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During 80¶s
Until 70¶s To improve the
Rural development = economic and social
life of a specific
Agri. development. group of people ± the
rural poor¶

Today
Goes beyond growth , income
and output
Quality of life ± health, edn,
nutrition, living conditions
71% of
India¶s pop. is
in rural area

Rural poverty
29% of rural declined at
0.73% per year
pop. is BPL over the period
1993-2010

Challenges

16% of India¶s 59% are small and


population is marginal farmers
classified as and landless
scheduled caste, labourers who
and 8% as depend on
scheduled tribe agriculture
5 states
account for
40% of
India¶s
rural poor.
1957 Balwant Rai Mehta Commitee suggested 3 tier
system of local Govt. to improve Rural System
Gram
‰To decenterlise decision Panchayat
(Village level)
making
‰To shift decision making Panchayat
Samiti (Block
closer to people and encourage level)
their participation
Zilla Parishad
‰ To place Bureaucracy under (District level)
people¶s control

Liberal economic policies and reforms introduced in
the early 1990s

Driven by rapid growth in the manufacturing and


service sectors

Growth rate in agriculture has declined since 1997 and


remains low.

The share of agriculture in GDP has declined from 43%


in 1970 to 18% in 2010.

Public investment in irrigation has fallen



Ôocus shifted to agriculture production

Technological orientation to agriculture

Central Govt. brings special Program's bypassing


PRIs and all were financed by CG.
Î SÔDA (Small Ôarmers Devt Agency),
Î IAAP (Intensive Agricultural Programmes)
Î IADP (Intensive Agricultural District Programme)
Î TDA (Tribal Development Agency)
Î MÔAL (Marginal, Small Ôarmers and Agricultural Labourers
Development Agency )
Î Command Area Development,
Î Drought Prone Area and Hill Area
  ational r ,%   - &
  
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The village production plan Glimpses of Sustainable economic
development

Agricultural Production Programs

Ôull utilisation of irrigation facilities


by maintaining field channels

repair and maintain commu. Irrigation works.

increases area under multiple cropping.

spread of improved seeds

composting and green manure, fertilisers

Improved agricultural practices ±Soil conservation, contourbunding,


dry farming, drainage, land reclamation, plant protection.

individual and community minor irrigation projects

improved implements

production of vegetables and fruits


‰ Development of poultry, fish, dairy
‰ Animal Husbandry ±stud bulls castration
‰ Development of Village fuel plantation and
pastures.
‰ Panchayat Development Socio-political
‰ DPAP ±DDP Focus on atural Resources

r pptimum utilisation of land, water and


livestock resources.
r Restoration of ecological balance
r Stabilising the income of poor
r Arrest desertification advancement

By the end of 3rd Ôive Year Plan coverage is all
villages in 5265 blocks

Welding together Panchayati Raj and CD

Balwant Rai MehtaCommittee ±The three-tier system


village, block, district link Government, and elected
representative.

Studies on Area Planning Concept of Growth Centre


introduced growth centre to be promoted and woven
into district plans.
O 
 

In 1975, 20 point programme is introduced.

Community/Rural Development Programme does not


find place in text and discussion.
 
O
 
 

  
 
—etwork of extension and development service established
Î Land reforms successful
Î Rural community aware and ready to adopt technical advances (GRT
adoption as evidence).
Î Special area programmes introduced.
Î DPAP mid 1970s Drought Areas
Î DDP late 1970s Desert Areas

SÔDA, MÔAL since 1971 Small, marginal farmers and Agricultural


labourers.

 


 



 

  



  
 


 


 


     


  
 !
oThe approach to the Seventh Plan reiterates the goal of
bringing down the percentage of population below the
poverty line to less than 10 by 1994-95´
«Therefore, the special programmes will be continued
at an accelerated rate.
ÿ

 "

IRDP (1980)

TRYSEM (1979)

DWCRA (1982)

—REP (1980)

RLEGP (1983)

JRY (1990)

MEGS (1971-72) Maharashtra

SEPG (1991) Gujarat

DPAP (1973)

DDP (1978)

Voluntary sector to help. Rest same as 7thÔ.Y.P.



 

 #  

 

DPAP, DDP + People in Centre

Contradictions between Agricultural Irrigation and RD


Programmes

Impact of GRT (agro mechanical + bio-chemical) on


ecological/environmental parameters.

District Planning and RD Programmes

People as if they matter

Assessment of local area, resource base, people ±existing


situation.

—atural Resource base as unit for improving resource


productivity.

Use of individual, social, local and indigenous knowledge.

Ôormulation of sustainable development plans.

Community Development Ôacilitation.


 
$% 
& 
oAgricultural Development must be viewed as a core element
of plan, since growth in this sector is likely to lead to the
widest spread of benefits especially to the rural poor. The first
generation of reforms concentrated on the industrial economy
and reforms in the agricultural sector were neglected. This
must change in the Tenth Plan.´

Box 1.3, p.9, Volume-I


Î Ôive Year Plan 2002-2007
P.C.GoI, 2002

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