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Chap 3 Analog sensors

3.1 Introduction
to prevent error error measurement sensor are used (type and characteristics have to be found) size (length) measurement is important in precision machines sensors measuring length error are mostly studied (in the course) sensor limitations sometimes machine structure can be changed

3.1 Introduction
sensor is a device that responds to or detects a physical quantity and transmits the resulting signal to a controller transducer: transforms energy types piezo material: electric E mechanical E (sensor or actuator) shape memory alloy: thermal E mechanical E (transform: change to original shape)

absolute: output is always relative to a fixed reference regardless of the initial condition incremental: output is a series of binary pulses analog: continuous output (proportional to physical quantity being measured) digital: discrete output series of binary pulses each pulse represents sensors resolution

Sensor performance
ex) accuracy, resolution, repeatability average output average value of sensor output from many data As N increases, random error decreases at the ratio of (N)1/2 (noise level decrease) resolution increases

sampling rate
v: max. slew rate (related to measurand change) increase resolution(H) by a factor of N (resolution is limited by random noise) total sampling time: ttotal sampling = /Nv (during this time, measurand will not change by more than 1/N times the resolution) in order to increase resolution by averaging random noise N2 data points have to be taken minimum required sampling period tsample = H /N3v

frequency response
effect on the output of sensor of the physical quantity being measured

hysteresis: maximum difference in sensor output between measurements made from 0 to 100% full scale output and 100 to 0% linearity: variation in proportionality constant (between output signal and measured physical quantity) mapping: measuring sensor response to a known input under known conditions and storing results in a look-up table or fitting mathematical expression to the data nonlinearity, hysteresis, and temperature effects can be compensated

noise: magnitude of any part of the sensor output that is not directly related to the physical quantity being measured noise input margin: maximum noise input level (ex, deviation in supply voltage) that can be tolerated without affecting desired sensor performance resolution: smallest detectable change in the measured physical quantity

sensitivity: variation in sensor output caused by a variation of physical quantity slew rate error: how the accuracy of sensor changes with the rate of change of measured physical quantity standoff distance: distance between sensor and target

step response: time-varying change in sensor output given a step change in the measured physical quantity
Ide a l re s po ns e to a s te p input 100% 90% S e ns o r o uput Ac tua l re s po ns e to a s te p input

10% De la y time Ris e time S to ra g e time Fa ll time Time

3.1.2 System dynamics

sensor frequency response systems ability to respond to changes in the measurand (fast process inaccurate measurement) frequency that a sensors output tends to decrease because it can no longer accurately detect changes in a rapidly changing measurand determined experimentally or analytically How quickly system accuracy can be degraded with increasing frequency

Mathematical modeling of a Dynamic system

mx '' bx ' kx ! u (t ) U ( s) G ( s) ! 2 ms  bs  k
sensor system (complicated in machine tools)

N (s) (s) ! D ( s) log ( s) ! log N ( s)  log D ( s)

i j i j


graphical addition

Mathematical modeling of a Dynamic system

response (dB) = 20 /log10G
1 0. 7

p ha s e la g

fre q e c ([)

fre q e nc ([)

Most sensor frequency response is given in terms of 3 dB response pt (1st order system)
- [= [ n - response = 0.707 of the response at zero frequency input(dc) (30% error) - Operates well before its -3dB frequency



3.2 Nonoptical sensor systems

generating analog signals or digital pulses in response to a physical process by other than optical means

3.2.1 capacitance sensors

determines the distance (gap) between probe and target surface measures capacitance formed by two parallel plates non-contact performance (accuracy, linearity) determined primarily by probe capacitance large probe: 10 100 pF small probe: 0.01 0.1 pF
s e ns o r

ta rg e t

3.2.1 capacitance sensors

target material: metal (conductor), dielectric, semiconductor affects the sensor output metal : affects sensor output equally ex) calibrated over STS measurement over brass and aluminum dielectric material : different calibrations

Applications of capacitance sensors

motion of rotating parts (spindles, bearings) mapping flatness of delicate objects (lens, silicon wafers) thickness (two probes are used) - metal thickness
t l1 l2

t ! l  (l1  l2 )

Applications of capacitance sensors

thickness of dielectric plate one probe is used in conjunction with a grounded metal surface dielectric material is introduced into the gap resultant change in capacitance thickness of material is determined

me ta l

me ta l

Applications of capacitance sensors

pressure measurement rigid frame + diaphragm The diaphragm deforms due to pressure capacitance change between diaphragm and sensor
dia phra g m

- proximity (presence/no presence) of nonmetal and liquid level (cf, cheap inductive proximity sensor for metal)

probe design for capacitance sensors

depends on application and electronic circuit configuration - matching probe shape to target surface performance improve stray capacitance (between probe sensor and outer body) removed or reduced by using guard electrode (10-14 10-16 F) operate guard and electrode by same voltage waveform reduce stray capacitance effect collimate electric field line between sensor and target capacitance between parallel plates

probe design for capacitance sensors

bo g ar CSG

s e ns o r

ta rg e t bo

g ar s e ns o r




Dielectric constant
dielectric constant, how easily electromagnetic waves can travel through a medium = f(temp, pressure, humidity, media type)

C ! I A/ d

probe design for capacitance sensors

temperature, humidity easy to control pressure difficult to control reference gage (against a fixed gap) is used to compensate pressure change cutting oil, oil shower (affecting ) should not affect guard can be used A (area) affecting accuracy depending on temperature (temperature affects machine and sensor) As A/d increases, accuracy, resolution better As surface finish large average effect small topography effect

3.2.2 Hall effect sensors

Lorentz's law: charged particle moves in a magnetic field force acting motion trajectory of the particle changes Lorentz force Hall effect: result of Lorentz force acting on electrons flowing through a semiconductor potential produced in direction orthogonal to the excitation current and magnetic field Output voltage order of millivolts electronics is necessary to amplify voltage combination of (Hall element + amplifier electronics) into one: Hall effect transducer

3.2.2 Hall effect sensors

3.2.2 Hall effect sensors


V=VHa ll

Design Hall effect sensors to be sensitive to magnetic pole (triggering)

3.2.2 Hall effect sensors

bipolar digital on/off Hall effect sensor combined with transistor + (south pole) maximum trigger pt, - (north pole) release pt with a magnet, Hall effect sensor produces an analog voltage proportional to the magnetic field strength distance measuring sensor (voltage is proportional to magnetic strength, and the magnetic strength is related to the distance)

magnet is needed (attached to the target) - strength changes depending on time inadequate to ultra high precision (resolution > 5 Qm) - other magnets and electric field magnetic strength changes inexpensive compared with capacitance sensor by 2 orders of magnitude accuracy depends on the accuracy of power supply (supply voltage to semiconductor: 5V0.001V)

Typical applications
unipolar head-on mode one magnet triggers Hall effect sensor (moving parallel to the direction of magnetic field)

Ga us s

G1 G2



Typical applications
unipolar slide-by mode one magnet triggers Hall effect sensor (perpendicular, large motion)


Typical applications
bipolar slide-by mode Have directionality - analog : voltage = f(distance) - digital : trigger, release

Ga us s

Dis ta nc e

Typical applications
bipolar slide-by mode



Typical applications
Hall effect sensor can be used as a digital on/off proximity sensor - Monitors position of objects hidden from view as long as the barrier does not block magnetic field lines sensing through dielectric and nonferrous metals

3.2.3 Inclinometers
electromechanical level Precisely measures small angle of a body (wrt horizontal or vertical reference) movement data during construction motion of local geologic formation machine platform stability measurement machine orientation, slope measurement

precision pendulums are used mercury bubble wets a linear resistor (the more device tilts, the more resistor wet and the greater the change in the output voltage) surface tension low resolution inexpensive

inclinometer tilts position sensor generates an electric signal (amplified and fed back to galvanometer galvanometer produces torque mass to original position current applied to galvanometer to generate balancing torque is proportional to sin (current x resistance = voltage) natural frequency depends on (g/l)1/2

3.2.4 Inductive digital on/off proximity sensors

consists of wire-wound ferrite (iron) core, oscillator, detector, solid-state switch
Me ta l ta rg e t
Os c illa to r

Co il a nd c o re

oscillator produces (high-frequency) electromagnetic field centered on core

e te c to r

O tput

3.2.4 Inductive digital on/off proximity sensors

S hie ld Ho us ing e rrite c o re

Ta rg e t mo tio n

Ho us ing Ta rg e t mo tio n e rrite c o re

3.2.4 Inductive digital on/off proximity sensors

metal object moves inside electromagnetic field eddy current inside object receives energy from field amplitude of oscillation decreases if amplitude change > a value, transistor in sensor is triggered on - Object is removed transistor is back to original state (off) sensor response time depends on effective inductance of circuit (L), resistance(R) time delay occurs (analogous to mechanical mkb system)

3.2.4 Inductive digital on/off proximity sensors

other trigger, release pt the difference is embeddied in the sensor - Small sensitive to noise - normally 2 15% of full-scale range (decided by manufacturer) sensor diameter proportional to allowable standoff distance (larger longer distance)

head on sensor
shield to make field in front of sensor sharp count parts
S hie ld

Ho us ing Fe rrite c o re Ta rg e r mo tio n

slide-by sensor
wide field without shield (oscillating field of sensor recovered after target passes should be released before next object triggers)

Ta rg e r mo tio n

Ho us ing Fe rrite c o re

inductive digital on/off proximity sensor

no magnet (cf, Hall effect sensor) metal powder should not be attached non-contact (cheap) large standoff distance( 25mm) is possible conductive targets are needed no moving parts low failure possibility (replacing mechanical switch)

3.2.5 Inductive distance measuring sensors

re fe re nc e c o il

Ta rg e t

a c tive c o il

3.2.5 Inductive distance measuring sensors

apply AC current to reference coil electromagnetic field occurs current is inducted in conductor inductive current generates magnetic field and reduces intensity of original field changes effective impedance of active coil impedance change is detected analog voltage (related to distance between sensor and target) is produced

3.2.5 Inductive distance measuring sensors

performance depends on material properties - Homogeneous electric properties - Good conductivity, small magnetic permeability (good for aluminum, copper, brass) required Ferrous metal is not good thin target material is plated or bonded (epoxy) - 0.5mm (gold, silver, copper, aluminum) - 1.3mm (magnesium, brass, bronze, lead)

output affected by conductive material - dirt (if nonmetal) has no problem (in optical, big problem) thickness, diameter measurement, concentricity, 2 axis alignment range resolution

S he e t thic kne s s

S ha ft a nd d yna m ic d is p la c e m e nt

o nc e ntric ity Two a xis a lig nm e nt

rb it tra c ing a nd s ha ft e rro r m o tio ns

d ia m e te r

Precision measurement
differential mode sensor is used for precision measurement (2 sensors) one against fixed object effect occurs only environmental

difference between outputs of two sensors error compensated two sensors should have similar characteristics (environmental effect to be similar)

3.2.6 Inductosyns
copper sheet on metal plate by insulating adhesive (0.07mm), square wave inductive coupling is used between two coils (many overlapping windings used error averaging) linear Inductosyn is a linear motion transducer having scale and slider

3.2.6 Inductosyns
S c a le

S lide r

S c a le

S lide r Two winding s 90 o ut o f pha s e

thin STS plate is covered with insulating adhesive wire strip is attached onto insulating surface by printed circuit technology continuous square wave (pitch = 0.1", 0.2", 2mm) fixed onto machine axis

attached onto carriage (table) moving above scale surface (0.1mm) (required straightness of slider = 10 20 m)

Slider output
scale is excited by 5 10kHz signal (A sin[t) slider output

S13 ! B sin [ t sin(2T X / S ) S 24 ! B sin [ t cos(2T X / S )

B, X determined from two outputs B: amplitude X: linear displacement S: waveform period known

S13 / S24 ! tan(2T X / S )

precision, resolution ( 0.12 m) depends on number of waveforms per unit length overlapping of many coils in slider, scale averaging effect noise removed, high precision coarse/fine position sensing system - waveform: coarse position information - sine wave interpolation: fine position resolution

most simple (almost no problem) performance is affected only when dirt particle breaks circuit (dirt is fatal in optical sensors)

Tyes of commercial linear Inductosyn

standard ( 250mm) tape-type - One end attached to machine element and the other mounted for tension control - Tension adjustment when installed precision is fine adjustable adjustable Inductosyn Clamp and tension adjusting screw at each 3, and adjustable independently

rotary Inductosyn
stator (slider) - Two separated square waveforms (sine track, cosine track are repeated) two tracks cover entire stator rotor (scale) - square waveform covers entire circumference (overlapping occurs) extremely good random noise reduction ( averaging effect) - Periodic error does not decrease compensated by mapping

rotary Inductosyn
many sine, cosine waveforms - averaging effect error reduction - High resolution (0.1 rad) - high repeatability (0.5 rad) used in precision rotary table if too many sine, cosine waveforms are crowded coupling between two occurs resolution , accuracy

3.2.7 Linear and rotary variable differential transformers (LVDT, RVDT)

electromagnetic induction principle is used - linear motion detection (<10 20 cm) - rotary motion detection (1 rotation)
Vo ut

Vre fe re nc e

3.2.7 Linear and rotary variable differential transformers (LVDT, RVDT)

e 1- e

Output (e 1 - e )

c o re
X m o tio n


Line a r o pe ra ting re g io n

LVDT components
armature (or core) made of ferritic (magnetic) alloy stem - nonmagnetic alloy - fix core to object transformer - Consists of a primary ac excited coil and 2 secondary coils

LVDT components
armature moves in coil (noncontact) if primary is excited by AC power armature position affects output voltages of two secondary coil (one +, the other - directionality determined) relative distance between two objects core fixed on one, and transformer fixed on the other

Characteristics of operation
non-contact between winding and armature no friction, wear, hysteresis theoretically infinite life, extremely high reliability if core is properly supported, no stick/slip theoretically infinite resolution (accuracy, resolution depends on signal conditioning electronics and A/D converter) stable AC excitation source is needed

Characteristics of operation
signal conditioner converts AC voltage in secondary coil to DC high output simple circuit

measurement length can be easily increased less sensitive to core radial motion simple, shock resistant maintenance is necessary theoretically no

similar to small electric motor generates output voltage varying linearly depending on shaft angle rotation is analogous to linear motion in LVDT generates output voltage in secondary coil depending on shaft angle

3.2.8 Magnetic scales

sliding sensing head is used detects magnetic field strength from magnetically recorded scale (sine and cosine outputs) scale: wire (many north, south pole pairs)
wire imprinted scale NSSNNS

sliding sensing head

3.2.8 Magnetic scales

3.2.8 Magnetic scales

merit (compared with optical sensors) less affected by dirt, fluid contamination incremental slide produces two waves electronics interprets moving distance and produces digital signal magnitude scale: thin wire scale minor misalignment (0.1mm wrt moving axis) causes measurement error, irrelevant to wear

3.2.9 Magnetostrictive sensors

"magnetostriction" - length change of ferromagnetic material in magnetic field - magnetization change under mechanical stress non-contact torsion sensor measures torsional stress of a rotating shaft power measurement (to prevent excessive stress in rotating shaft) strain gage was used (attached on shaft) (expensive, electric noise, unreliable due to wear)

Villari effect
magnetic field change in the direction of mechanical strain (shaft twiated strain in 45) several Villari differential torque transformers along circumference torsional stress can be precisly measured initial calibration is necessary (ferrous material behaves differently under similar conditions) sensor mounted close to the shaft signal ( mV) large output

Villari effect

Guillemen effect
magnetic material is in magnetic field changes diameter of a long small rod changes locally size

L L t

Guillemen effect
diameter change stress wave reflecting point

ultrasonic transducer sends stress wave and measures time (wave reflected) time is related to distance (magnetic field and ultrasonic transducer)

3.2.11 Piezo material bonded sensors

force is applied to crystalline structure oscillation high-energy electrons emits (current flow) stress is predicted by measuring current examples) accelerometer, precision loadcell, ultrasnic transducer

piezoelectric accelerometer
speed control, vibration sensing, position measurement resolution (1 g) frequency response small size 100 kHz (good response)

precision load cells

thin film crystalline piezo material is used measures nanostrains more sensitive than metal strain gage (2 3 orders of magnitude) load range limit (maximum strain level ~ strain)

ultrasonic piezoelectric sensors

piezoelectric, magnetostrictive and electrostatic are possible stress wave generating/receiving sends pressure wave and receives echo pulse measure time determines distance to impurities or shape change

3.2.12 Potentiometers
change in electric resistance resulting from change in physical process definition of potentiometer consists of coil or high-resistance film and wiper (used mostly)

3.2.12 Potentiometers
wiper position target motion

DC voltage is applied to entire length of coil wiper picks off intermediate voltage (variable resistance) determine wiper position plastic film (large resistance) Film is continuous, potentiometers are analog devices submicron resolution is possible, but relies on DC power supply and D/A converter

most expensive high output voltage (no amplification necessary) mechanical contact between wiper and film contaminated by dust or oil resistance change, error preventing contamination by using various seals friction and wear exist very small overhead compared with size

3.2.13 Synchros and resolvers

electromagnetic induction (between 1st and 2nd coil) used in shaft positioning can measure infinite revolutions (rotary) transformer

high precision, inexpensive, insensitive to contamination (compared with potentiometer or optical sensor) disadvantage: analog device ( mostly used with digital control system)

variable transformer (output voltage is varying): The magnitude of the electromagnetic coupling between primary and secondary coils (which determines output voltage) varies with the relative angular position of the coils 2 modes - control synchro: electric signal depending on shaft rotation - torque synchro: shaft rotation depending on electric signal

control synchro
transmitters, differentials, control transformers, receivers used in servo control axes

torque synchro
transmitters, differentials, receivers dial of instrument is rotated by transferring rotating angle from transmitter

synchro applications
long distance transmission from transmitter to receiver (up to 4km) used in remote devices ex) remote steering in ships, opening/closing water gates in a power plant

transmitters and receivers

single-phase rotor power supply via a slip ring (brush) three-phase stator (electromagnetically coupled with rotor ) rotor winding is excited by AC (60 400Hz) voltage is inducted in stator winding (proportional to cone of angle between rotor coil and stator coil)
S1 s ta to r S3 R2 ro to r R1 S2

transmitters and receivers

accuracy, repeatability and linearity depends on winding quality exciting voltage at the rotor

Vrotor21 ! Vo sin [ t V13 ! kVrotor21 sin U V21 ! kVrotor21 sin(U  T / 3) V3 2 ! kVrotor21 sin(U  T / 3) k ! Vmax out / Vin

transmitters and receivers

transmitter sends information receiver receives information - analog signal - converted to digital signal information decoding device synchro-to-digital converter (SDC)

torque synchro
torque transmitter and receiver are the same angle information is transferred electrically (not mechanically) a gage dial is rotated by the angle
R2 Vin R1 G S1 S2 S3 S1 S2 S3 R2 CR R1

control synchro
control transmitter, control transformer, control differential transmitter are used signals are combined electrically and amplified rotates motor (because of being amplified, control transmitter winding does not have to be as good as torque synchro) synchro performance - positioning accuracy: 10 arcminutes - Maximum torque: 3 g-mm per receiver angle

used with transmitter and receiver three-phase stator, three-phase rotor via slip rings (brushes) current is transferred to rotor winding
S1 s ta to r S3 R1 ro to r R3



control transformer
stator, rotor coil structures are the same as in transmitter transmitter sends position information through 3 wires to control transformer transformed to voltage and amplified to drive the motor angle of motor axis is mechanically coupled to angular motion of the control transformer if the angles of motor and transmitter are different the shaft rotates because voltage is applied

control transformer

R2 Vin R1 CG

S1 S2 S3

S1 S2 S3

R2 CR R1 Amp mo to r

special form of synchro better accuracy, resolution than synchro resolver transmitter: ends of rotor windings connected one frequency excitation is needed
S1 R2 ro to r S3 R1 S2 S4

V ! A sin [ t S13 ! kA sin [ t sin U S 24 ! kA sin [ t cos U S13 ! tan U S 24
windings added resolution

synchro, resolver-to-digital converters

device to transform signal to digital (in order to be used in digital control) SDC, RDC 16 bit resolution divided into 216 resolution = total range/216 total rangeis

3.2.14 ultrasonic sensors

stress wave generating/ receiving pressure wave to medium measures amplitude and return time of the echo Time is related to the distance to impurities or shape change in material piezoelectric transducers - used in NDT ( 100 kHz) - measurement of thickness and surface roughness (resolution: 10 to 12 bits)

3.2.14 ultrasonic sensors

magnetostriction transducers electrostatic transducers - Use metal film, metallic backing dish - oscillating applied to film inductive current in dish due to electric field current in field generates force attracting and pusjing forces between dish and metalized film act repeatedly ultrasonic wave occurs - dish, film are small mass fast response - high frequency used high precision, high resolution in small range

3.2.15 Velocity sensors

velocity feedback is needed for position, velocity control position signal differentiated noise spikes relative motion between magnet and (moving) coil induces voltage - Proportional to relative velocity between coil and magnet and rate of magnetic flux change (due to moving magnet)

Linear velocity transducers (LVT)

measures linear velocity similar to LVDT, but does not use excitation voltage uses two coils voltage difference represents speed, and sign of voltage represents direction

Linear velocity transducers (LVT)

modeled as pure inductance, resistor behaves as 1st order system = 2 L/R (time constant: ~0.001 sec) speed time lag


velocity transducer types: - permanent magnet stator dc tachometers - drag-torque tachometers - capacitor tachometers - digital tachometers - dc brushless tachometers

permanent-magnet stator dc tachometers

consists of rotor winding, commutator assembly armature (rotor winding) rotates windings passes stator magnetic field voltage is induced in windings proportional to rotational speed reverse of dc motor voltage is transferred by brush, slip-ring number of armature coils is discrete ripple occurs To reduce ripple, filtering techniques and many coils are used other error source: commutator interface contamination, temperature change, magnetic field

permanent-magnet stator dc tachometers

brushless tachometers
magnetic rotor, wound stator rotor and stator in brushed tachometer are switched no problem of brush wear to produce homogeneous DC signal proportional to speed, switching to other windings is required expensive, complicated, noise reduction, no brush wear