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OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT

O PM
PRODUCT & SERVICE DESIGN
By: HAKEEMURREHMAN PCBAUCP

DESIGN PROCESS

Effective design can provide a competitive edge matches product or service characteristics with customer requirements ensures that customer requirements are met in the simplest and least costly manner reduces time required to design a new product or service minimizes revisions necessary to make a design workable

PRODUCT DESIGN defines appearance of product sets standards for performance specifies which materials are to be used determines dimensions and tolerances

SERVICE DESIGN specifies what physical items, physical benefits, and psychological benefits customer is to receive from service defines environment in which service will take place

Customer Marketing

R&D Competitors

Idea Generation
Concept

PRODUCT DESIGN PROCESS

Feasibility Study
Performance Specifications Form Design

Rapid Prototyping:

Functional Design Design Specifications

Production Design Manufacturing or delivery specifications

Pilot Run and Final Tests New Product or Service Launch

Final design & process plans

Idea Generation: Ideas can come from variety of sources. They are: SupplyChain Based: Customers Suppliers, Distributors, Employees, and Maintenance or repair personnel Competitor Based: Competitors are also a source of ideas for new product or services. Benchmarking, Reverse Engineering can help companies learn from their competitors. Benchmarking: Comparing a product or process against the bestinclass product. Reverse Engineering: Carefully dismantling and inspecting a competitors product to improve your own product. Research & Development: Organized efforts to increase scientific knowledge or product innovations. (Medicine, Space technology can be attribute to R & D efforts at colleges and universities.)

Product Design Process: Idea Generation

Product Design Process : Feasibility Study

Feasibility Study consists of : A Market Analysis An Economic Analysis, & A Technical and Strategic Analysis Market Analysis: Identifying the demand of the proposed product (through Customer survey, interviews, etc.) Economic Analysis: Estimate the production & development costs and compare them to estimated sales volume. Technical & Strategic Analysis: that answers such questions: Does the new product require new technology? Is the risk or capital investment expensive? Does the company have sufficient labour and management skills to support the required technology? Is sufficient capacity available for production? Does the new product provide a competitive advantage?

Product Design Process : Rapid Prototyping Rapid Prototyping: Process involves:


building a prototype, testing the prototype, revising the preliminary design, retesting, and so on, until a feasible design is determined. Rapid Prototyping; iterative process involves FORM & FUNCTIONAL DESIGN, as well as PRODUCTION DESIGN. Form Design: how the product will look? Physical appearance of a product ( like, shape, color, size etc.) Aesthetics (such as image, market appeal, & personal identification) Functional Design: how the product will perform? Seeks to meet the performance specifications of the customers requirements. Three performance characteristics: Reliability Maintainability, & Usability Reliability: the probability that a product will perform its intended function for a specified period of time. A product or systems reliability is a function of the reliabilities of its component parts & How the parts are arranged.

Product Design Process : Rapid


Prototyping

Maintainability (Serviceability): the ease with which a product is maintained or repaired. Regular maintenance schedules is part of maintainability. Usability: ease of use of a product or service. Production Design: how the product will be made. Approaches to production design: Simplification Standardization Simplification: Reduces the number of parts, assemblies, or options in a product. Standardization: When commonly available and interchangeable parts are used. Modular Design: Combines standardized building blocks, or modules, to create unique finished products.

DESIGN SIMPLIFICATION
(a) Original design (b) Revised design (c) Final design

Assembly using common fasteners

One-piece base & elimination of fasteners

Design for push-and-snap assembly

FINAL DESIGN & PROCESS PLANS

Final design

Process plans

detailed drawings and specifications for new product or service

workable instructions

necessary equipment and tooling job descriptions and procedures computer programs for automated machines

RELIABILITY

the probability that a product will perform its intended function for a specified period of time. (OR)

The ability of a product, Service, Part, or system to perform its intended function under a prescribed set of conditions.

COMPUTING RELIABILITY
COMPONENTS IN SERIES
0.90 0.90 0.90 x 0.90 = 0.81

COMPONENTS IN PARALLEL
0.90 0.95
R2

R1

0.95 + 0.90(1-0.95) = 0.995

COMPUTING RELIABILITY
Three lamps have probabilities of 0.90, 0.80, and 0.70 of lighting when turned on. Only One lighted lamp is needed for success; hence, two of the lamps are considered to be backups. 0.70 0.80 0.90
Lamp-3 (Backup of Lamp-2)

Lamp-2 (Backup of Lamp-1)

Lamp-1

0.90 + 0.80 (1 0.90) + 0.70(1 0.90)(1 0.80) = 0.994

SYSTEM RELIABILITY
0.90 0.98 0.92 0.98

0.98

0.92+(1-0.92)(0.90)=0.99

0.98

0.98 x 0.99 x 0.98 = 0.951

PRACTICE QUESTION

Determine the reliability of the system shown below:


0.90 0.92

0.98

0.90

0.95

= 0.98 X [0.90 + 0.90 X (1 0.90)] X [0.95 + 0.92 (1 0.95)] = 0.98 X 0.99 X 0.996 = 0.966

SYSTEM AVAILABILITY (SA)


MTBF MTBF + MTTR

SA =

where: MTBF = mean time between failures MTTR = mean time to repair

SYSTEM AVAILABILITY
PROVIDER A B C MTBF (HR) 60 36 24 MTTR (HR) 4.0 2.0 1.0

SAA = 60 / (60 + 4) = .9375 or 93.75% SAB = 36 / (36 + 2) = .9726 or 97.26% SAC = 24 / (24 + 1) = .9473 or 94.73%

CORPORATE COMMUNICATION CIRCLE

PRODUCT DESIGN
As the customer wanted it. As Marketing
interpreted

it.
1984-1994 T/Maker Co. 1984-1994 T/Maker Co.

As Operations made it.

As
Engineering

designed it.
1984-1994 T/Maker Co. 1984-1994 T/Maker Co.

REDUCING TIME-TO-MARKET
Establish multifunctional design teams Make design decisions concurrently rather than sequentially Design for manufacture and assembly

DESIGN TEAM

Traditional Approach We design it, you build it or Over the wall Concurrent Engineering

CONCURRENT ENGINEERING

Concurrent Engineering (CE) can be defined as the simultaneous development of project design functions, with open and interactive communication existing among all team members for the purposes of reducing time to market, decreasing cost, and improving quality and reliability.

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURE AND ASSEMBLY (DFMA)

Design for manufacture

Design for assembly

design a product for easy and economical production

a set of procedures for:

reducing number of parts in an assembly evaluating methods of assembly determining an assembly sequence

DFM GUIDELINES

Minimize number of parts and subassemblies Avoid tools, separate fasteners, and adjustments Use standard parts when possible and repeatable, well-understood processes Design parts for many uses, and modules that can be combined in different ways Design for ease of assembly, minimal handling, and proper presentation Allow for efficient and adequate testing and replacement of parts

APPLICATION OF DFA

DESIGNING FOR THE CUSTOMER


House of Quality

Quality Function Deployment

Ideal Customer Product

Value Analysis/ Value Engineering

QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT

Quality Function Deployment Voice of the customer House of quality

QFD: An approach that integrates the voice of the customer into the product and service development process.

HOUSE OF QUALITY
Importance
5 Trade-off matrix 3 Design characteristics 4 Relationship matrix 2 Competitive assessment

1 Customer requirements

Target values

DESIGNING FOR THE CUSTOMER: VALUE ANALYSIS/VALUE ENGINEERING (VA/VE)

Achieve equivalent or better performance at a lower cost while maintaining all functional requirements defined by the customer.

Does the item have any design features that are not necessary? Can two or more parts be combined into one? How can we cut down the weight? Are there nonstandard parts that can be eliminated?

DESIGN FOR ROBUSTNESS

Robust product

designed to withstand variations in environmental and operating conditions yields a product or service designed to withstand variations design parameters such as material used, dimensions, and form of processing users control (length of use, maintenance, settings

Robust design

Controllable factors

Uncontrollable factors

TOLERANCE AND CONSISTENCY

Tolerance

allowable ranges of variation in the dimension of a part consistent errors are easier to correct than random errors parts within tolerances may yield assemblies that are not within limits consumers prefer product characteristics near their ideal values

Consistency

TAGUCHIS QUALITY LOSS FUNCTION

Quality Loss
Lower toleranc e limit

Quantifies customer preferences toward quality Emphasizes that customer preferences are strongly oriented toward consistently Design for Six Sigma (DFSS)

Target

Upper toleranc e limit

SERVICE DESIGN PROCESS


Desired service experience Service Concept Targeted customer Service Package Physical items Physical benefits Psychological benefits

Performance Specifications Customer requirements Customer Activities Customer expectations Service Provider Cost and time estimates

Design Specifications Facility Provider skills

Delivery Specifications Schedule Deliverables Service Location

QUESTION S