with past object
is occupied with a non-
non-existent object
m  ! F 
Points of Controversy: [time]
Point: Duration [addhā]
[addhā] is predetermined...
 [Commentary answer]: The argument seeks to show
that no interval whatever is predetermined, except as
mere time-
time-notion. But matter, etc., when meaning the
five aggregates (bodily and mental) is predetermined.
 «Because the Buddha stated in the Anguttara-
Anguttara-nikaya:
a          +
a    À     +a 
 À    ' So:
duration is predetermined.
 «and momentary conscious units are impermanent
and do not endure for a single mind moment
m  ! F 
Points of Controversy: [time]
 From the special section of notes, the translators
state:
 Time is a concept by which terms of life are counted or
reckoned
 Time is that ¶passing by· reckoned as ¶so much has
passed· [impermanence]
 Time is eventuation or happening ² there being no
such thing as being exempt from events [perpetual
becoming]
m  ! F 
Points of Controversy: [time]
 Time distinctions have no objective existence of their
own, and that reality is confined to the present. The
past reality has already perished; the future reality has
not yet become ² Buddhist doctrine states that reality is
present. When it gives up its reality, it gives up its
presence; when it gives up its presence, it ceases to be
real.
 Humans are obscured because we have a notion of
continuity
 What time is to life, space is to matter; Space, like time,
is a permanent concept or mental construction, which
constitutes a sufficing condition for the movement of
bodies. It is void, unperceivable, without objective
reality.
!  ? 

   
a   À - À   

: 
 

 
Book Contents:
1. Introduction
2. Living a Noble Life
3. Themes for Mind Development
4. Preliminaries for the Practice of Meditation
5. Development of Mindfulness of Breathing
6. Recollection on Repulsiveness of the Body
7. Cultivation of Divine Abodes of Mind
8. Psychic Experience
5
 
 Brain: Cannot be  Mind: With a workable
equated with each body but a defective
other. The brain is an brain ² the mind,
organ of the body and without a proper
an instrument of the instrument, will not
mind. become recognizable.

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Citta--Bhāvanā
Citta
 Citta:  Bhāvanā:
 Mind  Cultivate
 Has the nature of  Prosper
thinking or responding to  Train
stimuli
 Practice
 Has the nature of
cetasikas ² to be aware of
what comes from the
sense--doors
sense
 Has the nature of
diversification and
refinement
  
    

 
   

 How is one undeveloped in body and undeveloped


in mind? Pleasant feelings arise in an untaught
ordinary person. Touched by that pleasant
feeling, he lusts after pleasure and continues to
lust after pleasure. That pleasant feeling of his
ceases. With the cessation of the pleasant
feeling, painful feeling arises. Touched by that
painful feeling, he sorrows, grieves and
laments« - because body and mind are not
developed.
  
    

 
   

 How is one developed? Here, pleasant feeling


arises« touched by that pleasant feeling, he does
not lust after pleasure or continue to lust after
pleasure ² the pleasant feeling ceases ² touched
by this this painful feeling, he does not sorrow or
grieve« - it does not invade the mind. [with
withdrawn body and mind ² withdraw from
sensual pleasures, with sensual desires, secluded
from unwholesome states ² one can enter into the
first jhā
jhāna ² etc«]
Advantages of Mind Development:

1. Advantage gained in the present life:


 Enables people to be free from worldly, economic
problems ² conducive to social peace
2. Advantage gained in the future life:
 Implies a progressive state in the next life ² and
prevents a retrogression in ¶spiritual· evolution -
the mind gains higher qualities
3. Advantage gained towards the highest,
supramundane levels:
 Four Stages of the Path and Fruitations ² and
Nibbana
Cittavagga - Dhammapada

 Restless
 Always running wild in search of the anchor on which it may
rest ² pleasant sights, sounds, smells, tastes, touch
 Vacillating
 Unable to remain in any condition for a long time
 Difficult to Control
 Difficult for a person to make the mind obedient to the will
 Difficult to Desist
 Difficult for a person to prevent the mind from falling into a
useless or unwanted thought
Asarīra
 The mind is formless, colorless, shapeless,
abstract, not material, imperceptible through
the senses, no material instrument can take
hold or measure the mind [only
behavior/reactions can be measured]
 Communication can be done through mind-
mind-to-
to-
mind communication
 The mind can record and store kamma and
kilesa ² and become trained to be a great benefit
of the one undertaking training
D 
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2. Living a Noble Life
 The life of chastity
 Leads to social peace and prosperity
 The best way to testify
 Morality, Concentration and Wisdom
 Attainable goal
 Blistful achievement
 Sediment defilements - Kilesa
 Knowable existence of defilements "      &

 Simile of a country·s development


 Self
Self--defence, police force, development plan
F 
 Crude [Vītikkama]: the most obvious kind
manifested through words and deeds
 Subtle [PariyutthÜ $%  &    &    
[PariyutthÜ $%  &    &    
 Mild [Anusaya]: the tendencies for lust/greed,
aversion, delusion/ignorance ² the most
difficult to root out.
3. Themes for Mind Development
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 Upacāra: to approach the attainment level
Upacāra:
 Appanā: Attainment meditation ² beyond the
distractive power of the five hindrances

 An ¶aspirant· is free to choose any of the 40 types


of meditation agreeable to one·s disposition ² but
in Thailand, ¶mindfulness on breathing· is the
most popular meditation theme
 
   
1. Rāgacarita ² bent on lust for sights, sounds«
2. Dosacarita ² bent on anger ² flying into rage at
the least provocation
3. Mohacarita ² bent on delusion ² being gullible
4. Saddhācarita ² bent on faith ² being highly
receptive
5. Buddhicarita ² being highly intellectual ²
endowed with discretion and self-
self-importance
6. Vitakkacarita ² is discursive or worries
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5. Development of Mindfulness of Breathing


 The most widely practiced theme in Thailand
 The mind must have an anchor ² one of the
forty--themes for the mind to hold onto in the
forty
present moment during actual practice
 Jhana
Jhana--levels ² factors of Jhana:
 Initiated Thought "   &
 Sustained Thought "  &
 Ecstasy "    &
 Bliss "    &
 Equanimity "    &
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 Can direct the mind at will
 ( £

 Can withdraw the mind at will
 (  



 Can make a decision to dwell at will for any duration
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 Can withdraw the mind from lofty conditions at will
 (  
 Has the ability to survey the existence of jhana-
jhana-levels at
any moment
6. Recollection on Repulsiveness of the Body

 Group of breaths

 Group of postures

 Group of self-
self-possession in four postures

 Group of repulsiveness

 Group of the four elements

 Groups of corpses
7. Cultivation of Divine Abodes of Mind



""
 
 :
:"" ² the wish to see others happy
[meditatively extend to all]
   ² the wish to help others out of
misery [characteristic of great people]
 # ² the capacity for understanding and
appreciating or sharing the happiness of others [
an act of merit]
 £*  ² the feeling of an understanding
calmness of mind ² when the previous three are
inappropriate [a virtue of perfection]
1 £'
 
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9 
 Inner Vision: created by one·s own mind
 auter Vision: by those who have cultivated clairvoyant
powers or minds that are profoundly tranquil ² bringing
celestial realms into view
 M L
N
' Tranquility of the body and mind
' Lightness of the body and mind
' Suppleness of the body and mind
' Maneuverability of the body and mind
' Agility of the body and mind
' Straightness of the body and mind
m E
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 Psychic feats
 Clairaudience
 Telepathy or mind-
mind-reading
 Recollection of former lives
 Clairvoyance
 ×        



%    '  % 
    ! 
 «because the text was originally ¶Abhidhamma
¶Abhidhamma·· [[ ] ² I examine it!
 ]

 The introduction states that the term ¶patisambhida


¶patisambhida··
does not appear in the Digha,
Digha, Majjhima,
Majjhima, Samyutta
nikayas«
nikayas « but appears several times in the Anguttara
Nikaya ² and appears in the Abhidhamma and other
later texts.
 Believed to be attributed to the Venerable Sariputta ²
        
          
 
 %     
 The discriminations are:
 Attha ² meanings
 Vyanjana ² expressions
 Dhamma ² principles/ideas [[
:: causes]
 Nirutti ² language
 Pubbāpara ² context
 Mah%niddesa states: possessing intuition: three
kinds ² in learning [simply], in inquiry [into
meanings, definitions, causes, etc], and in
acquisition [the 37 Enlightenment Factors, etc.]
 %     
 The Parivāra states that a monk should not be elected to
a committee if he is not skilled in:
 Meanings, Principles. Language, Context

 The Patisambhidāmagga:
Patisambhidāmagga: tries to show exactly how
understanding takes place in a practical sense, not
simply in theory ² although the theory is importantly
necessary for the development of insight.
 (   Theravada doctrine states that there
is really only two categorially laws: reality [dhammas
and nibbana
nibbana]] and concepts [words]. à   
   " &
 %     
 Teaches: the five aggregates have the three
characteristics

 The introduction states that the Dasuttara


Sutta of the Digha-
Digha-nikaya serves as the starting
point for the Patisambhidāmagga
magga:: [see my
chart to discuss this point]

 
      # ²

      # ² where a leading
wander states: r'  3          
      à        à  
    '          
     3  4
Key statements from the Potthapada
Sutta::
Sutta
 ane·s perceptions arise and cease owing to a cause and
conditions. Some perceptions arise through training, and some
pass away through [moral] training.
 Whenever the gross acquired self is present, we do not at that
time speak of a mind-
mind-made acquired self, we do not speak of a
formless acquired self. We speak only of a gross acquired self
[this very one that you can see!].
 Citta states: ´My past acquired self was at the time, my only
true one, the future and present ones were false. My future
acquired self will then be the only true one, the past and
present ones were false. My present acquired self is not the
only true one, the past and future ones are false.   


 @  :   @  



 %     
 [p. xxiii-
xxiii-xxiv] - The Patisambhidāmagga as the
Sastra [textbook] of Theravāda:
 Composed during the period of the great schisms,
and is a positive counterpart to the Kathavātthu.
Whereas the Points of Controversy refute the
doctrines of others, the Path of Discrimination
illustrates the accepted Theravada Doctrine.
 A student of Theravada doctrine and the
Visuddhimagga may not notice anything
controversial ² being practical and straightforwardly
outlining the truths of Buddhism.
 %     
 Impermanence, or the momentariness,
momentariness, of all
dhammas is one of the main themes of the text ²
again, stressing impermanence and emptiness.
! 
? 
m?R m„„m m ám&mm
"        
 Everyone needs a field of action or a workplace
to perform or attain

 For a Buddhist ¶yogi· there are two recognized


systems of meditation: calm and insight
m?R m„„m m ám&mm
"        
 Samatha is rendered as the single-
single-
pointedness of the mind ² through eight
meditative attainments:
 À  
À  66
 6
6 
  
 À    6
6 
 66
  

 Mental instability comes to an end through


these attainments
m?R m„„m m ám&mm
"        
 Vipassana assists in seeing diverse ways or
different perceptions of phenomena ² THE
THREE CHARACTERISTICS:
        
 à         
          
      

 It is a function of the mental-


mental-factor [cetasika] of
wisdom directed to uncover the true nature of
things or phenomena
m?R m„„m m ám&mm
"        
1. Rāgacarita and Saddhācarita are
paired [lustful/faithful]
2. Dosacarita and Buddhicarita are
paired [hateful/intellectual]
3. Mohacarita and Vitakkacarita are
paired [deluded/discursive]
m?R m„„m m ám&mm
"        
1. Rāgacarita: ten kinds of foulness and mindfulness of the body ² the 32
parts

2. Saddhācarita ² six recollections of the Buddha, etc«

3. Dosacarita ² the brahma


brahma--viharas and color
color--kasinas

4. Buddhicarita ² death, peace, loathsomeness of food, and four elements

5. Mohacarita ² mindfulness of breath, large space

6. Vitakkacarita ² mindfulness of breath, small space

 ALL TYPES: element


element--kasinas, space, light, immaterial
immaterial--spheres
m?R m„„m m ám&mm
"        
 Stages of mental development:
 Preliminary development ²       
           
   
        50  
 Access Development ²     
        
 6
66
6         

  
         

 Absorption Development ²     6
  6
  6
6 
      6
6 
  
m?R m„„m m ám&mm
"        
 Nimittas ² Signs:
 Preliminary Sign ² the original object of concentration ²
found in relation to every subject
 Learning Sign ² mental replica of the object perceived in
the mind as it appears to the physical eye ² found in
relation to every subject
 Counterpart Sign ² purified from defects and is
hundreds of times more brilliant ² as the moon emerges
from the nighttime clouds [as a concept] ² found only in
the kasinas, foulness, parts of the body, and mindfulness
of breathing
m?R m„„m m ám&mm
"        
 Attainment of Jhana:
 After access development is accomplished ² from
concentration on the sense-
sense-sphere in which obstacles
are abandoned and the counterpart sign is cultivated
then one can enter into the first jhana
 ane may master the first jhana through five kinds of
mastery:
 Adverting, attainment, resolution, emergence and
reviewing ² and then from striving to abandon the
successive gross jhana factors [initial application] then
sustained application, etc ² in accordance to one·s
ability and desire/wish
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 af virtue [sila] [
[ ]
]
 af mind [samadhi] [
[ ]
]
 af view [panna] [
[ ]
]
 By overcoming doubt [panna] [
[ ]
]
 By knowledge and vision of path and not path [panna]
[ ]
]
 By knowledge and vision of the way [panna] [
[ ]
]

  

    

 

 By knowledge and vision [panna] [


[  ]
]
m?R m„„m m ám&mm
"        
 Virtue For Monks - Analysis of Purification:
 Restraint through the Patimokkha/precepts
 Restraint through the sense-
sense-faculties/doors
 Purity in terms of livelihood
 Purity in connection to the four requisites

 Π     (


m?R m„„m m ám&mm
"        
 
!!  E !
  
   "" "       
   
   
     
    &"     &
á %  : attains access concentration or higher
  % 
jhanas then develops or applies the three characteristics
to mentality-
mentality-materiality ² to purify the mind
 -   %%  : purifies the mind through morality
and the personal momentary mentality-
mentality-materiality
process in the immediate present moment ² for mental
stabilization/purification
m?R m„„m m ám&mm
"        
 
!! 
 Discerning mind and matter in respect to the three
characteristics, functions, manifestations, and
proximate causes ² need to eradicate sakk
sakkÜÜyaditthi:
20 personality forms; and sixteen kinds of
knowledge
 
! ! 
 Through applying    through
the three time periods to understand the current
mind--and
mind and--matter compound ² that it has not arisen
from chance, a soul, a creator god, etc. ² but has
arisen from previous ignorance, craving, clinging
and kamma.
m?R m„„m m ám&mm
"        
 
! ! 
 Through applying    through
the three time periods to understand the current
mind--and
mind and--matter compound ² that it has not arisen
from chance, a soul, a creator god, etc. ² but has
arisen from previous ignorance, craving, clinging and
kamma.
 Understanding:
 Cycle of defilements: ignorance, craving, speculative views, grasping
 Cycle of action: wholesome/unwholesome mass of action
 Cycle of results: pleasant/unpleasant results of those actions
m?R m„„m m ám&mm
"        
 Purification of what is Path and Not-
Not-Path:
 Ú         
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m?R m„„m m ám&mm
"        
 Purification of the Way "    &
 ×     
 ×   
6 ×  
5 ×  
7 ×   
/ ×       
8 ×     
9 ×        
: ×   
m?R m„„m m ám&mm
"        
 Purification by knowledge and vision of the way:
 Knowledge of contemplation of arising and passing away
 Knowledge of contemplation of dissolution
 Knowledge of appearance of terror
 Knowledge of contemplation of danger
 Knowledge of contemplation of disenchantment
 Knowledge of desire for deliverance
 Knowledge of contemplation of reflection
 Knowledge of equanimity about formations
 * and knowledge in conformity with truth or conformity
knowledge
m?R m„„m m ám&mm
"        
 Purification by knowledge and vision:
 º     
 º          
 º         
 Mind
Mind--door adverting
 Insight leading to emergence
 Change of lineage consciousness
 The Paths/Fruits
 Reviewing knowledge
m?R m„„m m ám&mm
"        
 m&mBáRá  „m&!R%m R$& A   
1. The contemplation of  ,, which discards the clinging to a self,
66
becomes the door to emancipation termed contemplation of the void
² by one with wisdom faculties [sees formations as void]
2. The contemplation of   ,
, which discards the sign of
perversion, becomes the door to emancipation termed
contemplation of the signless - by one with faith faculties
[abandons deceptive appearances]
3. The contemplation of  
 ,, which discards desire through
craving, becomes the door to emancipation termed contemplation of
the desireless ² by one with concentration facilities [abandons false
perceptions of pleasure]
!m% 
? m"
m?R m„„m m ám&mm
Ü
%       Ü
!   ! 

 Conditioned states are phenomena that arise in


dependence on conditions: cittas,
cittas, cetasikas,
cetasikas, and
material phenomena [except for kamma,
kamma,
consciousness, temperature, nutriment].
 There is the method of dependent arising
[paticcasamuppada
paticcasamuppada]]
 There is the method of conditional relations as found
in the Patthana as part of the Abhidhamma. [see
Visuddhimagga XVII]
02  42#
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m?R m„„m m ám&mm
Ü
%       Ü
 Dependent Arising/arigination:
1. Dependent on ignorance arise kammic formations
2. Dependent on kammic formations arises consciousness
3. Dependent on consciousness arises mind-
mind-and-
and-matter
4. Dependent on mind-
mind-and-
and-matter arise the six
six--senses
5. Dependent on the six-
six-senses arise contact
6. Dependent on contact arises feeling
7. Dependent on feeling arises craving
8. Dependent on craving arises clinging
9. Dependent on clinging arises existence
10. Dependent on existence arises birth
11. Dependent on birth arise decay-
decay-and-
and-death, sorrow, pain, etc«
 Thus arises this whole mass of suffering
   
 
 !


 Because of ignorance ( 


(  )) ² defined as non-
non-
knowledge of the Four Noble Truths ² a person engages
in volitional actions or kamma, which may be bodily,
verbal, or mental ² either wholesome or unwholesome.
 No single cause can produce an effect, nor does only one
effect arise from a given cause
 Ignorance is the cetasika: delusion ² obscuring
perceptions of the true nature of things
 
 is non-
non-knowledge of the Four Noble Truths,
pre--natal past, post
pre post--mortem future, the past and future
together, and dependent arising.
   !
 
 
  
 a person engages in volitional actions or kamma, which may be
bodily, verbal, or mental ² either wholesome or unwholesome.
These kammic actions are the formations (  
(   ),
), and they
ripen in states of consciousness ( 
(  )) ² first as the rebirth
consciousness at the moment of conception and thereafter as
the passive states of consciousness resulting from kamma that
matures in the course of one·s lifetime.
 F!
 are the twenty-
twenty-nine volitions associated
with mundane wholesome and unwholesome cittas ² and these
are the conditions for the arising of thirty-
thirty-two kinds of
resultant   
      
 "
      
 " ""


 of thirty-
thirty-two kinds of resultant   
   ,, which
stimulate the five aggregates of mind and matter,
feeling, perception, and mental formations and
consciousness.
 Along with consciousness there arises mentality-
mentality-
materiality (
(

 ),
 ), the psycho-
psycho-physical
organism, which is equipped with the six-
six-fold base
(    
     ))
 Here, often associations are made to previous lives:
name denoting cetasikas associated with resultant
consciousness; matter denoting material phenomena
produced by kamma ² both are found in realms where
the five aggregates collect together
   "
   " ""

  
'"" 
'
 
is dependent on
consciousness, which contributes to the ' '""
 : eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and
   :
mind«
 Along with consciousness there arises mentality-
mentality-
materiality (
(

 ),
 ), the psycho-
psycho-physical
organism, which is equipped with the six- six-fold
base (    
     ), ), the five physical sense
faculties and the mind as the faculty of the
higher cognitive functions.
     '"  
 
     '"

  is the reception from the six-
six-senses.
Contact is determined to the coming together of
consciousness and mental factors with an object
at one or another of the six-
six-senses.
 Via the sense faculties, contact ( 
(  )) takes
place between consciousness and its object, and
contact conditions feelings ( 
(  ).).
   
 ! 
 (  arise from the contact with the
stimulus. These feelings may be: pleasurable,
painful, or neutral.
 The links from consciousness through feeling are
the products of past kamma, of the causal phase
represented by ignorance and formations. With
the next link, the kammically active phase of the
present life begins, productive of a new existence
in the future. Conditioned by feeling, craving
( 
  )) arises, this being the  Noble
Truth.
   ! 
 

 
 arise from feelings. If the feeling is
pleasurable, one wishes to hold onto that
experience; but if the feeling is painful, one
wishes to be freed from the pain. Neutral
feelings can be peaceful and become an object of
craving as well.
 Conditioned by feeling, craving ( 
(  )) arises
   

 
  is four-
four-fold: clinging to sense-
sense-pleasures
is an intensive form of greed; attachment to
wrong views; clinging to rites and ceremonies;
and clinging to a doctrine of self. The arising of
'   is dependent on clinging.
 When craving intensifies, it gives rise to clinging
(  
   ), ), through which one again engages in
volitional actions ¶pregnant· with a renewal of
existence (  
  ).).
   
  '  
 The arising of '   is dependent on clinging. There are
two types of existence: kammically active process of existence
(   ) and the passive or resultant process of
existence (
(    ). There are, in an active existence,
twenty--nine types of wholesome or unwholesome types of
twenty
kamma leading to a new existence. The new existence thirty-
thirty-
two kinds of consciousness and mental factors as well as other
material phenomenon from kamma. Clinging is a condition for
active existence, because under the influence of clinging, one
engages in action that is accumulated as kamma. Clinging is a
condition for resultant existence because the same clinging
leads one back into the round of rebirth, in a state determined
by one·s kamma.
 «through which one again engages in volitional actions
¶pregnant· with a renewal of existence (  
  ).). The new
existence begins with birth ( 
( ),
), which inevitably leads to
ageing and death (   
(    ). ).
    '   
  

 
 arises from existence, from consciousness,
mental factors and kamma. ance there is birth,
there is the resultant effect of  

 ..
 
 The new existence begins with birth ( 
( ),
), which
inevitably leads to ageing and death
(   
    ). ).
Dependent on birth arise decay-
decay-and-
and-death,
sorrow, pain, etc«
 This teaching of dependent origination also shows
how the round of existence can be broken: with the
arising of true knowledge, full penetration of the
Four Noble Truths, ignorance is eradicated.
Consequently, the mind no longer indulges in
craving and clinging; action loses its potential to
generate rebirth, and deprived of its fuel, the round
comes to an end. This is the   Noble Truth ² 
 Noble
  .
   .
 # !!
 arises between birth and death. All
# !!
arises
suffering is rooted in birth. À 
         
.
     .
„ore from the Visuddhimagga:
Visuddhimagga: Temprements
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 Systemized from the death to two centuries after the


Parinibbānana.. A commentarial tradition.
 Several Buddhist Schools developed their own unique
Abhidhamma--pitaka
Abhidhamma pitaka,, but few survived.
 All phenomena of empirical existence are made up of a
number of elementary constituents, the ultimate
realities behind the manifest phenomena ² called
dhammas.
 The theory arose to make sense of meditative insights ²
with the goal to see bare phenomena "    % %&
&
and then to relate this experience to the common
understanding.
, 
,  , 

 ´«maintains that ultimate reality consists of a
multiplicity of elementary constituents called
dhammas.. The dhammas are not noumena
dhammas
hidden behind phenomena, not ¶things in
themselves· as opposed to ¶mere appearances·, but
the fundamental components of actuality. The
dhammas fall into two broad classes: the
unconditioned dhamma,
dhamma, which is solely Nibbana,
Nibbana,
and the conditioned dhammas,
dhammas, which are the
momentary mental and material phenomena that
constitute the process of experience«.
, 
,  , 
 
 «The familiar world of substantial objects and
enduring persons is, according to the dhamma
theory, a conceptual construct fashioned by the
mind out of raw data provided by the dhammas
dhammas..
The entities of our everyday frame of reference
possess merely a consensual reality derivative
upon the foundational stratum of the dhammas.
dhammas.
It is the dhammas alone that possess ultimate
reality: determinate existence ¶from their own
side· (sarūpato
(sarūpato)) independent of the mind·s
conceptual processing of the data.µ
? ( má( * <I
?( má( * <I
    
 «to attain the wisdom that knows things ¶as they
really are·, a distinction must be made between
those types of entities that possess ontological "
        &
ultimacy, that is, the dhammas and those types of
ultimacy,
entities that exist only as conceptual constructs but
are mistakenly grasped as ultimately real. «an
the basis of definitions found in the Suttas,
Suttas, the
dhamma--theory exhaustively classifies the
dhamma
dhammas into a net of predetermined categories
and modes of relatedness«

m#PS
m#PS
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m#
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PS
#
 
 The ontological survey of dhammas stems from the
Buddha·s injunction that the noble truth of suffering,
identified with the world of conditioned phenomena as a
whole, must be fully understood. The prominence of
mental defilements and requisites of enlightenment in
its schemes and categories, indicative of its psychological
and ethical concerns, connects the Abhidhamma to the
second and fourth noble truths, the origin of suffering
and the way leading to its end. The entire taxonomy of
dhammas elaborated by the system reaches it
consummation in the ¶unconditioned element·, which is
Nibbana ² the third noble truth, that of the cessation of
suffering.

m#AS
m#AS
( -
 !m  
    4      
    
 Analysis into nā
nāma and rūrūpa
 Analysis into the five aggregates
 Analysis into the six dhātus
dhātus [elements]
 Analysis into the twelve āyatanas [avenues of sense-
sense-
perception and mental cognition
 Analysis into the eighteen dh
dhātus
«allowing for further analysis of the experienced
world
 The Abhidhamma resorts to two complementary
methods of bringing out the nature of dhammas:
 That of analysis [bheda
[bheda]:
]: this method is found in the
Dhammasangani
 That of synthesis [sangaha
[sangaha]: ]: this method is found in
the Patthana
 Combining these two methods into the whole
methodological processes of the Abhidhamma
demonstrate the need to describe something and the
relationship with other things«
 «Plurality is an important factor to demonstrate
interconnectedness that no concept dwells in
isolation ² it is only necessary to isolate terms for
clearly defining descriptions.
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Rupa ² All Form is that which is:
 Not root condition  Not applied but only sustained thinking
 Not the related to a root condition  Neither applied nor sustained thinking
 Disconnected with root-
root-condition  Not accompanied by zest
 Causally related  Not accompanied by ease
 Conditioned  Not accompanied by indifference
 Endowed with form  Not something capable of being got rid of either by insight or by
 Mundane cultivation
 Co--intoxicant
Co  Not that the cause of which may be got rid of either by insight
 af the fetters
or cultivation
 af the ties
 Neither tending to, nor away from, the accumulation involving
rebirth
 af the floods
 Belonging neither to studentship nor to that which is beyond
 af the bonds
studentship
 af the hindrances
 af small account
 Infected  Related to the universe of sense
 af the graspings  Not related to the universe of form
 Belonging to the vices  Nor to that of the formless
 Indeterminate  Included/not of the un-
un-included [mental consciousness]
 Void of mental objects  Not something entailing fixed retribution
 Not a mental property  Unavailing for ethical guidance
 Disconnected with thought  Apparent
 Neither moral result nor productive of it  Cognizable by the six modes of cognition
 Not vicious yet belonging to the vices  Impermanent
 Not applied and sustained thinking  Subject to decay
+ 1
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