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Spread Spectrum....& more about CDMA


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h In 1985, the FCC (Federal Communications Commission) allocated three
frequency bands for spread spectrum (SS)communications, originally
developed by the military.
h SS transmission technique has much greater immunity to interference and
noise compared to conventional radio transmission techniques.
h An increasing number of users can use the same frequency (similar to
cellular).
h Users of FCC certified spread spectrum products do not require a license
from the FCC.
h Spread Spectrum technology in three radio bands, 902-928 MHz, 2400-
2483.5 MHz and 5752.5-5850 MHz for transmission under 1 Watt of power.
This power limit prevents interference within the band over long distances.
h SS data radios offer the opportunity to have multiple channels which can
be dynamically changed through software. Allows for many applications
such as repeaters, redundant base station and overlapping antenna cells.
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h Frequency hopping: The signal is rapidly switched between different
frequencies within the hopping bandwidth pseudo-randomly, and the
receiver knows before hand where to find the signal at any given
time.
h Time hopping: The signal is transmitted in short bursts pseudo-
randomly, and the receiver knows beforehand when to expect the
burst.
h Direct sequence: The digital data is directly coded at a much higher
frequency. The code is generated pseudo-randomly, the receiver
knows how to generate the same code, and correlates the received
signal with that code to extract the data.
Freq Hop
Time Hop
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h Depending on the factor N and on the type of spreading used, the


bandwidth that cdma2000 requires varies. The 3dB bandwidth for
each band (transmit and receive) is defined here for the three types
of spreading:
h 2   BW 3dB = 1.2288Mhz
h
  BW 3dB = (N - 1) x 1.25Mhz + 1.2288Mhz, where N =
3, 6, 9, 12
h —  2 
 BW 3dB = N x 1.2288Mhz, where N = 3, 6, 9, 12
h cdma2000 allocates Guard regions of 625kHz, on each sides of the
allocated bandwidth, to prevent interference with neighboring bands.
So the figure for the total bandwidth must include these two Guard
regions.

  
       

h Modulation chip rate: N x 1.2288 Mcps
h Modulation:
Uplink:
h BPSK Data modulation

h QPSK Spreading modulation

Downlink:
h QPSK Data modulation

h QPSK spreading modulation

h Detection: coherent for both uplink and downlink.


h Channel Spacing: (N+1) x 1.25MHz
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h Walsh codes are defined as a set of ü codes, denoted j, for  = 0,


1, ... , ü - 1, which have the following properties:
h j takes on the values +1 and -1.
h j[0] = 1 for all .
h j has exactly  zero crossings, for  = 0, 1, ... , ü - 1.
h Úach code W is either even or odd with respect to its midpoint.

     
 

CDMA uses spread spectrum


Technology.
cdmaOneΠidentifies 2G and 2.5G cellular,
PCS and wireless local loop (WLL) services
based on the IS-95A and IS-95B CDMA air
interface standards.
IS-95A supports data delivery up to 14.4 kbps
while IS-95B offers up to 115 kbps.
CDMA2000 is an ITU-approved, IMT-2000 (3G)
standard
CDMA2000 1X can double voice capacity and
delivers data rates up to 307 kbps
CDMA2000 1xÚ is optimized for high-speed
data:
CDMA2000 1xÚ -DO uses a designated channel
for data at speeds of up to 2.4 Mbps in a single
carrier
CDMA2000 1xÚ -D integrates voice and data on
a single channel with speeds of up to 4.8 Mbps
 !   "

h Frequency division multiplexing (FDM) is a technology that transmits
multiple signals simultaneously over a single transmission path, such as a
cable or wireless system. Úach signal travels within its own unique
frequency range (carrier), which is modulated by the data (text, voice, video,
etc.).
h Orthogonal FDM's (OFDM) spread spectrum technique distributes the data
over a large number of carriers that are spaced apart at precise
frequencies. This spacing provides the "orthogonality" in this technique
which prevents the demodulators from seeing frequencies other than their
own.
h Benefits of OFDM are high spectral efficiency, resiliency to RF interference,
and lower multi-path distortion.
h Useful because in a typical terrestrial broadcasting scenario there are
multipath-channels (i.e. the transmitted signal arrives at the receiver using
various paths of different length).
h Since multiple versions of the signal interfere with each other (inter symbol
interference (ISI)) it becomes very hard to extract the original information.

h The IÚÚÚ 802.11a/g/n standards are based on OFDM.
h The wideband wireless metro-area network (MAN) technology
WiMAX uses OFDM.
h The almost completed 4G cellular technology standard Long-Term
Úvolution (LTÚ) uses OFDM.
h The high-speed short-range technology known as Ultra-Wideband
(UWB) uses an OFDM standard set by the WiMedia Alliance.
h OFDM is also used in wired communications like power-line
networking technology.
h One of the first successful and most widespread uses of OFDM was
in data modems connected to telephone lines.
h ADSL and DSL used for Internet access use a form of OFDM
known as discrete multi-tone (DMT). And, there are other less well
known examples in the military and satellite worlds.
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h IÚÚÚ 802.11 - FHSS/DSSS


h IÚÚÚ 802.11 a - OFDM
h IÚÚÚ 802. b (Wi-Fi) ± DSSS
h IÚÚÚ 802.11 g - OFDM
h IÚÚÚ 802.11 n - MIMO (UWB)
h IÚÚÚ 802.16 (WiMax) - OFDM
h IÚÚÚ 802.15.1 (bluetooth) ± GFSK
h ZigBee 802.15.4 systems (2.4GHz ) ± DSSS-QPSK; 915MHz
DSSS-BPSK, in America and 868MHz DSSS-BPSK in Úurope.
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