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Metal Casting Processes

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid,

2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid,

2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Metals processed by casting


 Sand

casting 60%  Permanent mold casting 11%  Die casting 9%  Investment casting 7%  Centrifugal casting 7%  Shell mold casting 6%

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid,

2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Types of Parts Made

Engine blocks  Pipes  Jewelry




Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid,

2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Mold Features

The following is a gravity casting system. 2 principles of fluid flow are relevant to gating design: Bernoullis theorem and the law of mass continuity.
Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid, 2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid,

2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Ferrous casting alloys


Cast irons represent the largest amount of all metals cast and can cast into complex shapes. Types of irons:
      

Gray cast iron Ductile iron (nodular iron) White cast iron Malleable iron Compacted-graphite iron Cast steels Cast stainless steels
Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid, 2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Nonferrous casting alloys


Types of alloys:
    

Aluminum-based alloys Magnesium-based alloys Copper-based alloys Zinc-based alloys High-temperature alloys

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid,

2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Components of Casting
     

Path: Sprue -> Well -> Runner -> Mold cavity Riser: Compensate volume loss due to shrinkage Location of riser? Core: Make holes Core print Draft: Prevent collapse of sand

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid,

2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Expendable-Mold Permanent-Pattern Casting Processes

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid,

2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Sand Casting
Types of sand molds  3 types: green-sand, cold-box, and no-bake molds.  Green molding sand is mixture of sand, clay, and water and is inexpensive.  In skin-dried method, castings has high strength, better accuracy and surface finish.  In no-bake mold process, a synthetic liquid resin is mixed with the sand and hardened in room temperature.
Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid, 2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Sand Casting

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid,

2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid,

2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid,

2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Shell-mold casting
  

Can produce castings with close dimensional tolerances Good surface finish Low cost.

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid,

2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Ceramic Mold Manufacture

FIGURE 5.18 Sequence of operations in making a ceramic mold.


Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid, 2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Function Sub function Reference Date Author

Shape Material

Conserve Material

Consolidation

Alting,Leo. Manufacturing Processes Reference Guide. 1994 April 2003 Horacio Elizondo

Description: Green Sand Casting

Capabilities

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid,

2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Expendable-Mold, Expendable-Pattern Casting Processes

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid,

2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Expendable-pattern casting (lost foam)


Evaporative Pattern Casting

FIGURE 5.20 Schematic illustration of the expendable-pattern casting process, also known as lost-foam or evaporative-pattern casting.
Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid, 2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Investment Casting (lost-wax process)

Source:

Schematic illustration of investment casting (lost wax process). Castings by this method can be made with very fine detail and from a variety of metals. Source: Steel Founders' Society of America.
Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid, 2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Function Sub function Reference Date Author

Shape Material

Conserve Material

Consolidation

Alting,Leo. Manufacturing Processes Reference Guide. 1994 April 2003 Horacio Elizondo

Description: Investment Casting

Capabilities

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid,

2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Investment Casting

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid,

2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Permanent-Mold Casting Processes

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid,

2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Continuous-Casting
(a) The continuous-casting process for steel. Note that the platform is about 20 m (65 ft) above ground level. Source: American Foundrymen's Society. (b) (b) Continuous strip casting of nonferrous metal strip. Source: Courtesy of Hazelett Strip-Casting Corp.

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid,

2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Function Sub function Reference Date Author

Shape Material

Conserve Material

Consolidation

Alting,Leo. Manufacturing Processes Reference Guide. 1994 April 2003 Horacio Elizondo

Description: Permanent Mold Casting

Capabilities

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid,

2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Pressure & Hot-Chamber Die Casting

FIGURE 5.24

Schematic illustration of the hotchamber die-casting process.

FIGURE 5.23 The pressure casting process, utilizing graphite molds for the production of steel railroad wheels. Source: Griffin Wheel Division of Amsted Industries Incorporated.
Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid, 2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Function Sub function Reference Date Author

Shape Material

Conserve Material

Consolidation

Alting,Leo. Manufacturing Processes Reference Guide. 1994 April 2003 Horacio Elizondo

Description: Hot Chamber Die Casting

Capabilities

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid,

2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Cold-Chamber Die Casting

FIGURE 5.25 Schematic illustration of the cold-chamber die-casting process. These machines are large compared to the size of the casting, because high forces are required to keep the two halves of the die closed under pressure.
Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid, 2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid,

2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Die Casting

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid,

2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Centrifugal Casting

FIGURE 5.26 Schematic illustration of the centrifugal casting process. Pipes, cylinder liners, and similarly shaped hollow parts can be cast by this process.
Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid, 2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid,

2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid,

2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Semicentrifugal Casting

FIGURE 5.27 (a) Schematic illustration of the semicentrifugal casting process. Wheels with spokes can be cast by this process. (b) Schematic illustration of casting by centrifuging. The molds are placed at the periphery of the machine, and the molten metal is forced into the molds by centrifugal forces.
Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid, 2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid,

2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Properties of Die-Casting Alloys

TABLE 5.6 Properties and typical applications of common die-casting alloys.


Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid, 2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Rotor Microstructure

FIGURE 5.22 Microstructure of a rotor that has been investment cast (top) and conventionally cast (bottom). Source: Advanced Materials and Processes, October 1990, p. 25. ASM International.
Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid, 2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer


Bernoullis theorem  Based on - principle of conservation of energy - frictional losses in a fluid system
p v2 h  ! Constant Vg 2 g
h = elevation p = pressure at elevation v = velocity of the liquid = density of the fluid

Conservation of energy requires that,


2 p 2 v2 p1 v12 h1   ! h2   f Vg 2 g Vg 2 g
Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid, 2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer - Fluid flow


Mass continuity  States that for an incompressible liquid the rate of flow is constant.

Q ! A1v1 ! A2 v2


Q = volumetric rate of flow A = cross-sectional area of the liquid stream v = velocity of the liquid

Subscripts 1 and 2 pertain to two different locations in the system.


Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid, 2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer - Fluid flow


Sprue profile  Relationship between height and cross-sectional area at any point in the sprue is given by
A1 ! A2


h2 h1

Velocity of the molten metal leaving the gate is

v ! c 2 gh


When liquid level reached height x, gate velocity is

v ! c 2g h  x
Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid, 2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer - Fluid flow


Flow characteristics Reynolds Number  Ratio of momentum (inertia) to viscosity  Fluid flow in gating systems is turbulence, as opposed to laminar flow. (Which flow is preferred?)  Reynolds number, Re, is used to characterize this aspect of fluid flow. v = velocity of the liquid

vD Re ! L


D = diameter of the channel = density n = viscosity of the liquid.

Higher the Re, greater the tendency for turbulent flow.


Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid, 2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Critical Reynolds Number


Re ~ 2,000 Laminar to turbulent transition Eddies begin to form Re > 20,000 very turbulent

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid,

2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Example 1

How fast would a stream of honey 1 in. in diameter need to be turbulent?


Density ( ) = 1.43 g/cm3 (at 20oC) Viscosity (L) = 189 poise (at 20.6oC)

vDV Re ! L v v 0.254 v1430 Re ! 18.9


Re = 2,000 = 1,430 * V * 0.0254/18.9

turbulent flow transition Re ~ 2,000

V = 1,040 m/s

(This ignores shear thinning.)


2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid,

Example 5.2

Design and analysis of a sprue for casting

The desired volume flow rate of the molten metal into a mold is 0.01 m3/min. The top of the sprue has a diameter of 20 mm and its length is 200 mm. What diameter should be specified at the bottom of the sprue in order to prevent aspiration? What is the resultant velocity and Reynolds number at the bottom of the sprue if the metal being cast is aluminium and has a viscosity of 0.004 N-s/m2 Solution Since d1 = 0.02 m

T 2 T 2 A1 ! d ! 0.002 ! 3.14 10  4 m 2 4 4
1Top, 2 bottom

The metal volume flow rate is Q= 0.01 m3/min = 1.66710-4 m3/s Therefore

Q 1.667 v 104 v1 ! ! ! 0.531 m/s 4 A1 3.14 v 10


Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid, 2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Assuming no frictional losses, and recognizing that the pressure at the top and bottom of the sprue is atmospheric Thus,
2 p2 v2 p1 v12 h1   ! h2   f Vg 2 g Vg 2 g 2 patm 0.531 patm v2  !  0 0.2  Vg 2 9.81 Vg 2 9.81 2

v2 ! 1.45 m/s

Q ! A2 v2
T 2 A2 ! d 4

1.667 v10 4 ! A2 v1.45


1.15 10
4

A2 ! 1.15 v 10 4 m 2

T 2 ! d 4

d ! 12 mm

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid,

2008 , Additional references in the last slide

In calculating the Reynolds number


V ! 2700kg / m3

v = velocity of the liquid D = diameter of the channel = density n = viscosity of the liquid. As stated above, this magnitude is typical for casting molds, representing a mixture of laminar and turbulent flow An Re value of up to 2000 represents laminar flow  An Re Between 2000 and 20,000 it is a mixture of laminar and turbulent flow and is generally regarded as harmless in gating systems for casting Re values in excess of 20,000 represent severe turbulence.
Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid, 2008 , Additional references in the last slide

vDV .45 0.012 2700 1 Re ! ! ! 11,745 L 0.004

Physical Properties of Materials

TABLE 3.3 Physical Properties of Various Materials at Room Temperature.

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid,

2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Heat transfer
 

Heat flow depends on casting material and the mold and process parameters. Temperature distribution in the mold-liquid metal interface is shown below.

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid,

2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Solidification time (t) for an insulating mold ( mold << casting)

casting; k mold << k

V Casting (, Casting t! 4 Tmelting _ po int  Tmold ,initil

v 1 casting k mold V mold cmold Acasting

Solidification time (t) for a conducting mold (Biot # =hl/k < 0.17)

vcasting V Casting (, Casting t ! h Tmelting _ po int  Tmold ,initil Acasting

H = latent heat for the process = Hf + Ci T Hf = latent heat of solidification (fusion) V = volume A = area h = heat transfer coefficient C = specific heat = density
Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid, 2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Cooling time (t) for a solid object for a small Biot number (Biot # =hl/k < 0.17)

t!

vcasting V casting Acasting h

casting

ln

old

casting ,initil

elting _ po int

casting , final

Chvorinovs rule for solidification time for an insulating mold

V t ! K A
t = cooling time K = a constant V = volume A = area

Chvorinovs rule for solidification time for a conducting mold t = K (V/A)


Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid, 2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Filling time for a bottom-gated mold

2 Amold tf ! Agate 2 g
For no aspiration

total

 htotal  hmold

Abotto

.of . spreue

Atop .of . sprue

vtop .of .sprue vbotto


.of . sprue

h pouring ,ba sin htotal

Mold filling time estimate

Mold .volume t! Agate v gate


Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid, 2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Material properties: Data for solid materials at room temperature

Material

Specific heat (C) (kJ/kg-oC)

Density ( ) (kg/m3)

Thermal conductivity (k) (W/m-oC)

Sand Aluminum Nickel Magnesium Copper Gray cast iron

1.16 0.90 0.44 1.07 0.39 0.441

1500 2700 8910 1700 8970 7125

0.60 202 92 156 385 42.7

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid,

2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Data for liquid materials


Material

Melting point Latent heat of Specific heat (C) Viscosity (oC) solidification (kJ/kg-oC) (L) (mPa-s) (fusion) (Hf) (kJ/kg)
660 1453 1083 1251 396 297 384 220 211 1.05 0.73 1.38 0.52 0.34 1.3 --1.04 2.1 5.25

Aluminum Nickel Copper Gray cast iron

Magnesium 650

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid,

2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Solidification time


Solidification time is a function of the volume of a casting and surface area (Chvorinovs rule).
Volume Solidification time ! Surface Area
n

C = constant n=2

Effects of mold geometry and elapsed time on skin thickness and its shape are show.

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid,

2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Example 5.3 Solidification times for various solid shapes


Three pieces being cast have the same volume but different shapes. One is a sphere, one a cube, and the other a cylinder with a height equal to its diameter. Which piece will solidify the fastest and which one the slowest? Use n = 2. Solution The volume is unity
1 Surface area 2
3 Sphere : A ! 4T 4T ube : A ! 6a 2 ! 6
2/3

Solidification time w

Respective surface areas are

! 4.84

Respective solidification times t are

ylinder : A ! 2Tr 2  2Trh ! 5.54

t sphere ! 0.043C t cube ! 0.028C tcylinder ! 0.033C


Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid, 2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Shrinkage
 

Shrinkage in casting causes dimensional changes. Cracking is a result of: Contraction of the molten metal Contraction of the metal during phase change Contraction of the solidified metal

1. 2. 3.

For L->S, always think of Solidification Shrinkage!!

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid,

2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid,

2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Melting Practice and Furnaces


 

Melting has a direct bearing on the quality of castings. Fluxes are inorganic compounds that refine the molten metal by removing dissolved gases and various impurities. The metal charge may be composed of commercially pure primary metals, which can include remelted or recycled scrap.

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid,

2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Casting Alloys

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid, P.P.P File Prepared by the author and publisher and other sources

2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Bibliography (References) . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Prentice Hill 2008 Materials and Processes in Manufacturing, 10th Edition, E. Paul DeGarmo, J. T. Black, Ronald A. Kohser,2007. Manufacturing Engineering & Technology , Serope Kalpakjian , 6th Edition, Prentice Hall,2009. TECNOLOGI CO DE MONTERREY Mechanical Manufacturing, Professor Arturo Molina , October 2004. E. Paul DeGarmo et al, Materials And Processes in Manufacturing, Wiley Publishing Company 2003. John E. Schey, Introduction To Manufacturing Processes McGraw-Hill Book Company,1988. Courtney, T. H., Mechanical Behavior of Materials, N. Y., McGraw-Hill, 1990. E., George E. and George F., The Testing of Engineering Materials, McGrraw-Hill Book Company. 1982. Hardness Tests, Metals Park, Ohio: ASM International, 1987. Harmer E., George E. and George F., The Testing of Engineering Materials, McGrraw-Hill Book Company. 1982. Halmshaw R. Non-Destructive Testing, Edward Arnold, 1991. Courtney, T. H., Mechanical Behavior of Materials, N. Y., McGraw-Hill, 1990. Jonathan S. Colton , Manufacturing Processes and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2009. Pohlandt K., Material Testing for Metal forming Industry, N.Y Springer 1989. Lawrence E. Doyle, Manufacturing Process And Materials For Engineers, Prentice-Hall, Third Edition. T.T. EL-Midany & M.A. Mansour , Manufacturing Technology, King Abdulaziz University. S.F. Kvav et al., Machine Tool Operations, McGraw-Hill Book Company. Geoffrey Boothroyd, Fundamentals of Metal Machining and Machine Tools, McGraw-Hill Book Company. Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications, Taylan Altan ,al, ASM,2007. Fundamentals of Metal Forming ,Robert H. Wagoner,Jean-Loup,Wiley,1997. Metal Forming ,Willam F. Hosford Robert M. ,second Edition, PTR, 1993.

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