Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 30



What do you know about Morals and Ethics?

W.Damon(1988), no single definition of morality that is universal and acceptable to everyone. Differences in the interpretation of these terms results in conflicting views, misunderstandings and disputes.

Different views cause conflicts and wars!

Definition Morals and Ethics

Etymologically, the word ethics is derived from the Greek word ethos which means custom or usage, while the word morals comes from the Latin mores which has the same meaning as ethos

Ethics can be defines as a philosophical study of morals good behaviour, moral obligation, moral attitude, moral responsibility, social justice and good living qualities. W.K.Frankena(1973), ethics is moral philosophy or philosophical thinking about morality, moral problems and judgement.

Normative Statements and Descriptive Statements (Non-normative Statements)


Normative statements V.Grassian says that attempts to give coherent or logical, systematic and justifiable answers to moral questions are called normative ethics. This means that moral ethics focuses on normative statements which have implications on human behaviour.

Normative Statements

Hence, a normative statement is a value judgement that is good or bad, wrong or correct, acceptable or unacceptable.

The example, Abortion is an immoral act, is a normative statement.

Normative Statements
C teg or of N orm ati e S atem en ts

or l em en ts

N on -m or l J em en ts
Descripti e Statements

D eon tic etn s J (ob li tion )

ret ic en ts

Deontic Judgement (Judgement of moral obligation)


A normative statement is usually in the form of value judgement.

According to Frankena (1973), in moral judgments, we can say that a certain

action or type of action

is morally good or bad; correct or wrong, obligation or non-obligation, necessary or unnecessary to carry out. Such a judgement is called deontic judgement.

Aretaic Judgement (Judgement of moral value)

We can discuss matters that are concerning persons, their motives, aims and behavioural traits or nature.

Similarly, we can also say they are morally good, bad, virtuous, vicious, responsible, blameworthy, saintly, despicable, and so on. This statement called Aretaic Judgement.

Normative with Moral Judgments

Judgments of Moral Obligation (Deontic Judgments)

ertain or types of action You need to be a dedicated teacher.  What John has done is wrong.  We need to keep our promise. Moral Value Motives, aims, personality, Judgments (Aretaic behaviour etc Judgments) My father is a kind-hearted man. A good person does not cheat. Alis motive is good.

Normative Statements with Non-moral Judgments (Descriptive Statements)

Value judgments of the nonmoral domain evaluate matters connected with cars, art, experience, forms of government, etc.. We do not intend to say they are morally good or bad, necessary or unnecessary, etc

they are free from moral values

In other words,

Non-moral Judgments (Descriptive Statements)

You need to buy tickets for this concert  You need to buy a new pair of shoes.  All hostel residents should care for their own safety.  That car is good.  His life is not happy.  Sweet food is not healthy.

Change a non-normative statement into a normative statement

Non-normative (Descriptive)


Fewer people are registering themselves as voters Suicide cases have increased Parents have authority in the family

Normative Good citizens must register themselves as voters Killing oneself as a personal sacrifice is not permitted. Always obey the orders of your parents

Basic Concept of Value

According dictionary, value has two meanings. Firstly from the point of view of price which can be counted. Secondly, from something that can be felt internally or in our thoughts.

The Value of Morality


Hence, value exists in many aspects. It is found in morality. Why there are people who are rich and yet do not feel happy in life?

Characteristics of Value

1) Value can be seen, appraised and felt through the subjects speech, movement, conducts, attitude and actions. 2) Value changes from time to time and is different from one place to another.

Nevertheless, the essence or core of that value still exists and remains stable 3) The values of a person may differ from those of another and the perception of an individual towards a certain value may also differ from that of another individual.

Functions of Value

1) It acts as a criterion or standard which is consistent and strong for an individual or society to act in a way that is good, correct and acceptable.

Functions of Value

2) It is an indicator, reference, and guide to solve moral conflict. Different moral value may be in conflict with each other, but a guide from value itself will be referred in order to resolve the conflict.

Functions of Value

3) It places a restriction on the behaviour or action of an individual or the society. An individual will or will not do something or behave according to the values held by him

Forms of Value
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Instrumental or Extrinsic Values Intrinsic Values Subjective Values Objective Values Relative Values Absolute Values

Instrumental or Extrinsic Value

 1. 2.

Quality received or rejected as instrument to achieve certain objective. Dependent on other values to achieve certain objective Second order values, i.e. bravery, diligence, respect for others Example: bombing of Hiroshima to end the Second World War Imposing the death penalty for drug traffickers to stamp out drug trafficking activities.

Intrinsic Value

Quality received or rejected solely because it is good or bad without considering its effect. Not dependent on other values to achieve certain objectives. The value mentioned is itself the final objective. Example: A judge passes a death by hanging sentence on a person found guilty of trafficking drugs purely because it is obligatory for the judge to do so.

Subjective Values


Quality accepted or rejected by someone who gives his views Accepted or rejected on the basis of an individuals opinion. Example: Issue: The USA desire to attack Iraq Britain said that the US should attack Iraq for the sake of long-term peace in the world so that Iraq could not continue to produce weapons of mass destruction. France, on the other hand, said that the US should not attack Iraq because such an attack would sacrifice the lives of many innocent people in Iraq.

Objective Values

1. 2.

Quality that may be valuable or not valuable but free from personal choice. Accepted or rejected base on the basis of a set of criteria agreed upon by all or a majority of people Example: War is a horrible tragedy. Violence does not reflect humanitarian values

Relative Values


Value accepted or rejected by regulations in a society in order to achieve certain societal objective It is arbitrary, not perfect, and differs in others societies an changes with time Example: In Malaysia, a family can develop only through an official marriage of a couple. On the other hand, in alifornia, a family can be formed without an official marriage.

Absolute Values

Value the worth of which is not related to the custom of a certain society. Generally accepted and tested or proven to be good or bad onstant at all times and in all places and in almost all norms of society Example: Living as a legally married couple is a good practice.