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The aim of the breeding program is to genetically improve one or more traits of economic importance.

The choice of the appropriate breeding program depends on the degree of inheritance, the selection pressure and the generation interval.

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1998/99 99/2000

2000/01

01/02

02/03

03/04

04/05

05/06

06/07

07/08

Sheep Population

855159 851913

850170

840141

828286

824187

816727

812085

813621

809480

Mutton (mt.)

2873

2860

2865

2823

2792

2779

2774

2737

2747

2725

Wool (mt.) 616

615

614

609

601

598

590

587

588

585

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Mountain Eastern Central Western Midwestern Farwesterm Total


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Hill
64974 41589 122020 123355

Terai
7163 4917 23100 44466

Total
108456 95412 156088 339012

36319 48906 10968 171191

76130 343514

4266 356204

23629 103275

104025 802993

Source: Statistical Information on Agriculture (2009)


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poor performance of local sheep breeds a serious seasonal deficit of pasture and other feed the lack of an organized market for wool and meat poor access to agricultural credit primitive shearing equipment an inadequate supply of drinking water for sheep.
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A breeding plan is an annual record of the practical tasks you need to complete to achieve your breeding objective.

An effective breeding plan is practical, cost effective and manages risk.

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Breeding objective Breeds to meet that objective A rigid selection system A desired mating system A good animal evaluation system A dissemination procedure

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To increase the wool production per sheep per year.

To increase the fineness of the wool to make it suitable for the carpet type.

To increase the lambing percentage. To produce the hybrid sheep species those are suitable condition. for the Nepalese environmental
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Performance recording Genetic evaluation procedures Organization of a system for the diffusion of genetic material

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Baruwal (63%) Kage (21%) Lampuchhre (12%) Bhyanglung (4%)


About 84% of the sheep are concentrated in the hills and the remainder in the Terai (Shrestha et al., 2000).

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Baruwal (local and principal breed) Polwarth Dorper

A 3 breed crossbreeding program is done to meet the desired objectives.

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Principal sheep breed of Nepal Have good grazing instinct and suitable for migratory system.

Its adult body weight is about 35 kg. Body color is mostly white but the head color differs from white to black.

Average wool yield of 900 to 1200 g annually Fiber Diameter of 46.3 . Staple length : 3.5 4.5 inches
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A medium sized fine wool hardy breed. Body wt. Ewe: 50 60 kg Ram: 66 80 kg All year breeding Ability to retain body weights under extreme

conditions.

Good mothering ability with high lamb survival rate. Ultra-thin wool of 23 25 micron diameter. With excellent length, crimp and yield.

Dense white fleece. 5- 7 inches Grease fleece wt. 5.5 kg , clean fleece 4.1 kg
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Dorpers are a low maintenance, easy care breed adaptive easily to a variety of conditions, non-selective grazers and one of the breeds that thrive in harsh conditions.

Mutton breed , good milking but not wool breed. Ewe =170-200 lbs Ram = 220-250 lbs. High fertility and reproduction rates. Lambing percentage 150% or above.

Coat is a mixture of hair & wool and will shed from animal in late spring/early summer.

Resistant 6/24/2011

to parasites and diseases.

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The importance of sheep farming was well recognised by the Rana government and a Sheep Development Farm was established in Chitlang, Makawanpur in 2001 BS. After the establishment of the sheep farm various attempts have been made to improve the local production and productivity improving by the upgrading feeding, the health breeds care and and

management practices.
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Both Polwarth and Dorper breeds are having an excellent foundation in crossbreeding.

Polwarth has been used in breeding activities since 30 years in Nepal. An increase in both fleece wt. and wool grade has been obtained from the cross breeds of 25% and 50% exotic blood level.

Breeding with Baruwal and Kage breeds has been done in various breeding farms in Nepal.

Sheep and Goat Research Program, Guthichaur, Jumla

Sheep Development Farm, Pansayakhola, Nuwakot

etc.

Dorper is relatively new breed in Nepal. It has been used to increase the weight traits in crossbreeding programs in various countries. A good maternal instinct and high lambing percentage is desired trait which is incorporated in the Polwarth cross by mating with these breeds.

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Heritability Selection Differential Trait Ratio Genetic Gain Selection Index


These will be based traits: wool production, fiber diameter and lambing percentage.

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Character Birth Wt. Weaning wt. Yearling wt.

Apparent Heritability Estimate Low to medium Low to medium Medium 10 30 10 30 30 40

Face covering score Skin fold score Fleece Characters Grease fleece wt. Sta le length Fineness of fiber (diameter) Hairiness Reproductive traits Fecundity Earliness of lambing Number of functional ni les Lambing size Lambing ercentage 6/24/2011

High High

40 0 40 0

Medium High Medium to high High

30 40 40 0 30 50 50 0

Low to medium Medium Medium Low Low

10 30 30 40 30 40 10 15 10 15
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Individual Selection Progeny Tests Pedigree and collateral relatives Probable Breeding Values (PBV)

PBV ! P  b1 (P1 - P ) b1 ! regression coefficient of genotype on its phenotype P ! phenotype of individuals selected P ! phenotypic average for individual contemporaries
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Selection Index
Selection Index (I) = Heritability of the trait X Relative
Economic Importance (REI) X Trait Score

I ! h 2 (wool wt.) x REI (wool wt.) x trait score(wool wt.)  h 2 (fiber dia.) x REI(fiber dia.) x trait score(fiber dia.)  h (lambing%) x REI (lambing%) x Trait score (lambing%)
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Individual Evaluation Progeny tests For


Wool yield Fiber diameter Number of offspring Disease Resistance Environmental accommodation
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L100

P100

L100

D100

Where, L50P50 P100 L= Local (Baruwal) P= Polwarth D= Dorper L50 D50 L25 P75

L37.5 P37.5 D25


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Several crossbred lines are produced. The individuals from these lines are produced to produce the final offspring.

Its advantage is that it avoids the inbreeding and prevents the vigor decrease that may be due to inbreeding.

Vigor decrease:
Decrease wool production and staple length Decrease weaning body weight and yearling body wt.

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1000 pure baruwal sheep will be selected for the breeding program, selection of superior among them.

Polwarth and Dorper male breeds will be imported. A natural mating system will be carried out. The offspring's of each generation will be evaluated individually as well as the progeny testing will be done for the traits of consideration.

The superior animals selected based on the selection index designed.

A more or less constant nucleus size is maintained.


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Expansion program based on the 3 tier system. A closed system is adopted because of the adequate elite herd population.

Nucleus herd is maintained with the constant blood level.

A long selection and mating within these crossbreed are done to increase the superiority of the offspring.

Breeding with the same exotic blood level is desired for expansion. Mating to other bloodlines is undesirable and the offspring thus produced are culled.

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The multiplier herd is also encouraged to maintain the same blood level. The superior from the multiplier herd is again reused in the multiplier herd.

The commercial herd is also targeted to maintain the same blood level.

This is done to utilize the complementary breed effect and heterosis. The whole expansion program is then targeted for the promotion of the same gene combination. Any change within these combinations lead to decrease in heterosis and decrease production.

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Nucleus

Multipliers

Commercial Farms
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Shrestha, B S; Shrestha, S; Neopane, S P and Shrestha, N P (2000). Sheep genetic resources of Nepal. In: Proceedings of the Fourth Global Conference on the Conservation of Domestic Animal Genetic Resources. (Editor: JNB Shrestha). Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC) and Rare Breeds International (RBI), 17-21 August, 1998, Pp 81-84, Kathmandu, P O Box 5459, Nepal Neopane, S P (2004). Native Animal Genetic Resources of Nepal: Status of their Conservation and Utilization. Proceedings of IV National Conference on Sciences and Technologies. National Academy of Science and Technology (NAST), 23-26 March 2004, Pp 74-78 Neopane, S P (2006). Characterization of indigenous animal genetic resources of Nepal. Proceedings of the 6th National Workshop on Livestock and Fisheries Research, 1-2 July 2004, NARC, Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal, Pp 1-11 Statistical Information on Nepalese Agriculture (2009). 2008/09. Statistical Information on Nepalese Agriculture, 2008/09. Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Singh Durbar, Nepal Lasley, J. F. 1977. Genetics of Livestock Improvement, 3rd edition. 6/24/2011 37 Prentice-Hall Inc. N.J., USA

CBS. 2009. Central Bureau of Statistics. Nepal Government, National Planning Commission Secretariat, Kathmandu, Nepal MOAC. 2004. Country Report on Animal Genetic Resources of Nepal. Government of Nepal, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Singha Durbar, Kathmandu, Nepal. Pradhan, S.L. 1988. Sheep Production and Development in Nepal. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Sheep Production in Asia. (Eds: Devendra, C. & Falyon, P.S.) Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development. Laguna Philippines April 18-23,1988. Pp. 153 165 www.sheepgoat.gov.np/downloadfile/pub_sheepintro_13001002 45.pdf McCall , J. & McCall L. 2011. Developing a Breeding Plan. Accessed on 5th june 2011 In: www.the-oldplace.com/developingabreedingplan.htm Mavrogenis, A. P. 2011. Breeding Systems and Selection Strategies for Sheep Improvement in Cyprus. Accessed on 7th june 2011 In: ressources.ciheam.org/om/pdf/c11/96605537.pdf Anonymous: www. google.com
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