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Интерпретация текста
6B01705 - Иностранный язык: два иностранных языка
Автор:Энгель Наталья Викторовна, ст. преподаватель
кафедры иностранной филологии

Вид занятия: практические

Караганда 2021
Тема 7 Tools for evaluating a
story (A first-person narrative, third-
person narrative, characters).
 Винокур Т.Г.Закономерности стилистического использования
языковых единиц. Изд.2, испр. и доп. 2010. - 240 с
 Солганик Г.Я.Синтаксическая стилистика. Изд.3. 2009. - 232 с.
 Болотнова Н.С. Стилистика русского языка: контрольно-
тренировочные задания: пособие для студентов педагогического
университета / Н.С. Болотнова, О.В.Орлова. - Изд. 3-е, испр. и доп.
- Томск: ТГПУ, 2008. - 124 с. Гриф УМО
 Чернышова Т.В. Cтилистический анализ как основа
лингвистической экспертизы конфликтного текста // Русский язык
в его естественном. - Барнаул, 2009. - С.213
 Сошальская Е.Г. Стилистический анализ//Учебное пособие для ст.
курсов ин-тов и фак. иностр.яз. Москва: Изд-во «Высшая
школа»,2009.- 155 с.
 Болотнова Н.С. Коммуникативная стилистика текста: словарь-
тезаурус / Н.С.Болотнова. - Томск, ТГПУ, 2008. - 384 с.
 Болотнова Н.С. Стилистика. Культура речи. Риторика: учебные
программы / С.М Карпенко., И.Н.Тюкова. - Томск: ТГПУ, 2007. -
65 с.
Types of Prose
 Short Story
 Factual Prose

 Novel

 The Personal Essay

 Journals

 Diaries

 Testimony

 Letters
 Who is telling this
story? To whom?
 Exactly what is going
 What sort of people
live in this story?
 Where is all this
taking place?
 What are they saying
to each other?
The Elements of Fiction
There are eight elements of fiction:
*Plot and Structure
*Point of View
*Symbol, Allegory, and Fantasy
*Humor and Irony
While these elements are not all found in every work, they are
critical to the understanding of each piece you read.
Characters are presented in two different ways:

• Direct Presentation- The reader is told straight out

what the character is like.

• Indirect Presentation- The author shows the character

through their actions; the reader determines what the
character is like by what they say or do.

• Dramatization- Characters are shown speaking and

behaving, as in a play.
Characterization (cont.)
Types of Characters
* Flat Characters- Usually have one or two
predominant traits. The character can be summed up
in just a few lines.

*Round Characters- Complex and many faceted; have

the qualities of real people.

* Stock Characters- A type of flat character. The type

of character that appears so often in fiction the reader
recognizes them right away.

*Static Character- A character that remains

essentially the same throughout.
Point of View

 First Person
 Third Person
First Person Narrators
TAXI by Jesus Garcia

n the back seat of the Volkswagen Beetle, the woman, her baggy eyes shut, chants the Lord's Prayer over and over.She's
sitting in between The Monkey, who has a simian arm casually draped over her shoulder, as if he were her boyfriend, and
Handsome, who is riffling through the contents of her purse. I can see through the rearview mirror that he's found her
"Your name's Lourdes," he says, reading from her driver's license. "Lourdes Santos de Diaz. What do you know, you live
n Las Lomas! At 2721 Sierra Gorda." The recitation of her name and address doesn't break her concentration, not even
or a second. She continues to drone the Lord's Prayer. It's starting to get on my nerves. I bet she hasn't been in a church in
years, except for weddings and communions. But once in my taxi, most of the "passengers" put on a big show of piety.

look at her in the rearview mirror. Her face, slack with middle age, is grimly set. I return my gaze to the road. "Lourdes?"
ask. "Are you a religious woman?"

"Yes," she says. She smoothes down her beige skirt, as if any of us were interested in her legs. "Yes, I am."

"Good," I counter. "Then not only will God protect you, he will pay you back threefold anything we take from you."
Handsome goes through her husband's wallet. "And your name is Adolfo," he says. Adolfo is lying in a fetal position on
he floor of the cab beside me where the passenger seat should be. He chokes, gasping, yet again. The Monkey places his
big foot in the crack of Adolfo's ass, just to make sure he doesn't get carried away. "Please," says Adolfo in a strained
voice. "Please, let us go, for the love of God." I can't stand it when they beg. I am by no means a violent person, but the
whining makes me want to move my foot from the accelerator and stomp their fac es.
First Person Narration
The story is written from the viewpoint of the character who tells the story, ie I saw…
I felt… I did…, and is also a character in the story. The "I" in the story is not the
author but a character that the author has created to tell the story. This character is
known as the narrator or storyteller.

The narrator talks directly to us and tells us about his or her own experiences, thoughts
and feelings. The tone of voice the narrator uses to reveal the characters and events in
the story will show us what his/her attitude is to these characters or events. For
example, the narrator could be compassionate, sympathetic, understanding, critical,
impartial and so on.

Concepts to Think about:

• Is it reliable and truthful?
• Is it ironic?
• Is the action limited?
Functions of the first person
- reveals the personality of the character-narrator,

- gives direct insight into the character’s mind,

- creates his individual voice and increases the credibility

of the story.

Character-narrator is limited to the possibilities of his

personal contacts and observations.
Third Person Narration
Unlike first person narrators, third person narrators do not take part in the
story. The narrator is outside the story and refers to the characters either
by name or in the third person, i.e. he felt… she thought… they did…
Third person narrators are very powerful and can order the action as they
please. They can also choose what to tell us about the characters and what
to leave out.

Third person narration can have four points of view.

•The omniscient point of view

•The intrusive narrator
•The impersonal narrator
•The limited point of view
Third Person Narration Types
The omniscient point of view

Omni means 'all' and the second part of the word means knowledge as in
'science'; thus omniscient means knowing everything. The omniscient
narrator is therefore like God - he or she knows everything about the
characters and events. This narrator can move from character to character,
selecting which speech and actions to write about. He or she can tell us
about the thoughts, feelings and reactions of each character in great detail
so that we will understand all of them. The omniscient narrator has to be
totally trustworthy. This is the simplest style of narration.
Third Person Narration Types
The Intrusive point of view
The intrusive narrator is like the omniscient narrator, but
he also judges the characters and comments on all their
actions and motives.

“Many years ago my two friends had a stepsister called Cinderella. She was
a badly dressed, disobedient and sulky child, and to try and make her mend
her lazy ways my friends made her help with the household chores. She had
to help them scrub the floors, tidy the house, cook the meals and wash the
pots. She also had to help them wash and iron clothes.” Cinderella as told
by the ugly sisters' best friend (third person narrator)
Third Person Narration Types
The Impersonal point of view

The impersonal narrator is the opposite of the intrusive narrator.

The impersonal narrator describes the action without introducing
his/her own comments. The narrator remains detached from the
characters and passes no judgments.
Third Person Narration Types
The Limited point of view
This point of view means that the story is told in the third person but
only from the point of view of a single character. It is another way of
combining third person narration with first person narration. The reader
sees everything that is going on but only from the point of view of one

“Buddy stole the money form his mother's purse just before he left for school.
His mother was in the kitchen clearing up the breakfast things and his father was
still in bed. He tiptoed into the front room and slipped the purse out of her
handbag. He clicked it open and took out a £5 note. A wave of disgust swept
through him. Only two weeks ago he'd vowed to himself that he was going to
stop shoplifting and here he was stealing from his own mother. He hadn't done
that since he was a little kid and had sometimes nicked the odd ten-pence. He
was turning into a real thief.” Buddy by Nigel Hinton
There are different narrative methods.
Narration, description, dialogue, interior monologue,
stream of consciousness, represented/reported speech.
Description is one of the components of the author’s speech.
There are two types of description:
-static ;

Static description is long and detailed; it interrupts the action

Dynamic description is short; it doesn’t interrupt the action.

Description may be classified as a portrait description, a

landscape description, or as a description of events.
Through the dialogue the characters are better portrayed.
Dialogue is one of the author’s most effective tools for developing his
characters .

The dialogue often informs the reader about:

1) the character’s nationality, social status, living conditions without narrator’s
commentaries. For instance, two extracts presented here demonstrate the
character’s nationality  through the norms of German pronunciation:
Goot, goot, goot! Und here’s der liddle Ariel! (A. Huxley)
He’s still plind drunk, the ploody Limey chentleman. (E.O’Neil)

2) the character’s cultural development: the use of the words foolosopher

(E.O’Neil) and monsewer (J. Jones) instead of philosopher and monsieur,
extrack instead of extract (J. Jones) conveys the speaker’s marked lack of
De old Foolosopher, like Hickey calls yuh, ain’t yuh? (E.O’Neil)

3)the character’s state.

4) the character’s personal position.  

Stream of consciousness gives the reader the impression of the
unending and uneven flow of ideas, feelings and memories in a person’s
mind. Absence of punctuation marks, capital letters, replacement of letters,
syllables, and distortion of words are characteristic of this technique.
That’s his last tryon to march through the grand tryomphal arch. His
reignbolt’s shot. Never again! How do you that like, Mista Chimepiece?
You got nice yum plemyums. Praypaid my promishles. Agreed, Wu Welsher
he was chogfull to beaesate on earn as in hiving of foxold conningnesses
but who, hey honey, for all values of his latters, integer integerrimost was
the formast of the firm? (J. Joyce)
 Form of narration
The extract (text) under study presents a piece of narration / description / a
character drawing / a piece of narration intercepted with dialogue

-narrative methods/devices: narration / description / dialogue / author’s digression

-interior monologue / stream of consciousness / represented speech / inner

reaction / auto-dialogue

-The story is a first / third person narration/narrative

entrusted narrative

-the story is a combination of the author’s narration and the characters’ dialogue /
the description and represented speech

-to resort to / to use the narrative / descriptive / cycling / chronological / frame


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