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Basic Principles of CT Scanning

CT: The beginning


CT founded in 1970 by Sir Godfrey Hounsfield .

CT
CT-Computerised tomography tomography=tomo+graphy Tomo means Slice and graphy means describe

Process of CT
CT Scan or Computed tomography is a medical imaging obtained using X-rays. The radiation is passed through the body and received by a detector and then integrated by a computer to obtain a cross sectional image that is displayed on the screen.

X-ray beam passes through patient Each structure attenuates X-ray beam differently According to individual densities Radiation received by detector varies according to these densities Each pixel displayed on monitor has varying brightness The greater the attenuation, the brighter the pixel The less attenuation, the darker the pixel

Attenuation

X-RAY

CT IMAGE

CT Scanner

X-Ray modality used to the body in cross section Used to determine


location and type of tumors status of blood vessels pre surgical planning

CT System

Basic CT scanner components

Gantry Control Console Table PDU

Gantry
CT X-ray tube High voltage generator Detector array Data acquistion system Slip ring

The CT X-ray Tube


Anode heat capacity
3.5 MHU up to 6.5 MHU
Determines maximum mAs Determines volume length Dictates generator size

Detector Elements
Capture energy that has not been attenuated by the patient

Control console
Set scan parameters
kVp, mA, scan time, reconstruction filter, etc.

Review and archive images Post-processing

Scanning methods
Digital projection Conventional CT
Axial

Volumetric CT

Digital Projection
X-ray tube and detector remain stationary Patient table moves continuously
With X-rays on

Produces an image covering a range of anatomy


Similar to a conventional X-ray image, e.g. flat plate of the abdomen

Image used to determine scan location

Axial CT
X-ray tube and detector rotate 360 Patient table is stationary
With X-rays on

Produces one cross-sectional image Once this is complete patient is moved to next position
Process starts again at the beginning

Volume CT
X-ray tube and detector rotate 360 Patient table moves continuously
With X-rays on

Produces a helix of image information


This is reconstructed into 30 to 1000 images

Advantages of Volume CT
More coverage in a breath-hold
Chest, Vascular studies, trauma Improved and 3D clear images

Potentially less IV contrast required Gapless coverage

Fundamentals of Multislice CT

Multislice Fundamentals
Everything is better (R)esolution-high (S)peed-same (V)olume
Thin slice organ-specific coverage

(P)ower
Enough photons uncompromising image quality

Single Slice =One Dual Slice = Two Quad Slice = Four

10mm slice per rotation 5mm slices per rotation 2.5mm slices per rotation

Dual Slice Detector Optimized for 2 Slice x-ray Acquisition tube focal spot

pre-patient collimation

post-patient collimation

__

single detector arc

dual detector arc

Advantage of CT
Projecton is pain less It can clearly visualise the interior parts of bones,blood vessels,soft tissues in crossectional view. Can ditect cancer Requires lesser time than MRI

Disadvantage of CT

Projection for large time can leads to cancer Scanning should not be done in pregnency.

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