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Most of the low-speed wind turbine generators are permanent-magnet (PM) machines because of high power density. Advantages: high efficiency and reliability since there is no need of external excitation and conductor losses are removed from the rotor , less weight & compact

TYPES OF PERMANENT MAGNET MACHINES According to the flux direction in the air gap.
Radial flux machines Axial flux machines Transverse flux machines Axial &radial flux permanent magnet machines AFPM are disc shaped as compared to the commonly available drum shaped radial flux machines. The disc shape is the result of the stator and rotor being placed adjacent to each other rather than the rotor rotating inside the stator cylinder. Transverse flux machines do not seem foothold in wind power generation.

To perform Finite Element Analysis and to design an Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (AFPMSG) for Wind Power Application.


Compact machine construction and short frame. High power density. High efficiency and reliability. Weight of the machine is less . Better heat removal configuration and the air gap will be adjustable. Maintenance free. More robust structure than cylindrical type.

DEMERITS OF AFPM Due to permanent magnet as a field, field excitation control is

not possible. Complicated machine topology makes designing harder.


Stator-rotor arrangement: (a) Multi-disk structure. (b) Single-sided structure (c) Double-sided structure. i. Internal stator. ii. Internal rotor. The technique to integrate the permanent magnets to the rotor: (a) Surface-mounted permanent magnet type (b) Internal or buried permanent magnet type. Existence of armature slots (a) Slotted stators. (b) Toroidally-wound slot less stators.



Output equation in kVA

1 2 Q=3E ph B mack wD avL i I= g1 4 Emf equation in volt

diameter, AverageE=

2 Bg1 m w ph av i kN DL 2

Effective length of the stator Dav= core in radial direction Specific electric loading, ac = Where Do

Do-Di Li= 2 and D are outer and inner diameter of the machine.

Do+Di 2

Specific magnetic loading,

pB g0 stator yoke length, Ly = 2 B m ax

MAGNET DESIGN Air gap flux density, Bgo =
Br 2g r 1+ Lm

where Br

is the remanance flux density of the magnet

g is the air gap length Lm is the magnet length r is the relative permeability of the magnet is the pole pitch

Stator slot dimensions

Tooth bottom width, wtbi =

* Bgo /Btmax

Slot pitch at the inner diameter, Conductor area, Where kcp is the conductor packing factor, ncs is the no. of conductor per slot and db slot depth in mm.

Machine parameters
PARAMETER Q N f Eph 2p ac Bgo q DESCRIPTION Output kVA Rated speed of the machine Frequency Phase voltage at no load No of poles Specific electric loading Air gap flux density No. slots per pole per phase .69 1 Tesla 12 20,000 Amp-cond/m 50 110 Hz V VALUE 1 500 UNIT kVA rpm


Symbol Do Di Lya 2p Q Nph g Lm Wtbi Wti db dt1 215mm 85 mm 20 mm 12 1 372 1.5 mm 4mm 2.964 mm 5.9 mm 19 mm 1.5 mm

Designed value

Stator outside diameter Stator inside diameter Stator yoke length Number of poles Number of slots/pole/phase Number of turns/phase Air gap length magnet axial length Tooth bottom width Tooth top width Slot depth Slot top depth 1

Slot top depth 2 Total slot depth

dt2 ds

1.5 mm 22 mm

Development of 3D model

Exploded view of the model

Rotor Air Box


Stator Air Box

3d Mesh Of The Model

Flux density distribution

Results of static analysis

Flux linkage waveform under noload condition
Flux linkage in wb

Fu l n a e l xi k g
4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 a g ine cd g n le le e 0 10 0 20 0 30 0 40 0 50 0 R Y B

Induced EMF waveform under noload condition

Induced emf
150 100 50 0 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450

s t l o v i f m e c u d n I

-100 -150 -200 angle in elec deg

Transient analysis
Create circuit Create motion component
Rotor back iron Rotor magnets

Flux linkage waveform under noload condition

flux linkage
flux linkage in wb 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 Tim in ms e 0 10 20 30 40 50 R Y B

Induced EMF waveform under noload condition

Induced emf
200 150 Induced emf in V 100 50 0 -50 0 -100 -150 -200 Time in ms 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 R B Y

Flux linkage waveform under load condition

flux linkage
0.6 flux linkage in wb 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 Time in ms 0 10 20 30 40 50 R Y B

Induced EMF waveform under load condition

200 INDUCED EMF IN V 150 100 50 0 -50 0 -100 -150 -200 TIME IN ms 20 40 60 80 100 120 R B Y

Load current
full load curre nt
4 3 2 Current in A 1 0 -1 0 -2 -3 -4 tim e in m s 20 40 60 80 100 120 B Y R

Voltage across load

line voltage across load
300 200 voltage in V 100 0 -100 -200 -300 time in m s 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 YB BR RY

THD in induced EMF

Total harmonic distortion = 18.31%

Fractional slot winding

In integral slot winding with small integers of q would give rise to appreciable tooth harmonics in the induced EMF. Fractional slot winding reduces the harmonics. Because of shorter end connection , the cost of copper also reduced in fractional slot winding. Cogging torque of the machine also reduced by the fractional slot winding.

Winding configuration for 54 slot with q=1.5

Flux linkage and Induced EMF waveform

flux linkage in wb

fu ln a e l xi k g
0 .8 0 .6 0 .4 0 .2 0 -. 02 -. 04 -. 06 -. 08 ee t i a a g l crc l n le 0 20 0 40 0 60 0 80 0 10 00 r y B

induced EM F
200 induced EMF in V 150 100 50 0 -50 0 -100 -150 -200 E lectrical angle 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 R Y B

THD in induced EMF

Total harmonic distortion = 16%

There exist two undesired pulsating torque components in PM machines which affect the machine performance, one of which is ripple torque arising from harmonic content of the machine voltage and current waveforms. Cogging torque caused by the attraction between the rotor magnetic field and angular variations of the stator reluctance . No excitation is involved in cogging torque production.


The Power available in the wind ,

Pa =

1 AV 3 2

The mechanical power from the blades of the wind turbine Pt develops the corresponding shaft torque T
t p a where density of air A swept area of the blade Cp performance coefficient

P = C P = T r

V wind speed. r rotor speed of the wind turbine.

= r R /V

Cp as a function of the tip-speed ratio (TSR), Wind turbine operation is limited by its TSR. The upper limit of the TSR is based on noise generated bythe wind turbine.


TSR is low, resulting Cp is very low low Cp leads to wind turbine requires high starting torque to overcome the stall. Therefore, it is desirable that during start-up the cogging torque of the PM generator is low enough that the aerodynamic power can overcome it.


Noise and mechanical vibration excited by the cogging torque. It may threaten the integrity of the mechanical structure of an improperly designed small wind turbine.

Cogging Torque For 75% Pole Arc To Pole Pitch Ratio

3 torque in Nm 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 m c a ic l a g e h n a n le 2 4 6 8 1 0 1 2 1 4 toq e ru

Torque under full load


Cogging torque is reduced by Skewing the stator slot or Magnet Reducing the Pole arc to pole pitch ratio Fractional slot winding

Skewing the stator slot

Un skewed stator

Skewed stator

Cogging torque for 5 deg and 7 deg skewing

5 deg 1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 0 5 10 15 5 deg 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 0 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1

7 deg

7 deg 5 10 15

Reducing pole arc to pole pitch


By using fractional slot winding , harmonics in the induced EMF can be reduced. Cogging torque also reduced in the fractional slot winding. Stator skewing and by reducing pole arc to pole pitch ratio the cogging torque is reduced. When compared to skewing , reducing the pole arc to pitch ratio will reduces the cost of the machine.

A prototype of simulated model can also be constructed and the performance of the machine can be verified. This project can be further extended to 3D static and transient analysis for the double sided AFPMSG.

[1] Funda Sahin, Design and development of a high-speed axialflux permanent Machine,Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, 2001. [2] Yicheng Chen, Pragasen Pillay and Azeem Khan, PM Wind Generator Comparison of Different Topologies, Industry Applications Conference, 2004 , 39th IAS Annual Meeting, Conference Board of IEEE, 2004, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp.1405-1412. [3] J. Azzouzi, G. Barakat and B. Dakyo, Analytical modeling of an axial flux permanent magnet synchronous generator for wind energy application IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 2004, Vol. 40, No. 3, pp. 771-779. [4] E. Spooner and B. J. Chalmers, "TORUS: A slot less, toroidalstator, permanent-magnet generator," IEE proceedings-B, vol. 139, no. 6, November 1992, pp. 497-506.

[5] P.P.Silvester and R.L Ferrari, Finite elements for electrical engineers, Cambridge University Press. [6] A.K. Sawhney, A course in Electrical Machine Design, Dhanpat Rai & Co publishers. [7] T.J.E Miller, Brushless Permanent Magnet And Reluctance Motor Drives, Clandedon press oxford, 1989.